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cient Constitution, and who the perverters, violaters, and impugners, of the civil rights, laws, and privileges, both of the People and their Representatives. The goodness of his present Majesty will prevent any great excess in his time, although the laws should be so prostrated as to render it very practicable without punishment; but, who can answer for his fucceflors? It will not be difficult, when once the law can be rendered subservient to a Ministry, for any cunning and selfish Prince, to find out a Sollicitor for his Treasury, an Attorney-General for himself, and a Chief Justice for England, who shall devise means for grinding the face of the subjects, until they shall all be ground unto powder.'

We wish that our limits would have allowed us to have tranfcribed many other excellent passages in this well-written pamphlet, which, notwithstanding some exceptions to the manner in which it is penned, does, nevertheless, abound with more good sense, spirit, and intelligence, than all the political tracts which have been published during the course of this most interesting controversy with respect to public Liberty.

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Herodoti Halicarnassei Hiftoriarum Libri IX. Mufarum nominibus

inscripti, Gr. et Lat. ex Laur. Valla interpretatione, cuîn adnotationibus Thomæ Galei et Jacobi Gronovii. Editionem curavit et suas itemque Lud. Casp. Valckenarii Notas adjecit Petrus Wesselingius. Accedunt prater vitam Homeri varia ex priscis Scriptoribus de Persis, Ægyptiis, Nilo, Indisque excerpta et presertim ex Ctesia. Folio. 21. gs. in Sheets. Amftelodami. Imported by Becket and De Hondt.

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T will be unnecessary, we are persuaded, to make any apo

them an account of this edition of Herodotus, which is superior, in many respects, to every other impreffion. The learned Editor, whose abilities in criticism are well known, has had many advantages for the improvement of his edition, which former Editors had not, and which have enabled him to present Herodotus to the public, in a much more becoming dress than he has hitherto appeared in ; to explain many obscure passages, and some which were before, indeed, absolutely unintelligible.

Gronovius's edition, which was published in 1715, tho' al. lowed by the learned to be superior to any of the preceding editions, was yet severely censured by many able Critics. Kuster, in particular, soon after its appearance, published a critical Ex: amination of it, which Le Clerc bas inserted in the fifth volume

of his Bibliotheque ancienne et moderne. As few of our Readers may have an opportunity of consulting this work of Le Clerc's, we shall lay before them part of what Kufter has advanced, in his own words,

« Auctor editionis hujus eft Jacobus Gronovius, qui Græca Herodoti cum Cod. Ms. Mediceo, five Florentino contulit; majore quidem diligentiâ et fide, quàm judicio. Alii enim criticí Variantes Librorum MSS. lectiones, ad rationis trutinam expenfas, si bonæ sint, probant; fiu malæ, damnant; at Gronovius, quafi MSSti, quibus usus elt, ab ipso oraculo fcribis dictati effent, nunquam fidem illorum fufpectam habet, sed auctoritatem temerè ubique fequitur ; adeò ut nonnunquam manifeftos Librariorum errores, pro lectionibus bonis et sinceris, in contextum recipiat. Res paradoxa et incredibilis pænè in Pro'fessore Græcarum Literarum, fed tamen vera, ut exemplis aliquot inferiùs oftendetur,

Neque vcrò Contextum Græcum correxisse contentus Gronovius, in verfione etiam Latina haud pauca notavit, quædam bene, alia peflimè; ut itidem inferiùs demonstrabitur.

Quod ad notas adtinet, fufficiat dixisse, eas more Gronoviano fcriptas esse ; id est, obfcurè, impolitè, immodestè. Nemo hæc inclementiùs in Gronovium dicta existimabit, qui fcripta ejus vel à limine, ut aiunt, salutaverit. Saltem notas ejus in Herodotum qui legerit, nullam nos ei injuriam facere fatebitur. Nam offendet ibi Lector, non folùm dicendi genus adfectatum, perplexum, et incultum ; sed etiam adumbratam quandam imaginem, vel potiùs effigiem eminentem et expreflam hominis, qui vulgò Pedant, adpellatur. Huic enim inficeto hominum generi conveniunt mores inurbani; effrænis obtrectandi et maledicendi libido; morofitas arrogans et fuperciliosa ; acerbitas denique immodica, in reprehendendis aliorum erroribus. Et hæc qui- . dem talia sunt, quæ indignationem Lectoris meritò provocent. Sed funt et alia risu quàm maximè digna ; veluti cum videas hominem vehementiflimos animi motus, in rebus ludicris et frivolis, paflim ostendentem, et nunc lacrimas fundentem, ob loca quædam Herodoti aliorumve Auctorum à viris doctis malè intellecta ; nunc eandem ob causam graviffimè irascentem, et in exclamationes alieniffimas erumpentem. Hoc quid aliud eft, quàm tragædias agere in nugis, et Auctus, quod aiunt, in fimpulo excitare ? Quod meritò pufilli animi indicium habetur.Sed omissis hisce, ad ipsum examen pergamus.'

