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< In the course of that war, and about the year 1377, King. John sent fome fhips, commanded by one Martin Ruiz de Avendano, to secure the coasts of Gallicia, Biscay, and England. This fleet met with a severe tempest, which lafted many days, infomuch that the admiral's fhip was obliged to bear away and drive before the wind, until the arrived in a port of the island of Lancerota.

• Here the Spaniards landed, and were kindly received by the natives, who treated them with the best that the inland afforded. Don Martin Ruiz de Avendano was lodged in the house of Quonzamas, the King, while he remained in the island. In that time he becaine so intimate with Fayna, the King's wife, that she had a daughter by him named Yco. Her complexion was very fair in comparison of the natives : when of age the was married to one of the royal family, who became King of the island, after Guanarame and Tinguafaya were carried prisoners to Spain, in the fleet commanded by Ferdinando Peraza, in the year 1385 or 1386. By this man Yco had a son named Guadaifia. After Guanarame's death, there was a great diffention in the island, about the succession; the natives insisting, that Guadarfia was incapable of it because his mother was not noble, being, as was supposed by her colour, the daughter of a stranger, and not of Quonzamas the King. To end the dispute the council met, and came to a resolution, to shut up

Yco with three female servants in the house of the deceased Quonzamas, and there to smoke them ; and if she came out alive, he was to be declared noble, and the genuine offspring of Quonzamas. Before she went to the fmoaky trial, an old woman advised her to convey secretly into the room a. large punge moistened with water, and when the smoak should be. gin to be troublesome, to put it to her mouth and noftrils, and to breathe in it. Yco took her advice, which succeeded to her wish; for when the door of the room that was smoaked was opened, the three servants were found stilled, and Yco alive ; upon which she was brought forth with great marks of honour, and her son Guadarfia was immediately declared King of Lancerota.

This is the fame whom John de Betancour found reigning on his first arrival on that itland.'

But is not this account inconfiftcnt with itself? Guanarame was carried away captive in 1385, and Martin Ruiz de Avendano did not land in thic island till about the year 1377, consequently Yco could not be above eight years old when her father was carried away by the pyrates: and set the Author tells us that he was of age, and inarried, before that event. It is also said that Y co's husband succeeded to the throne, on the captivity of Guanarame; it may therefore be asked, why he did not keep


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possession of it after his death ? and by what means the poor inhabitants knew that their King, whom the


Ferdinando Pezara carried away, was actually dead ?

The double sale of the Canary islands to the Courts of Spain and Portugal, produced some contention between the two crowns; but it was at last decided in favour of the former, which, after repeated struggles of the inhabitants to preserve their liberties, compleated the conquest in the year 1.483.

In this part of the work, the Author has given a very entertaining account of the customs, and manners of the antient: inhabitants ; their religion, commerce and manner of living, together with the produce of these famous islands. But as thefe particulars would extend this article to an inconvenient length, we must refer the Reader to the work itself, where we presume he will meet with ample fatisfaction, and proceed to the second part, in which Mr. Glas has given a full account of the present state of the Canaries, their climate and produce, together with the method of living, and the customs and manners of the inhabitants.

The Pike, or high mountain, on the island of Tenerife has long been famous, and greatly noticed by all who have had occasion to pass by it, and observe its prodigious height, which has been variously estimated by different writers. Some will have it to be the highest in the world, while others think it lower than the Alps, or even mount Atlas. We therefore presume that the following account of this lofty mountaia will not be disagreeable to the Reader : especially as the Aue thor has determined the height of this celebrated pike beyond all contradi&tion, and made several observations with regard to the natural history, and other curious particulars, in his journey up and down the mountain.

• In the beginning of September 1761, about four o'clock in the afternoon, I set out on horse-back, in company with a master of a ship, from Port Orotava, to visit the Pike. We had with us a servant, a muleteer, and a guide: after ascending about fix miies, we arrived, towards fun-fet, at the most distant habitation from the sea this way, which was in a hollow. Here we found an aqueduct of open troughs or spouts, that conveys water down from the head of the hollow. Here our servants watered the cattle, and filled some small barrels with water, to serve us in our expedition. While they were thus employed we alighted and walked into the hollow, which we found to be very pleasant, abounding with many trees that sent forth an odoriferous smell. Near the houses are some fields of maize or Indian corn; in several places on this side of


the island, the natives have two crops of this grain. Mounting again, we travelled for some time on a steep road, and got into the woods and the clouds just as it grew dark; we could not well miss our way, the road being bounded on both sides with trees or bushes, which were chiefly laurel, savine, and bresos or brush-wood: having travelled about a mile, we came to the upper edge of the wood above the clouds, where we alighted, made a fire, and fupped ; some time after we lay down to seep under the bushes. About half an hour after ten, the moon fhining bright, we mounted again, and travelled slowly two hours, through an excessive bad road, resembling ruins of stone buildings scattered over the fields. After we got out of this road, we came upon small, light, white pumice-stone like peas or shingle. Here we rode at a pretty good pace for near an hour.

The air now began to be very sharp, cold, and piercing, and the wind blew strong about south-west or west-southwelt. Our guide advised us to alight here, as it was a convenient place, and rest till four or five in the morning. We followed his counsel, and entered into a cave, the mouth of which was built up to about a man's height, to prevent the wind and cold from getting in. Near this place we were so lucky as to find some dry withered retamas, which was the only shrub or vegetable we saw hereabout; with these we made a great fire to warm ourselves, and then fell asleep, buť were foon awaked by an itching of the skin, which we imagined proceeded from fieas, but was owing to the cold thin air, want of rest, and sleeping in our cloaths; a thing I have known happen to people on such expeditions. We pafled away the time here as well as we could ; but while we crept so near the fire that one side was almost scorched, the other was benumbed with cold.

