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'The nerves, differently agitated by various objects, communicate their agitations to the brain ; whose impulses are answered by perceptions and sensations in the soul, totally diftin&t from the cause which appears to produce them."
Now we should be glad to know how Mr. Bonnet can make it appear that our ideas of the union and reciprocal action of soul and body, are more common or less complicated than those we entertain of Gravity, the laws of motion, mechanic powers, &c. He speaks here very positively of two substances very distinct and different ; neither of which, we will venture to say, ever came separately under his examination. For our part we never before heard of a Naturalist that had a distinct idea of a thinking, active, substance without folidity, figure or extenfion; much less of any one who had any proof of its exift
We may say the same, with regard to the other substance, viz. the unthinking, inert, impenetrable and extended figure; of whose essence our Naturalists have no diftinct idea, and of whose existence they have just as little proof.
By the exact relation which Mr. Bonnet supposes to fubfit between the agitations of the brain, and the perceptions or fensations of the soul, he seems to adopt the notion favoured by Mr. Robinet ; i. e. that the soul is a little complicated body, made of finer stuff than ordinary, whose component parts answer to those of our grosser flesh; a kind of jack in the box, whose wooden doublet fits him so nicely that every body thinks it alive. Of the boxes, indeed, our anatomical Naturalists have seen enow, but they have always found them penetrable and hollow:-as to Jack, he hath always been fo light of heel, as to escape their most vigilant enquiries; and, what is worse, without leaving a vestige of the spot wherein he refided, though sometimes they pretend to have discovered the aperture through which he hath Aown. It is said of a famous anatomist in the last age, who was told of the wonderful discoveries of Lewenhoeck and others, made by the means of microscopes, that he cried out, while he was looking over an apparatus brought him for the like ufe, “ Oh! Mr. Optician, that you could make me a lens, through which I might but see a naked soul !” Had Mr. Bonnet been poffefied of such a microscope indeed, we might have admitted of his placing the foul among his subjects of Natural History ; but till such a lens can be procured, we conceive it is not an object of physical data.
The like objection holds good against the admission of solid, impenetrable, inactive matter, among the fame data. Can our Naturalists produce an extended substance that is not penetrable or porous, and at the same time totally unelastic; or have they one
good good reason to conclude from experiment that such a substance exists? It is to very little purpose, therefore, whether our Author is a Materialist or not.; nor do we think any thing of the atchievement on which he plumes himself, viz. of demonstrating more satisfactorily than any philosopher' hath done before him, that matter. cannot think. Let him first prove that the substance, whose qualities he fhcws to be incompatible with thinking, really exists, and then we may poffibly propose to his consideration, a few of our observations on the subject.
Contes de Guillaume Vadé. 8vo. 1764.
The Tales of William Wade*
E have here as heterogeneous a miscellany of pieces
bona, mala, mediocria, as perhaps was ever offered to the publick. Some of them are written in verse, and others in prose; bearing the various titles of tales, discourses, conversations, reflections, letters, &c. The greater part are merely jeux d'esprit, as is supposed of Mr. de Voltaire ; the rest relate to history, religion, politics, morals and literature. We shall translate one of them for the amusement of our Readers. An Epislle from Mr. Cubflorf, Pastor of the Church at Helmstad,
to Mr. Kirkerf, Pastor of Lauvtrop: Oa. 10, 1760. • I tremble, as well as you, my dear brother, at the fatal progress of philosophy. Magistrates and Princes begin to think for themselves, and we must
be totally ruined. England, in particular, hath corrupted all Europe by its unhappy discoveries of the nature of light, of the laws of gravitation, and the aberration of the fixt stars. Mankind have arrived insensibly at such an excess of temerity, that they will believe nothing but what is reasonable ; replying to most of our inventions,
Quodcumque oftendis mihi fic incredulus odi. • I have reflected, in the bitterness of my heart, upon the fatal hatred, which fo many persons of every rank, age and fex, entertain against us and our brethren. Perhaps our own divifions are the cause of it; perhaps also we may justly impute it to the want of due circumspection in our endeavours to influence the minds of the people; who instead of being persuaded by our eloquence, are disgusted at our arrogance. For we have abufed the philosophers, just as the Lutherans have done the Calvinists; as the Calvinists have done the Church of England; the Church of England the Presbyterians, the Presbyterians the Quakers;
* So we have ventured to translate this Name : fubmitting it to the correction of those who are better acquainted with it.
just as they have all abused the Church of Rome, and as the Church of Rome hath abused them all, in return.
I am persuaded that, had we been more moderate, we should not have incurred so much ill will. Let us forgive thofe, my dear brother, who unjuftly attack the foundation of that edifice which we ourselves are daily pulling to pieces, in order to throw the stones at each others head. I conceive the only way to convert our enemies, is to set before them examples of charity and modesty: whereas we set out; on the contrary, with calling them names, and abusing them as void of genius and understanding, as libertines, men of bad hearts, &c. by which means we directly attack their self-love, and oblige them, in their own defence, to be continually under arms. Would it not be more prudent and effectual to employ moderation and lenity against them ? For these carry every point they undertake.