After many pertinent and judicious remarks, almost all of which Wefféling has adopted in the edition now before us, Kuster concludes his criticism in the following manner :

• Нес

Hæc funt quæ librum primum Herodoti, obiter, percurrens, à Gronovio peccata effe, animadverti. Quis dubitet, fi et reliquos octo libros fimiliter percurrere velim, me longè plura stuporis Gronoviani specimina et argumenta inventurum esse? Sed tædet me cum ineptiffimis Orbilii erroribus diutiùs conflictari. Quod fi otio abundarem et ingenio, ipfi Herodoto potiùs operam navarem, haud ignarus quàm plurima in illo scriptore loca, poft Gronovium, emendanda et illustranda restare. Nam Gronovius quidem ea tantùm adtigit loca, in quibus codicem Florentinum ab editis discrepare viderat ; cetera verò fecurus præteriit, hoc ipso oftendens, se collatoris tantùm, five Librarii ingenium te judicium ad veteres scriptores edendos adferre.'

Kufter is not the only learned Writer who has criticised Gronovius's edition of Herodotus; Bergler, M. L'Abbé Geinoz, President Bouhier, and others, have passed a severe judgment upon it. Their criticisms appear to us to be, in general, very juft; we cannot help observing, however, that the same unpolite, illiberal spirit, which they with great reason condemn in Gronovius, appears in their own remarks upon him. It is, indeed, much to be lamented, and, at first sight, may seemn verv strange, that those who are conversant with the finest and most polite Writers of antiquity, should treat those who differ from them, even upon subjects of very inconfiderable importance, with so much acrimony, and in so coarse and ungenteel a manner. One of the first lessons which a man who kecps good company learns, is a genteel and liberal manner of defending his own sentiments, and oppofing those of others. When those who value themselves upon their learning, shew that they are unacquainted with the very rudiments of politeness, they must be despised, and deservedly too, even by the illiterate. But let us proceed to the work now before us.

Our learned Editor, in his preface, gives a short, but clear, account of the life, writings, and different editions of Herodotus, taken from Scaliger, Voffius, Fabricius, and Bouhier. What he says of his own edition, is as follows:

• De mea (editione, viz.) non multis agam. Conjecto ante hos undecim anncs in ejus confilium cura princeps conquirendi fuppetias codicum scriptorum fuit, quam prosper non deftituit succeffus. Parifiis Jo. Capperonerius, V. Cl. benevole excerpsit, a viris doctissimis Menoto et Geinozio ex tribus Regiæ Bibliothecæ membranis in margines exempli Gronoviani collata, sed parciore, quam speraveram, manu: multa quippe, levissimi momenti, fordes et quisquillias opinatus, fciens volensque præterierat. Hinc mea longe discrepabat fententia. Claris. D. Ruhnkenium, Lutetiz Parifiorum, Audiorum causa tum morantem,

literis 3

literis adduco et expugno, ut ea usibus meis non negentur. Factum est egregio amiciffimi viri candore et auxilio, quod tancopere defiderabam, hoc etiam monentis, codicem primum, cujus A Index, ingentis efle pretii, et tantæ, five litterarum ductus five membrana Spectentur, pulcritudinis, ut vix alius, quicum comparari poffit, inveniatur. Debentur ejusdem Capperonerii bonæ voluntati excerpta ex schedis, seculo is exaratis, monafterii S. Remigii Congregationis S. Mauri in Francia, priores duo Libros et tertii magnam partem complexis, Cum alia ex codice, in bibliothecam Regiam noviflime illato, in quo ex IX. Herodoti musis fragmenta haud pauca, denique Λέξεις Ηροδοτου ex forulis Bibliotheca Sangermanenfis, vulgatis olim ex fchedis Goldafti longe utiliores. Quæ quidem cum laudabili follertis viri ftudio, propter quod illi gratia manebit, colli gerentur, commodum ad me Vir eruditus et plurimum reverendus Henricus Gally, S. T. P. magnæ Britanniæ regi a facris, invisit. Varios inter jucundofque fermones venitur ad Herodotum: vehemens præ me ferebam defiderium codicis Archiepiscopi Guil. Sancroft, Cantabrigiæ affervati, et Galei laudibus adeo celebrati. Tum vir multo humaniffimus prolixe auxilium polliceri, nec polliceri tantum, fed et præftare. Abs reduce in Britanniam non multis poft menfibus exemplum Galeanæ editionis accipio, instructum discrepantibus libri Archiepiscopi scripturis, sollertiffima celeb. Ant. Askew manu enotatis, una cum corollario ex ipfius Askew chartaceo codice annorum ferme quingentorum, primore quidem musæ primæ parte manco, fed perutili. Utraque opera mihi jucundiffima accidit ob excellentium virorum amicitiam et accurationem, qua nihil fupra. Neque non mihi celebranda adfuit Ill. Baronis de Swieten in Herodoto adjuvando benignitas ; de meo enim instituto per litesas admonitus prom tislime Vindobonensis Bibliothecæ Schedas Græce perito homini cum edito Genevenfi contendendas tradidit, et, quæ nobiliffimi viri humanitas, transumpta inde ad me officiofiflimè curavit, Par fuisset ampliffimi Cardinalis Quirini benevolentia in promisso ex libris Vaticanis auxilio, nifi mors illud intercepiffet; pleniffimo tamen favoris in epistola Cl. Afemanni super locis quibusdam Herodoteis. Quod illum autem præftare non fiverunt fata, cumulatiffime ejusdem loci et dignitatis vir Eminentiffimus, Cardinalis Paffioneus explevit : namque cognita mea schedarum Vaticanarum cupidine, perhumaniter rescripsit, eas' nec admodum bonas, nec priscas videri : esse fua in Bibliotheca, ex Sfortiana profectas, integriores, nitide pictas' et veteres; harum se diapopous ypapás mihi non negaturum. Absolvit vir fummus, quod receperat, liberaliter, cujus ego excellentem in illo faftigio, dum fupererat, humanitatem et erga me ftudium laudibus ferre et grata mente recolere, desinam nunquam. De libro vera omnia : circa feculum duodecimum in charta Pergamena ab docto Scriba exaratus est, præ