• About five in the morning we mounted again, and travelled flowly about a mile, for the road here was rather too steep for travelling on horse-back, and our horses were now fatigued. At last we came among some great loose rocks, where was a sort of cottage built of loose stones: the name of this place, our guide told us, was Estancia de los Ingleses, (i. e. the English Pitching-place) so called, I imagine, from some English people resting there, on their way to visit the Pike, for none go that journey but foreigners, and some poor people of the island, who earn their bread by gathering brimstone; the Spanish gentry having no curiosity of this kind. Here we alighted again, the remainder of our way being too steep for riding, and left one of our servants to look after the cattle, and then proceeded on our journey afoot. We walked hard to get ourselves a heat, but were foon fatigued by the steepness of the road, which was also loose and landy, When we got to


the top of this rising or hill, we came to a vast number of
loose great ftones, whose surfaces were flat : each of those
ftones or rocks was, on a medium, about ten feet every way.
This road was not so steep as the other, but we were obliged
to travel a considerable way over the rocks, leaping from one to
another, for they were not quite all close to each other. Among
these is a cavern, where is a well, or natural reservoir, into
which we descended by a ladder, which the poor people placed
there for that purpose. This cavern is spacious within, being
almost ten yards wide, and twenty in height: all the bottom of
it, except just at the foot of the ladder, is covered with water,
which is about two fathoms deep, and was then frozen to-
wards the inner edges of the cave: we attempted to drink of
this water, but could not, by reason of its excessive coldnefs ;
however, our guide filled a bottle, which he had purposely
brought from the Estancia. After travelling about a quarter
or half a mile upon the great stones or rocks, we came to the
bottom of the real Pike, or sugar-loaf, which is very steep; and
to add to the difficulty of ascending, the ground is loose and
gives way_under the feet, and consequently extremely fa-
tiguing. For although the length of this eminence is not
above half a mile, yet we were obliged to stop and take breath,
I believe, thirty times : at last we got to the top, where we
lay about a quarter of an hour to rest ourselves, being quite
spent with fatigue. When we left the Estancia in the morn-
ing, the sun was just emerging from the clouds, which were
spread out under us at a great distance downwards, appearing
like the ocean. Above the clouds, at a vast distance to the
north, we saw something black, which we imagined to be the
top of the island of Madeira. We took the bearings of it by a
pocket-compass, and found it to be exactly in the direction of

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; got tothe

Pike it disappeared. We saw from hence the tops of the islands
Palma, Gomera, Hierro, and Gran Canaria ; they seemed to be
quite near, but we could neither perceive Lancerota or Fuerta-
ventura, because they are not high enough to pierce the clouds.
Unfortunately we did not find the air quite clear and free from
clouds, otherwise I know not but we might have seen Ma-
deira, Porto Santo, and even the nearest part of Mount Atlas,
which is about an hundred leagues distant from hence; for
although I said before, that viewing the Pike from the ocean,
it could not be distinguished from the sky, farther off than an
hundred and fifty or an hundred and fixty miles; yet it must
be observed, that the air above the clouds is by far thinner,
more pure, and freer from vapours than the air below ; for be-
fore we came to the Estancia de los Inglesses, we observed the
moon and stars to shine with uncommon brightness; besides,


the spherical figure of the earth could not prevent our seeing mount Atlas, because its summit and that of Tenerife, by season of their immense height (although so far asunder) would yet be far exalted above the horizon. But whether or not vifion extends so far as what I am now hinting, I leave to others to determine.

After we had rested some time, we began to look about and observe the top of the Pike. It's dimensions seemed to be exactly described by Mr. Eden, whose journey to the Pike we find related in some of our accounts of the Canary Islands. He says the length is about an hundred and forty yards, the breadth an hundred and ten. It is hollow, and shaped within like a bell subverted. From the edges or upper part of this bell, or cauldron, as the natives call it, to the bottom, is about forty yards. In many parts of this hollow we observed smoke and steams of sulphur issuing forth in puffs. The heat of the ground in some particular places was so great as to penetrate through the soles of our shoes. Secing fome spots of earth or soft clay, we tried the heat with our fingers, but could not thrust them in farther than half an inch; for the deeper we went, the more intense we found the heat. We then took our guide's staff, and thrust it into a hole or porous place, where the smoke seemed to be thickest, and held it there about a minute, and then drew it out, when we found it burned to charcoal. We gathered here many pieces of most curious and beautiful brimstone of all colours, particularly azure blue, green, violet, yellow, and scarlet, But what chiefly engaged the attention of my companion, was the extraordinary and ur.common appearance of the clouds below us, at a great distance; they seemed like the ocean, only the surface of them was not quite so blue and finooth, but had the appearance of very white wool ; and where this cloudy ocean, as I may call it, touched the shore, it seemed to foam like billows breaking on the shore. When we ascended through the clouds, it was dark; but when we mounted again, between ten and eleven, the moon shone bright; the clouds were then below us, and about a mile distant: we took them for the ocean, and wondered to see it so near; nor did we discover our mistake until the sun arose. When we defcended to the clouds, in returning from the Pike, and entered within them, they appeared to us as a thick fog or mist, of the consistence of those we frequently see in England : all the trees of the fare-mentioned woods, and our cloaths, were wet with it.

The air on the top of the Pike was thin, cold, piercing, and of a dry parching nature, like the south-easterly winds which I have felt in the great defart of Africa, or the Levanters in the Mediterranean; or even not unlike these dry easterly

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