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most want tillage, either to destroy the weeds, supply the roots with fresh earth in the room of that which they had exhausted, to divide a-new the earthy particles, or to enable the roots to extend themselves with ease, and to collect a great deal of food for the plants, which are then in great want of it.'
With regard to the advantages of saving the feed; it is essential to the new husbandry, that care be taken not to low too thick, that the roots of every plant may have room to extend, in order to collect a quantity of food. We are next instructed in the method of practising the new husbandry by handboeing ; which, in a well-peopled country, where labour is cheap, he says, is very easy :--[but labour, we apprehend, must be extremely cheap indeed, to render that method at all profitable. ]–To obviate this inconvenience, therefore, we are next presented with a method of practising the new husbandry with the common implements.
But here we are warned not to attempt this husbandry in lands that are difficult of tillage ; for this method, profitable as it may appear, must not not be undertaken till lands are brought into good tilth.—He next gives a summary of the necessary works in the new husbandry, when it is executed with the plow. He supposes a drill, a plow proper to work betwixt the rows; and a cultivator, to have been provided ; and then directs the different works to be done with each : but for these, as well as M. de Lignerolle's remarks on the practice of the new hufbandry, together with answers to the chief objections that have been made thereto, we must refer to the book, wherein the Reader will find those points very judiciously handled.
As the proper cultivation of lands depends much on the goodness of the instruments made use of; the seventh book (which begins the second volume) treats of the several instruments of husbandry, viz. plows of different kinds, cultivators, drills, &c. but as the descriptions of many of these cannot be sufficiently understood without the plates; we proceed to book VIII. which treats of the culture of different kinds of grain; in regard to wbich, we meet with little more than the usual methods.
Book IX. is upon the subject of meadow and pasture land, which being a general one, we shall give an extract of what is said upon the proper management of natural pastures, or grass, lands.-1. In the spring, the stones must be picked off, and the mole-hills beat down, that the land may lie level, and the scythe (if intended for hay) go close to the ground.--2. Every two or three years manures should be laid on them, such as well-rotted dung, the scourings of ponds and ditches, alhes, or
foot. Pigeons dung is good to kill moss and rushes; it makes the sweet grass grow apace; but the feathers, which do not rot, mixing with the hay, give horses troublesome coughs. Long dung ihould never be laid on pastures; for when the straw has been washed by rain, the grass raises it from the ground, and mixing with the hay lowers its value.-3. For destroying moss, it is proper to cut pastures with M. de Chateauvieux's coulterplough, [described in book VII. sect. 9.] and to spread dung upon them in December or January, but alhes not till March -4. Every time dung is laid on pastures, it would not be amniís to scatter the sweepings of hay-lofts, and a little (white) clover-seed on them. Thus managed, they bear the best grass for hay, and afterwards afford a good rowen for cattle. It must not be imagined, that natural pastures require neither care nor expence; but both will be sufficiently answered, according to M. Duhamel ; who says, that, by following the practices here recommended, he has had more hay from fix arpents (or acres of land, in his own hands, than his tenants had from thirty, of the same kind of land. - The best season for cutting grafs for hay, he says, is before the bloom is paft; not only because the hay will thereby be better for the cattle, but also because a lecond crop may be had the same season, or at least there will be very good (after) pasture.
But when land is not adapted to natural grass, we must have recourse to artificial pastures ; which are made by fowing welltilled land with certain plants, which grow apace, and yield a great deal of fodder for cattle. These are either annual or pekennial. The annuals are peas for theep, vetches, Indian corn or maize, rye, and bear or winter barley. The perennial plants are saintfoin, lucerne, clover, ray-grass, &c.-Lucerne, being one of the most valuable plants cultivated for artificial pasture, we shall give an extract of what M. Duhamel says of it, as follows. - Lucerne thrives best in light lands that have a great depth ; it does not succeed in dry parching foils, nor in clay; though it requires some moisture. If it is fooded, and the water remains long on it, it dies:'-Lucerne is soon choaked with other plants: it must therefore be sowed on land quite clear of weeds and grass, and brought into excellent tilth by frequent
We cannot help thinking this a great deal too late, to answer the end designed, as the warm weather wil come on so soon afier, even before the ashes can be well washed into the ground. We should therefore rather advise their being fpread upon the land in November, when the grass is eaten down as close as possible : then the moss being laid bare will receive the whole force of this hot dressing, which will also be walhed down to the roots of the grass by the winter's rains, and thereby promote their foot ng in the spring.
deep plowings. It should be sown in March, [or April.] Three or four ounces of feed will spread a square perch of twenty-two feet. But as Lucerne does not thrive in the neighbourhood of other plants; it must be carefully cleared of weeds; which is most casily accomplished in the new husbandry. It fucceeds beft, therefore, when sowed in single rows, at three feet distance one from another. Every time the lucerne is cut (which may be when in full prime, three or four times a year) the intervals must be ftirred, to destroy the weeds, and give a passage to the moisture : and sometimes the intervals Thould be refreshed with well-rotted dung; that of pigeons very proper. « To have lucerne continue long in perfection, it must never be fed with cattle, but always mowed when the flowers are halfexpanded.'