ftantia

ftantia Mediceo nihil cedens, fæpe fuperior. Illorum vero codicum excerptis occupato atque operi, formis exscribendo, dudum intento, ex Britannia consultisfimus J. A. Helvetius editum Jungermanni exemplum transmittit, cujus in margine ex schedis Archiep. et duobus Oxoniensibus adnotamenta, fed dilutiore atramento, fæpius plumbo scriptorio, picta, eaque propter in haud paucis ambigua. Tribui illis, quamquam suspenfior, neque pænituit, locum, et gratias veteri amico. Et hos quidem manu descriptos codices, tot diversis locis erutos, non eodem omnes capite manaise, manifeftifsimè comperi. Ubi lacer est et hiascit Vallæ liber, ibi in MSS. Archiep. Vindobonensi et plerisque Vaticanis et Oxoniensibus lacuna. Si quid in his aut præcipuum aut exorbitans, idem apud Laurentiuin. Conpar in quam plurimis inter Mediceum, Passioneum, et Askew Codd. Pallioneo in alterutrius lapfu rectum, ut plurimum, tenente, concordia. Ceterorum, quorum continua excerpta haud adspexi, constantem confenfionem teftari nequeo. Tres priores eodem ex fonte, sive antiquiore membrana, hausti videntur, cujus seriba, fortasse offensus crebris Musæ primæ excursibus, cunctos imprudentur abscidit, et ne hiatus tædio forent, nexum feriemque orationes callide aptavit. Ultimi tres aliis ex schedis defcenderunt, prudentiorem amanuensem et 'nihil temere auferentem indeptis, atque ea de causa commendatiores. Reliquas fcripturæ differitates, quæ fane quam multæ, acceptas librariis, lonicæ dialecti Veneres communiore sermone mutantibus, voces. que optimæ notæ et earum veteres indexiones, quod ab ufu abierant, pervertentibus, refero. Damnofum illud Herodoto institutum videor mihi fæpiffime deprehendiffe et certiflimis documentis in omnium pofuisse conspectum. Namque ipfi fcriptori, Musas de novo recenfenti, quæ quorundam suspicio fuit, discrepantiæ notabilis originem non ausim tribuere : atque hoc minus, quoniam in vocabulis, citra dubium pravis, admiranda sed et foeda omnium adparuit conspiratio. Quo modo cunque autem fe ifta habuerint, neglectos et quodammodo contemtos ab Editoribus fuiffe fcriptores, qui Herodotea advocarunt et exfcripferunt, miratus fæpe fui. Ex Dionysio mihi Halicarnasseo, Strabone, Plutarcho, Pausania, Stobxo, Eustathio et aliis hac de familia, selegeram plurima, publicatis meliora. Vidi deinceps simile Steph. Bergleri, viri doctiffimi, eundem mecum exercentis agrum, propositum. Apud animum is conftituerat Th. Galei exemplum nova editione recudere, et, quia ex MSS. deerat auxilium, ex priscorum advocationibus præsidium quærere : id mihi ejus ex libro, hujusmodi citationibus referto et paucis ad primam mufam notis, Galei animadverfionibus fubjiciendis, paruit. Studium viri valde fuit induftrium, sed in Hermogene et ejus Scholiasta, Stobæo et Eustathio in Dionysium, quos tum legille non videtur, claudicans. An vero ad HerodoRev. Dec. 1764.

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