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and gather his wheat into the garner; but will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.

13-17. Jesus comes to be baptized of John.

13 Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to 14 be baptized of him. But John forbad him, saying, I have 15 need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me? And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he 16 suffered him. And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and lo, the heavens were

these verses are full of imagery. How many similes are compressed into his teaching! The vipers, the stones, the trees, the slave, the threshing-floor, are all used to illustrate his discourse. St Luke throws into prominence the great teacher's keen discrimination of character. St John has recorded a fragment of the Baptist's deeper teaching as to

the nature and mission of the Son of God.

13-17. JESUS COMES TO BE BAPTIZED OF JOHN. Mark i. 9-II; Luke iii. 21, 22; John i. 32-34.

St Luke adds two particulars: that the Holy Spirit descended on Jesus (1) "in a bodily shape," and (2)" while He was praying."

In the fourth gospel, where John Baptist's own words are quoted, the act of baptism is not named; a touch of the Baptist's characteristic humility.

13. Then cometh be baptized of him] Jesus who is the pattern of the New life submits to the baptism which is a symbol of the New life (metanoia). He who has power to forgive sins seems to seek through baptism forgiveness of sins. But in truth by submitting to baptism Jesus shows the true efficacy of the rite. He who is most truly man declares what man may become through baptism-clothed and endued with the Holy Spirit, and touched by the fire of zeal and purity.

There is no hint in the gospel narrative of that beautiful companionship and intercourse in childhood between Jesus and the Baptist with which Art has familiarized us. See John i. 31, a passage which tends to an opposite conclusion.

to Jordan] Probably at "Anon near to Salim (John iii. 23), a day's journey from Nazareth, "close to the passage of the Jordan near Succoth and far away from that near Jericho." Sinai and

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Palestine, p. 311.

14. forbad him] Rather, was preventing, or, endeavoured to prevent.

15. righteousness] Here the requirements of the law.

16. the heavens] A literal translation of the Hebrew word, which is a plural form.

opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him: and lo a voice from 17 heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

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I-II. The Temptation of Jesus.

Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to 4

he [Jesus] saw] We should infer from the text that the vision was to Jesus alone, but the Baptist also was a witness as we learn from John i. 32. "And John bare record, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him." This was to John the sign by which the Messiah should be recognised.

17. a voice from heaven] Thrice during our Lord's ministry it is recorded that a voice from heaven came to Him. The two other occasions were at the Transfiguration and in the week of the Passion (John xii. 28).

heaven] lit. as above heavens.

beloved] The original word is used specially and only of the Saviour in the Gospels, Mark xii. 6 and Luke xx. 13 cannot be called exceptions. In late Greek it is nearly interchangeable with "only-begotten."

CH. IV. 1–11. THE TEMPTATION OF JESUS. Mark i. 12, 13;
Luke iv. 1-13.

St Mark's account is short; the various temptations are not specified; he adds the striking expression "he was with the wild beasts." St Luke places the temptation of the Kingdoms of the World before that of the Pinnacle of the Temple.


Generally it may be remarked the account can have come from no other than Jesus Himself. The words of the Evangelist describe an actual scene-not a dream. The devil really came to Jesus, but in what form he came is not`stated. These were not isolated temptations We in the life of Jesus. Cp. 'Luke xxii. 28, "Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations. But they are typical temptations, comprehending all the forms of temptation by which human nature can be assailed.. For, as it has' often been said, the three temptations cover the same ground as "the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life" (1 John ii. 16) in which St John sums up the evil of the world.


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Viewing the temptation in a personal reference to Jesus Christ we discern Him tempted (1) As the Son of Man-the representative of humanity-in whom human nature in its perfection triumphs over sin. An important element in the Atonement. (2) As the second Adam regaining for man what the first Adam lost for man. (3) As the Son of Abraham following the fortunes of his race, tempted in the wilderness as the Hebrews were tempted. A thought present implicitly in our Lord's answers. (4) As the true Messiah or Christos rejecting the unreal greatness which was the aim of false Messiahs.

2 be tempted of the devil. And when he had fasted forty 3 days and forty nights, he was afterward a hungred. And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son 4 of God, command that these stones be made bread. But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth. 5 out of the mouth of God. Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the

The lesson of each and all of the temptations is trust in God and submission to God's will-the result of metanoia (repentance).

1. led up of the Spirit] The agency of the Spirit of God is named in each of the Synoptists. St Mark uses the strong expression "the Spirit driveth him forth." St Luke uses the preposition év (in) denoting the influence in which Jesus passed into the wilderness.

the wilderness] See note on ch. iii. 1, but the locality of the temptation is not known.

