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ceffors, viz. that it was by the aid of the Holy Ghost with uniform agreement concluded and set forth, &c. May their fuccelsors ever have the same way of thinking and resolve to corsoborate and invigorate those laws, which have been made to defend and secure it! that no persons whatsoever prefume, under the highest penalties, to preach, declare, or (peak any thing in derogation, depraving, or delpiling of the Caid book, or any thing therein contained, oč any part thereof. Act for Unif. i Eliz.'

We should be glad to know, in what manner Mr. Zachary Langton would have this clause of the Act of Uniformity corraborated and invigorated. Surely, surely he does not mean to revive the religious persecutions of the days of Mary and Elizabeth! Indeed, this avowed principle of intoleration, from a Proteflant Clergyman, would be alarming, had not the Writer dropt foine hints, of his not being really what he pretends; and that his opinion of the Romilh church is fullas favourable as that which he entertains of the church of England. Were not this the case, he would hardly justify the practice of the latter by the example of the former, as he seems to do in the folowing words ; speaking of one of our prayers, which, he says, is accepted in a certain fenfe, ' for this great and good reason, viz. because this very prayer is directed by the catholic as well as our own church, particularly and personally to the eternal Son of God himself.'' In this passage, the catholic church is distinguished from the church of England; whose Members, nevertheless, profess to believe in one catholic apostolic church. Our Author, however, appears to believe in two, and in this place to put them both on a footing..

It is true he does, in other places, rank popery with atheism, idolatry, and deism; so that it is of very little consequence what church hath the honour of lo inconfiftent a Member; whose notions of the Christian system, and reasonings about divine revelation, are as chimerical and inconclufive, as those which he displays of his politics and philosophy.

His encomiums on the university of Oxford, on the famous Lord Ruifel, his Patron's ancestor, and on other distinguished personages, are to the highest degree extravagant, not to say sometimes bordering on blasphemy. Thus, speaking of the late General Wolfe, he says, the Saviour of the world was his guide, not only to the gates of Death, but beyond them, even to the gates of Heaven and the throne of God. In speaking of Oxford, he says, “When the most RADIANT UNIVERSITY under the sun OF RIGHTEOUSNESS distinguished herself, as SĦE really did in the reign of CHARLES THE MARTYR, for


ber loyalty, for her fuperior love of country, true religion, and virtue.' We could not forbear smiling allo, at a farther instance of our Author's sagacity, in his bestowing the title of Christian Hero, and the following eulogium on his present Majesty of Prussia, viz. · That he honoureth the Son, even as he honour. eth the Father. The expression, indeed, being here a little equivocal, the encomium may not be thought altogether void of propriety, by those who have had an opportunity of learning the religious sentiments of his PnM-y from his writings. A Sceptic may, with no great impropriety, be said to honour the Son as much as he honours the Father, tho'heshould have too little veneration for the name of either.

The Dedicator's compliment to Himself and Patron, at the latter end of his epiftle, is also something curious, being entirely of a piece with the rest of his performance. I presume, my Lord, says he, for it is high time, to lay this little pacific book, fo very well meant, aiming at domestic, religious, as well as civil peace, at your Grace's feet, being fully persuaded, that if it has the good fortune to meet with a favourable reception from your Grace, the true descendent of the great and good Lord Ruffel, that fast, that never-to-be- forgotten friend to our most excellent Church and State, it will then rise from its bed of obscurity, and shine in the lettered, nay in the Christian, as your Grace's administration now doth in the political world, and answer likewise, in some measure, the fair-spirited intent of the vain Author.'

Vain Author! indeed! but we have done with thee; for, as to thy Effay, we find nothing in it but a farrago of stale and trite arguments, most inconclufively strung together, in a manner altogether worthy of thy dedication, and as unworthy of critical animadverfion.


Philosophical Transaktions, &c. Vol. LIII. Concluded. See

Reviews for September and October.

Containing the Mathematical and Astronomical Papers. Art. s. An Account of the Sun's Distance from the Earth; deducand

from Mr. Short's Olfervations relating to the horizontal Parallax of the Sun. In a Letter from Peter Daval, Esq; V. P. of R. S. to James Barriw, Eja; V. P. of R. S. THIS Gentleman obferves, that the mean horizontal pa

rallax of the sun, or the angle which the femidiameter of the earth subtends, when seen from that luminary, is 8”,65. Rev. Dec. 1764.



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Also, that the mean femidiameter of the earth, according to the latest obfervations, is 3958 English miles. Then, as 8°,65 to 360°, the whole periphery of a circle, fo is the semidiameter of the earth = 3958, to the periphery of the orbit of the earth round the sun, = 593,011,308 miles, the circumference of the orbit of the earth, the semidiameter of which is the earth's diftance from the sun. But the periphery of a circle to its femidiameter, is very nearly as 6,283185 to one. Consequently, 593,011,308 divided by 6,283185 = 94,380,685, will be the mean distance of the earth from the sun in English miles. Art. 2. Observatio Comete, qui Mense Maio, A. 1759, apparuit

fréta Hage-Comit. à Petro Gabry, 9. V.D. Societatis Reg. Scientiar. Socio, & Commercio Literar. cum Academ. Scientiar. Parisiensi & Reg. Soviet. Gotting. juncto.

In this paper there are four observations on the comet which appeared in May 1759. On the 2d at nine in the evening, its longitude was 19° 12' 24" m, and its latitude 28° 40' 5" Touth. On the 3d, was 17° 11' 40" M, and its latitude 27° 20'20" south. On the 6th, its longitude 12° 51' 7" m, lat. 22° 37' 24" south. And on the 11th, 11° 59' 14" m, lat. 21° 1'44" south. A Delineation of the Transit of Venus expected in the Year 1769.