« On one side, we tell them, that our opinions are so clear and self-evident, that a man must be a madman to deny them: on the other, we pronounce them to be so fublime and mysterious, that reason cannot comprehend them. How is it possible they should not be embarraffed by such contradictory expofitions? Each of our feets pretends to the title of universality, to the profesion of the true Catholic religion ; but what answer can we make our adversaries, when they take a map of the world; and cover the little spot to which our feet is confined, with the tip of their little finger ? Let us, if we are wise, show them that, if it is not in reality, it merits, at least, to be univerfal. Let us not disgust them, by affirming there is no sincerity or probity but with us. This circumstance hath justly offended the learned more than any other. They can never be brought to believe that Confucius, Pythagoras, Zaleucus, Socrates, Plato, Cato, Scipio, Cicero, Trajan, Antoninus, Epictetus, and many others, were men without virtue or probity. Hence it is that they reproach us with calumniating the best and wisest of mankind, in all ages and in all countries. With what propriety could the fanguinary Anabaptist affirm, at the siege of Munster, that probity belonged exclusively to his own feet? With what truth could the same pretence be made by the Calvinists, when they were affalinating the Duke of Guise; or by the Papists, while they rung the matins of St. Bartholomew ?
• Poltrot, Clement, Chatel, Ravaillac, and the Jesuit Le Tel. lier were all remarkably devout; but tell me truly do you not prefer the probity of Motte le Vayer, Gafsendi, Locke, Bayle, Descartes, Middleton, and an hundred other great philosophers, who:n I could enumerate? Let us, for the future, my dear brother, never make use of these unlucky arguments, which
are so easily retorted upon ourselves. Father Canaye used to fay, Away with reason! And I say, Away with disputes and abuse. .
• We were charged, in former times, with being influenced by ambition, hatred, avarice and revenge ; with having disputed the jurisdiction of Sovereigns; with disturbing the peace of ftates, and shedding innocent blood : let us beware of falling again into such horrible excefies; let us acknowlege that the ffate is head of the Church, and not the Church of the state.
• Let us be obedient to the Prince and magistrate, like other fubjects. It is our misconduct, and not our tenets that create us so many enemies. We do not see the people revolt against their laws and the functions of their magistrates, in any country upon earth. If they have exclaimed, therefore, against us, in
ages and in all countries, we may justly thank ourselves.
Silence, humility and prayer ought to be our only weapons. • The learned, you say, do not believe in certain assertions ; (nor in fact we ourselves neither) but what then? Will they believe the sooner for being abused and insulted? The Japanese, the Chinese, the inhabitants of Siam, the Indians, Turks, Tartars, Persians and Africans believe in us as little. Shall we, for this reason, treat them as disturbers of the fate, as bad eitizens, as enemies to God and man? Why do not we go and abuse all nations on the same principle, and insult every German or Englishman, for instance, who thinks differently from us? Why do we bend, and even tremble, so respectfully before a sovereign Prince, who we know despises us; and yet declaim so arrogantly against an individual without power or credit, whom we suspect of not paying us proper deference ?
« This thirst after dominion over the minds of men ought to be abolished. And I see that every effort we make to attaineit, ferves to debase us. Let us leave the powerful and the wife, princes and philosophers, alone; in order that they may do the fame by us; living prudently in peace with those whom we never can subdue, and who may expose us. Let us, in particular, throw aside that haughtiness and zeal, which becomes us so little, and succeeds so very ill.
“You are acquainted with pastor Durnol ; a good sort of man upon the whole, but a little choleric. He was one day explaining the Pentateuch to his scholars; and, having got upon the subject of Balaam and his ass, one of the lads, an arch young rogue you may be sure, fell a laughing. Durnol on this Hew into a violent paffion, declaimed, threatened and proved that alles might speak very well, particularly if they saw an angel stand before them with a drawn sword. At this argument the boy laughed more heartily than before; on which our good Pastor loft all patience, and with that convincing argumentum ad hominem, his square toe, gave him a severe kick on the breech. The poor boy's note was now changed, and the young sceptick confefled, as he cried and rubbed his breeches, that Balaani's als might have spoke; but added he, I did not know before that he kicked too.
The simplicity and archness of this reply from our friend Durnol's pupil made a sensible impression on me, in so much that I have advised my friends ever since to forbear both to kick and to bray.
CATALOGUE OF FOREIGN BOOKS.
Art. 1. Albini Academicarum Annotationum. Liber Sextus, &c.
4to. Leyden. 1764. Albinus's Academical Annotations, Book the Sixth, on Physio
logical, Anatomical, and Pathological Subjeéts. HE former volumes of our celebrated Professor's Observations,
being universally known, it would be superfluous to say any thing here, of this work in general. The present book is divided into thirteen chapters; of which the following are the titles. Chap. 1. De Generatione Ollis. 2. Quædam de prima oflium natura disceptatio. 3. De miro quodam oculorum vitio. 4. De vulnerato oculo. 5. De Bulbo racemi mufæ. 6. De clavo pedis. 7. De cartilaginæ auriculæ. 8. De inteftinis. 9. De radicibus pilorum, et poris curis humanæ. 10. De papillis cutis.
11. De incurfione Halleri nova. 12, De Icone mea iphincteris ani externi. 13. Quædam de curatione calculosorum, qua Ranius utebatur.
In the first chapter, our learned Author controverts the opinion of Du
Von Frederick Casimir, &c. Manheim. 1764.
Frederick Casimir, Physician at Manheim, Member of the