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thought that many more or less complete "Gospels" once extant have disappeared. Moreover, most critics are agreed that the existing Epistles of St Paul do not comprise the whole number which he wrote to the Churches.
The points raised in the second (2) and third (3) arguments are considered below.
(4) The question of originality cannot be decisively settled by an appeal to the style of the Greek Gospel. There are, however, certainly some characteristics in St Matthew's Gospel that seem to indicate a translation. The style is uniform, almost monotonous. Hebraisms are regularly and evenly distributed, not as in St Luke, prominent in some parts and altogether absent in others. The actual Hebrew words are few. This is what we should expect in a translation, but not in an original Gospel addressed principally to Jewish converts. St Matthew's Gospel deals with quotations from the Old Testament in a twofold manner. When the narrative is closely parallel with the other Synoptic Gospels, the quotations are also parallel following generally the text of the LXX., but presenting the same variations from that text which appear in the other Synoptic Gospels. But in those portions of this Gospel which are independent of the others, the quotations approach more nearly to the Hebrew text. This phenomenon must be taken into account in drawing any conclusion as to the existence of the Aramaic original.
The following theory is advanced as a natural way of explaining the facts. It can hardly be doubted that St Matthew in the first instance composed a Gospel for the use of the Palestinian Jews. But on the disruption of the Jewish polity Aramaic would cease to be intelligible to many, and the demand would come for a Greek version of the Gospel according to St Matthew. How would this demand be met? Either Matthew himself, or else some faithful scribe, would use the Hebrew Gospel as the basis of a Greek version. Many of the familiar parables and sayings of Jesus, which were orally afloat in all the Churches, he would (for the sake of old association) incorporate with little alteration, but he would preserve throughout the plan of the original, and, in passages where the special teaching of this
Gospel came in, the version would be a close rendering of the Aramaic. This theory explains the verbal coincidence of some parts of St Matthew's Gospel with the parallel Synoptic passages, and accounts for the facts in regard to the quotations stated above.
Such a version, especially if made by St Matthew himself, would indeed be rather an original work than a translation, and would speedily in either case acquire the authority of the original Aramaic. Accordingly we find that even those writers who speak of the Hebrew Gospel themselves quote from the Greek version as authoritative.
(A) Miracles. (B) Parables. (C) Discourses. peculiar to this Gospel.
(1) A large part of the sermon on the Mount.
(4) The blessing pronounced on Peter
(8) The description of the judgment
..xi. 28-30. .xii. 36, 37. ..xvi. 17-19.
(6) The rejection of the Jews......
(1) The whole of ch. ii.
(a) The coming of the Magi, guided by the star in the east.
(B) The massacre of the innocents.
(7) The flight into Egypt.
(8) The return to Nazareth.
(2) The coming of the Pharisees and Sadducees
(3) Peter's attempt to walk upon the water......xiv. 28―31.
(a) The covenant of Judas for thirty pieces
(B) The dream of Pilate's wife
(a) The watch placed at the sepulchre......xxvii. 62–66.
(7) The earthquake
ANALYSIS OF THE GOSPEL.
....xxviii. 11-15. ...xxviii. 2.
The Birth and Childhood of the King:-1.-ii. 23.
(1) The lineage of Jesus Christ
(2) His birth
(3) The visit of the Magi
(4) The flight into Egypt and the return.......
According to St Matthew's plan Jesus Christ is represented as (a) the King; (B) descended from David; (y) who fulfils the words of prophecy; (8) whose Kingdom is recognised by the Gentiles; (e) who is the representative of His nation, and fulfils their history.
The Beginning of the Kingdom :-iii.-iv. 11.
This part corresponds to the opening verses of St Mark's Gospel; it contains the announcement and victory of the King, and His entrance upon His reign; the true kingdom of God is opposed to the false conception of the Kingdom.
The Works and Signs of the Kingdom of God:-iv. 12—xvi. 12.
(a) Preaching of repentance (Metanoia) ......iv. 17.
(7) Various diseases are cured
(8) Cure of the centurion's servant
The preparation for the Kingdom is amendment of life, a changed heart. It is a Kingdom of love shewn by deeds of mercy. The Law of the Kingdom is the highest fulfilment of the old Law.
Section (ii). Jesus crosses the Lake
(3) The winds and the sea obey Him
...iv. 18-22. ..iv. 23-25. .v., vi., vii. .viii. 1—4. .viii. 5-13. .viii. 14—17.
Jesus shews that self-denial is essential to exhibits His power over nature, and over the
(3) Two blind men cured
His subjects; He spiritual world.
Section (iii). Return to Capernaum
(a) Cure of a paralytic
(7) Feast in Levi's house. Jesus the friend
.ix. 10-13. ...ix. 14-17.
(e) The daughter of. Jairus.—The woman with
(0) The good works of Christ
The choice and mission of the Twelve ...x.
..ix. 35. ........ix. 36-38.
(v) The observance of the Sabbath
Section (iv). At Nazareth.
(0) Cure of the blind and dumb man-
...xi. 20-30. .......xii. 1-13.
His own receive Him not
(4) A sign refused
(K) The leaven of the Pharisees ........
In these Chapters the teaching of the Kingdom is further developed in its relation (1) to John, as the greatest of the Prophets before the Kingdom; (2) to the religious system of the Pharisees. The Church of Christ is founded by the call of His disciples. Its future is foreshewn in the charge to the Twelve, and in the Parables of ch. xiii.
Section (v). In different parts of Galilee .........xiv.—xvi. 12.
on the sea
(e) The tradition of the elders-Hypocrisy..
(3) The Canaanite woman...
(n) Cure of many sick
(0) The feeding of Four Thousand
Here the Kingdom of God is brought into contrast with (1) the kingdom of Herod-a point of special interest to Matthew; and (2) with legal righteousness. Jesus indicates the extension of His Church to the Gentiles. He manifests His creative power.