This Book is concluded by an account of roots cultivated as food for cattle, viz. potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, turnips, radishes, and carrots ;-to which we would add parsnips, as inferior to no other root.
In Book X. the new husbandry is applied to the culture of several kinds of plants; as pulse, various sorts of kitchen-gardenplants, and roots; which are said to be much more vigorous, when cultivated in this manner, than in the common method. It is also recommended for the culture of flax, hemp, and teafils ; for it
may be laid down as a general maxim, that land intended for these plants ought to be extremely well stirred and meliorated by plowings and manures, and all along kept clear of weeds; which may undoubtedly be best effected by what is called the new busbandry.
Book XI. gives the culture of some plants fit for dyers use; as weld, woad, Taffron, and madder,-to each of which a diftinct chapter is allotted. The last of these being a very material article to the commerce of these kingdoins; and M. Duhamel having been very full and explicit in his directions for the management of it; we heartily recommend what he has said upon the subject, to all who are inclined to cultivate a root of such general use in our woollen manufactures, and which we now chiefly import from abroad. But though we cannot afford room for an abstract of this very important chapter, on account of its extraordinary length; yet we hope the following paragraphs, (copied from the Conclusion) may induce some of our Readers to peruse the whole, and try the success of it in our own country.
After what has been said on the culture of madder, and on the conftruction of kilns and mills, (for drying and pounding it] there is room to hope, that every intelligent planter will be
in a capacity of raising a plant, which cannot fail fatisfying him for his expence and trouble: it is certainly [too) a capital confideration, that madder does not impoverish land, and that the culture, which this plant requires, puts the earth in a state of bearing every kind of grain in abundance.'The following considerable advantages may be expected from the culture of madder.1. A reasonable profit by the sale of the root.—2. A considerable improvement to our lands.-3. The satisfaction of giving employment, and, of course, a means of living to lo many women and children, as are necessary for the proper management of it.
Book XII. and last, consists wholly of reflections on agriculture :--but as several of these reflections are not quite fo pertinent here, in England, as they may have been in France, where the Author wrote; we shall pass them over, with only observing, that they frequently thew indisputable marks of good fenfe, and a quick discernment in probable consequences.
-Upon the whole, though M. Duhamel's style, in this performance, sometimes appears a little abrupt and unconnected, (owing, perhaps, to its being a kind of abridgment of his former pieces) yet it must be allowed to contain a large fund of rural knowledge, and is well worthy the perusal of all lovers of agriculture.
The plates are intended to illustrate the nature of various machines, &c. described, and referred to, in the course of the work, and appear to be well executed.
Observations on the four Gospels ; tending chiefly, to ascertain the
Times of their Publication ; and to ill:t/trate the Form and Manner of their Composition. By the Rev. Dr. Henry Owen, Rector of St. Olave in Hart-street, and Fellow of the Royal Society, Otavo. T. Payne. HE Author of these Observations differs, in several par
ticulars, from the generality of other learned writers upon the same subject. His observations, however, appear to be the result of a sincere and impartial enquiry after truth, and, consequently, are intitled to a candid and favourable reception. The subject is, undoubtedly, important; and if the plan which he has exhibited be just in the main, there is, as he observes, a new field of criticism opened, where the learned may ufefully employ their abilities, in comparing the several gospels roge. ther, and raising observations from that comparative view. Rav. July 17641
He remarks, that the accounts left us by the ecclefiaftical writers of antiquity, concerning the times when the gospels were penned or published, are too vague, confused, and discordant, to lead us to any folid or certain determination. The oldest of the antient fathers collected the reports of their own times, and set them down for certain truths; and those who followed, adopted their accounts, with implicit reverence. Thus, traditions of every fort, true or false, passed on from hand to hand without examination, until it was almost too late to examine them to any purpose.
There being, then, according to our Author, but little dependence placed on external proofs, he enquires whether any thing can be inferred from the internal construction of the gofpels themselves, and thinks it natural to conclude that when the first Evangelift had penned his gospel, it was soon published and dispersed abroad among the various assemblies of Chriftians; who would be eager to obtain a true and genuine account of the words and actions of the founder of their religion, that is, of those things in which they had been instructed, and upon which their faith was founded. Hence then we may farther conclude, he thinks, that the second Evangelist was perfectly acquainted with the writings of the first: and that the third, when he wrote, perused the gospels of the other two; which he might apply, in part, to his own use, making what additions he thought proper.
To clear the way to the proof of this, it is necessary to determine, Dr. Owen thinks, which of the sacred historians is, in reality, to be accounted the first; which the second; and which the third; for much depends upon this question. He observes, that, in penning their gospels, the sacred historians had a constant regard as well to the circumstances of the persons, for whose use they wrote; as to the several particulars of Christ's life, which they were then writing.' It was this, our Author fays, that regulated the conduct of their narration,that frequently determined them in their choice of materials, -and, when they had chosen, induced them either to contract or enlarge, as they judged expedient,-in short, it was this that modified their histories, and gave them their different colourings.
Now, if the gospels were thus modelled, as our Author apprchends they were, to the state, temper, and disposition of the times in which they were written. " Then are we surnished with certain criteria, by which we may judge of their respective datcs. For those times, whose actions accord with the turn of