By James Ferguson. Mr. Ferguson has here given a very large projection of the expected tranfit of Venus on the 3d of June 1769, when Astronomers will have a much better opportunity of determining the fun’s parallax than they had in the last transit. It is well known, that the degree of accuracy to which the sun's parallax may be

obtained from these tranfits, will, in a great measure, depend pupon obfervations being made by able Artists at proper places : . Od fituated for this tranfit, Mr. Ferguson observes, are

Wardhuys in Norwegian Lapland, or any other place near the North Cape, and the isles of Solomon, that of Tuberon, St. Bernard, or the Fly islands in the South Sea; because in these places the whole transit will be seen from the beginning to the end. At the faine time the line of the visible transit in Lapland will be longer than that supposed to be seen from the earth's center; and the time of the planet's describing it, will be yet longer, on account of its apparent motion being hower by Lapland's moving the sanie way. But at the Solomon ifles, the visible line of the transit will be shorter than that supposed to be seen from the center of the earth, and the time of Venus's describing it will be still more shortened, on account of the apparent quickness of her motion, arising from its being in a contrary direction to the motion of the Solomon islands,


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The sun's parallax is in this projection supposed to be 8", But if the parallax be found to be either greater or less than that assumed by Mr. Ferguson, the difference of the vifible durations of the transit will also be either greater or less. So that if these differences be well ascertained by observation, the sun's parallax will be found, and consequently his distance from the earth, and that of every other planet in the solar system, will be determined. The total ingress will happen at London, according to Mr. Ferguson's calculation, at 37 min. 30 sec. after seven in the evening. Art. 9. An Account of the Appulse of the Moon to the Planet Jupi

ter ; observed at Chelsea. By Mr. Samuel Dunn. This Gentleman observes, that the alteration of the angles of position made by the cusps of the moon, and a planet to which the moon makes a near appulse, will always enable those who are astronomically inclined, to determine from observation, the longitudes of places, by the naked eye, and a clock or watch set to apparent or equal time. And gives an instance of an observation of this kind made at Chelsea, on the 25th of De. cember, 1762, at 11 h. o min. 30 sec. apparent time; when the distance of the planet from the moon, was half a degree. Art. 17. A Letter from Monsieur Wargentin, Secretary to the Roya

Academy of Sciences in Sweden, to Mr. John Ellicot, F. R.'S. concerning the Transit of Venus.

M. Wargentin, from comparing the observations on the tranfit of Venus, made in Europe and at the Cape of Good Hope, determines the fun's horizontal parallax to be not less than 8",1, nor more than 8”,3. He also very jully observes, that as it is of the last importance to be assured of the longitude of places where the observations were made; he therefore endeavoured to determine them in the best manner he was able, from observations made at the same places, on the eclipses of Jupiter's fatellites; a very considerable number of which are annexed to this paper. Art. 18. Remarks on the Censure of Mercator's Chart, in a posthumous

Work of Mr.West of Exeter. In a Letter to Thomas Birch, D.D. Secretary to the Royal Society, from Mr. Samuel Dunn.

This letter contains a request to Dr. Birch, that he would search the Philosophical Transactions, to fee if any paper has been printed there, concerning a sphere inscribed in a hollow cylinder, and swelling its surface to the sides of the cylinder, in order to construct a more accurate chart, for the purposes of Navigation, than that invented by Mr. Edward Wright, and generally known among Navigators by the name of Mercator ;


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it having been lately infinuated, that a paper of this kind was printed in the Traníactions,

Mr. Dunn also observes, that Mr. West has censured Mr. Wright's projection as erroneous, and given another, in which the meridian line is a scale of natural tangents from the Equinoctial to the Pole; whereas those of M:. Wright are a scale of fecants. He adds, “That both Wright and West say expressly, the 1phere being inscribed in the hollow cylinder, and the Equinoctial being fixed without swelling, while the other parts (well towards the Poles, the chart will be formed. But in this, Wright has badly expressed his own thoughts; for his tables make it, that the Equino&tial must either swell or contract itself.”. And that Mr. Weft has therefore taken his words, but not his fense.

« The proposed demonstration of this tangental property, at page 58 of Mr. West's book, is no demonstration at all; there is nothing more plain, than that in order to have the Meridians at equal distances, the degrees of latitude must be enlarged to the same proportion in every part, as the circular Meridians are nearer towards the Poles, which proportion is as the Co-fine of the latitude to Radius.' .

This affertion is undoubtedly true; and Mr. Dunn might bave added, that as in Mr. Wright's projection, the degrees of longitude are all equal, that is, the Co-line of the -latitude is every where equal to the Radius, it will follow, that the degrees of latitude- must be enlarged in the proportion of the Radius to the secant: for as the Co-fine of any parallel of latitude is to Radius, fo is Radius to the Secant of that parallel. But if the degrees of latitude increase in the proportion of the Radius to the Secant, it follows, that the distance of any parallel of latitude from the Equator, will be equal to the sum of the Secants of all the arches contained between the Equator and that parallel; and consequcutly, that the meridional line in a true sea chart, where the degrees of longitude are all equal, is nothing inore than a scale formed by the addition of the natural Secants, fupposed to flow with an uniform and uninterrupted motion.

Hence we see the reason why the common tables of meridional parts, which are formed by the continual addition of the tabular Secants, are not strictly true; being increments of latitude formed from tables calculated to minutes only, instead of the Secants flowing with an equal velocity. It is well known, that if a be made equal to the length of any arch, whose radius is unity,


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