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as generally useful as any.-- To have good crops,' M. Duhamel observes, it is not enough to have plowed the land well, but it is also requisite it should be enriched by good manures. These are diftinguished into three forts;
1. Manures obtained from the mineral kingdom.
Under the first class, he enumerates, 1. All sorts of fresh earths.-2. The scourings of ponds, especially if frequented by cattle.-3. Sand, though in itself barren, is proper to make clayey soils fit for plowing, and for nourishing grain, either by diminishing their tenacity, or by opening passages for the water and sun-beams.- 4. Quick-lime enriches land, but is not proper for very light foils.-5. Light lands may be mended with flay; but all clays are not proper for this purpose: the best way to distinguish them is to make a trial on a small spot of ground. Clay should be dug two years before it is spread upon land, that it may be mellowed by the influence of the atmosphere, frosts, &C.-6. Marl is an excellent manure; but is a treasure not to be found on every estate. This manure does not fully disclose its virtue till the third year after it has lain upon land, though some difference may be perceived in the fecond ; but then it continues in vigour till the twelfth or fifteenth year; after which its virtue gradually decreases. Marl is best suited to cold moist lands, or damp meadows ; but by no means agrees with such as are naturally too dry. -7. Fosíl-jhells spread on land, enrich it much. The good effects of this manure are visible the first year, and its virtue lasts five or fix. It is particularly adapted to strong soils.-8. Peat-afhes, are good for either grass or corn; the virtue of which manure will be visible two or three years.-9. Goal-ashes are also a very good manure for pastures; but turf-ashes are superior.
Under the second class of manures, he mentions the great benefits of artificial pastures; and says, if you have a field to which it would be troublesome to carry manure, it is only necessary to sow it with faintfoin or lucerne, which will yield plenty of hay for seven or eight years. The land being for that time rested and enriched with the leaves and young branches that will have rotted on it, will be in a condition of yielding,' he says, 'several as good crops as if it had even been dunged.'-[Here we muft beg leave to diffent a little from M. Duhamel ; as we think the mowing plenty of hay from a piece of ground, for seven or eight years together, without giving it' any other affiftance besides the leaves and young branches which may chance to rot on it, will be the most ready way to impove
rijh it.]-There is, however, he says, another method [which indeed bids fairer for success] of enriching land by its own produce. Sow buck-wheat, tares, clover, beans, and other fuc, culent plants; which, if plowed in, when nearly at their full growth, and about to blossom, will serve as a manure.-In this way turnips are of wonderful efficacy; especially if eat upon the ground by theep, whose dung will contribute to its farther improvement.-- Rotten plants are a good manure, and there are feveral methods of disposing them to putrefaction. Some cut sulhes, heath, &c. whilft green ; then spread them with stubble or damaged straw, in hollow ways, where the mud is collected, and in streets where cattle pafs; and when half rotted, the whole may be used upon the land, to good advantage, especially if mixed with dung.-In Bretagne, where straw is scarce, and dung more so, they make heaps, composed of a layer of rushes and another of turf alternately. These heaps remain eighteen months or two years exposed to all weathers; when the vegetable matter rots, and the whole mixture makes a good manure.—He concludes this section with mentioning some subftances, which may be of service where plentiful.-1. Ashes of vegetables of any kind.-2. Soot, which has a wonderful effect on pastures.--3. Buck, or soap-boilers afhes have a good effeat on meadows.--4. Tanners bark; or, 5. Saw-dust, may be used, mixed with dung or alhes.—6. Husks of grapes, in wine countries, or the preslings of apples in cyder countries, do well with dung.-7. The leaves of trees and the cuttings of hedges would be good manure, if they were not made use of as fodder for catele.[If this is the case, where M. Duhamel refides, we cannot help thinking there is great occafion for the exercise of all his talents, for the improvement of agriculture, in a country, where the cattle are to be fed as above, Artificial pasture would, certainly, there be of the greatest fervice. ]--8. The cakes of linseed, colefeed, &c. after the oil has been extracted, are excellent manure, when ground into powder :-and so are, 9. All kinds of sea-wreck, the algas, in when rotted with dung, or burnt for alhes.
The last class of manures, from animal substances, is composed of the flesh of dead animals, or the cleanfings of slaughterhouses, &c. which greatly enrich land; as do also the shavings of horn, &c. as well as cuttings of parchment or leather. Near the sea, the shells of fish are of good service.- But the most common manure is supplied by the excrements of animals, of various sorts; and particularly the yard-dung, which comprehends the litter used under the horses, cows, &c.-The. cultom of folding sheep on land defigned for wheat is excellent, though not enough attended to. With regard to the ma- : nagement of the yard-dung, M. Duhamel advises that of horses and cows to be mixed together; as the latter will enrich the former, from which, in return, it receives so much heat as may be necessary to promote a fermentation. It is proper, he adds, to put the dung in a moist place, that it may the sooner rot; but no great quantity of water should be collected in the dung-hole, because too much water prevents any thing from decaying: and particular care Mould be taken that no water runs from the dung-holes ; for, having washed the straw, it will carry off the excrementary part, which is principally useful for vegetation. When the litter is partly rotted in the stercorary, he advises it to be taken out, and laid in a heap, shaded from the sun. This heap should be composed of layers of dung and street-dirt, or the like, alternately; which will thus become excellent manure. The whole will be much improved, if the urine of the cattle be conveyed from the stables, &c. in gutters to the stercorary; or it may be received in cifterns, and from thence carried out upon the land; the good effect of which method, is said to be very extraordinary. This chapter is concluded by the following observations upon the probable operations of manures, though without determining which are most fo. For, though the advantages accruing from dung and rotten vegetables are too well known to be called in question ; yet, he says, 'it is not known whether they operate by detaining the moisture that is absolutely necessary to vegetation ;, -by loosening the particles of soils that are too compact, that the roots may have power to extend ;—by exciting in the bosom of the earth a sort of fermentation, by means of the fat and oily matters they contain, a fermentation which affists that kind of digestion by which the nutritive juice of plants is prepared in the earth ;-or, finally, whether some parts of dung, either oil or volatile salts, do not enter by way of food into the substance of plants. It is then necessary always to stick to facts, and reason by experience.'
Book III. treats of the distempers of grain, and the reme. dies that may be made use of to guard against many of them.
Book IV. is upon the subject of getting in grain : previous to which, we have some general observations on harvest, as, 1. The necessary preparation ; 2. The proper season ; 3. The manner of cutting the corn. Under this last head, we meet with a curious extract from a paper of M. de Lille, on the mowing of wheat. But as the substance of this paper has been already retailed to the public in several of the magazines, and elsewhere, we shall content ourselves with laying before our Readers an important remark made by M. de Lille on the posture of the mower *. ' In mowing grass and oats, he observes, the mower traces two parallel lines with his feet, which he moves forward alternately to every stroke of the scythe. (But] inmowing corn t, the mower's path should be only traced in a fingle line; because he should step one foot before the other, in such a manner, as that the left foot which is behind, should, as it were, drive the right foot forward ; a posture something like that we put ourselves in, when, foil in hand, we are about to fence.'
The reason for this difference of posture was discovered by an accident. M. de Lille employed for mowing his wheat seven workmen that came to mow his oats. The third day of working five of them were taken ill, and replaced by three others; but this occasioned his having ten fick men at the end of the week. He visited these workmen, and enquired into their disorder ; some were feverish; but all complained of excessive pains in their left sides. At first he thought they were all seized with the pleurisy; but afterwards finding reason to conclude their disorder to be only a cramp; he prescribed rest, as the properest remedy. The next day observing two mowers at work on his corn t, he went towards them, and saw that their posture was the same as in mowing oats. He exclaimed at this aukwardness, which he immediately saw was the cause of the first mowers illness.'-He then took one of their fcythes, and putting himself in a posture as if he was going to mow oats, demonstrated to them, that having, in mowing wheat, a much greater weight to carry on the scythe, it required a very painful inflection of the body to bear the corn to the left. He then put himself in the posture he had observed in some Flemishmen I, who had worked for him the preceding. year, and showed that this was the most proper attitude for a man to exert his whole strength, the fway of his body, from the right to the left, helping him to bear the weight of the corn without any stress on his sides. The man took his scythe again, and, having tried this new method, was convinced that it was right. This circumstance is related as a demonstration that
* We are willing to hope that this remark will be recommended, by such of our Readers as may have an opportunity of doing it, at the approaching harvest; when it may be a means of preserving ease and health to many a laborious workman, if generally adopted, as it seems to deserve.
+ This is the first time we have seen a distinction made between oais and corn;-by what follows, however, we presume the Author meant to have wrote wheat, instead of corn.
I Who ilepped, as above described, with one foot before the other, so as to trace only a single line with both feet.
the strongest and most robuft workman cannot long stand to this work of mowing wheat, if he attempts doing it in the manner in which oats are mowed.
In order to promote the practice of mowing wheat, M. de Lille next enumerates the advantages which this method has, preferably to that of reaping. 1. The work is easier, and less fatiguing; 2. is more expeditious; 3. requires fewer hands ; 4. employs lads, old women, and men almoft past labour, in some parts of the work, as gathering the corn, &c. 5.
the quantity of straw is increased, and the fodder rendered more valuable, by the grass being mowed up therewith ; 6. the grass of mowed fields grows again, and affords excellent pasture after harvest, to milk-cows in particular. Hence it follows, that a farmer can keep more cattle; faves his hay, and makes a greater quantity of dung; from whence arises a success, almost incredible. An objection, indeed, has been made, that in a rainy year mowed wheats will sooner sprout than others ;—but, we are told, there is a very good and easy way of guarding against that accident, by only disposing the gavels (sheaves) in a triangular form ; so that the head of one gavel may lay on the foot of another. “This method is neither tedious nor tiresome ; to be done quickly, it only requires a little dexterity in closing the triangle; the foot of the third gavel may serve as a bolster for the head of the first. We are then told, that the rain in the harvest of 1756 was very troublesome; that a great deal of corn sprouted: but that what was laid in this manner did not. -The last chapter of this book treats of housing and dressing corn.
Book V. treats of the preservation of grain, and affords many useful directions for that purpose.
Book VI. gives us the principles and advantages of the new hufbandry; the general principles of which, we are told, may be reduced to two principal objects ;-frequent tillage *, and the faving of seed. The advantages of frequent tillage may appear from hence; Let land be ever so well cultivated in autumn, when wheat is sowed, it finks in the winter: the particles get nearer together, and the weeds get up, which rob the corn of its nourishment; insomuch, that when the winter is over, the land is nearly in the same condition as if it had neveç been plowed. It is, however, at this time that the corn should branch and grow with most vigour. It is then in spring that plants
* Though the word tillage properly signifies, as here, the culture of ftirring of land by inftruments, in contradiftinction to manurt; yet in some counties tillage is understood to mean manure itself; and is frequently used in that improper sense.