The desert unpeopled by men was thought to be the abode of demons. So Jesus meets the evil spirit in his own domains, the Stronger One coming upon the strong man who keepeth his palace (Luke xi. 21, 22). The retirement preparatory to the great work may be compared with that of Elijah and of Paul. It is perhaps an invariable experience in deeply religious lives to be taken into the desert of their own hearts and there to meet and resist the temptations that assailed Christ.

of the devil] Gk. diáßolos. Hebr. Satan one who opposes, an adversary. The Greek word conveys the additional ideas of (1) deceiving, (2) calumniating, (3) accusing.

2. he was afterward a hungred] The words imply that the temptation was not throughout the forty days, but at the end of the forty days.

3. that these stones be made bread] The temptation is addressed to the appetite, Use thy divine power to satisfy the lusts of the flesh.

4. Jesus answers by a quotation from Deut. viii. 3. The chapter sets forth the teaching of the wilderness. The forty years were to the Jews what the forty days are to Jesus. The Lord God proved Israel "to know what was in thine heart, whether thou wouldest keep his commandments or no. And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna...that he might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every [word, omitted in Hebr.] that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live."

Christ's test of sonship is obedience and entire trust in God who alone is the giver of every good gift. The devil's test of sonship is supply of bodily wants, external prosperity, &c.

5. taketh him up] The situation of Jerusalem is remarkably high. It was probably the loftiest capital in the ancient world.

the holy city] Jerusalem is so designated by St Matthew alone.

a pinnacle] strictly the pinnacle-pinnacle, lit. 'a little wing,' an architectural term for a wing-like projection. The particular pinnacle

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temple, and saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast 6 thyself down for it is written, He shall give his angels. charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. Jesus said unto him, It is written 7 again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. Again, 8 the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; and saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, 9 if thou wilt fall down and worship me. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only


was probably on the roof of one of the Temple Porches overlooking the deep valley of the Kedron or of Hinnom. Josephus speaking of the "Royal Porch" says "if anyone looked down from the top of the battlements he would be giddy, while his sight could not reach to such an immense depth." Antiq. xv. 11. 5.

6. it is written] Ps. xci. 11, 12. The words "to keep thee in all thy ways" are omitted in the text. The omission distorts the meaning of the original, which is that God will keep the righteous on their journeys, and is no inducement to tempt God by rash venture or needless risk. The Psalmist himself probably quotes Prov. iii. 23. "Thus [i.e. by obedience: see preceding verses] shalt thou walk in thy way safely, and thy foot shall not stumble.'


7. Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God] Deut. vi. 16. The verse ends "as ye tempted him in Massah." The reference to Massah (Numb. XX. 7-12) shews the true meaning of the Saviour's answer. Moses and Aaron displayed distrust in God when they tried to draw to themselves the glory of the miracle instead of "sanctifying the Lord." Jesus will not glorify Himself in the eyes of the Jews by a conspicuous miracle. His work as the Son of Man is to glorify the Father's name through obedience. Cp. John xii. 28.

8. an exceeding high mountain] It is idle to ask what this mountain was, or in what sense Jesus saw the kingdoms of the world. It is enough that the thought and the temptation of earthly despotism and glory were present to the mind of Jesus.

9. All these things will I give thee] Satan, the "prince of this world," (John vii. 31) claims the disposal of earthly thrones. This is more clearly brought out by St Luke (ch. iv. 6), "All this power will I give thee and the glory of them, for that is delivered unto me, and to whomsoever I will I give it." The arrogance, selfishness, and cruelty of contemporary rulers would give force to such an assumption, A Tiberius or a Herod Antipas might indeed be thought to have worshipped Satan.

10. Get thee hence, Satan] It is instructive to find these words addressed to Peter (ch. xvi. 23) when he put himself as it were in the place of the tempter. See note ad loc.



I shalt thou serve. Then the devil leaveth him, and behold, angels came and ministered unto him.

12-16. Jesus returns to Galilee.

Now when Jesus had heard that John was cast into prison, 13 he departed into Galilee; and leaving Nazareth, he came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast, in the


him only shalt thou serve] Deut. vi. 10-13. Idolatry, multiplicity of aims, and forgetfulness of God are the dangers of prosperity and ambition. See context of passage in Deut.


Mark i. 14; Luke iv. 14, who assigns no reason; John iv. 1-3. St John gives a further reason "when the Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John, he left Judæa, &c."

12. when Jesus had heard] probably also because he had heard. It was a needful precaution against the cruel treachery of Herod Antipas. At Capernaum He would be close to the dominions of Herod Philip.

John was cast into prison] at Macharus. The cause of John's imprisonment is stated at length ch. xiv. 3, 4 (where see note) and Luke iii. 19, 20.

On hearing of the death of John the Baptist Jesus retired into the wilderness. See ch. xiv. 13.

departed into Galilee] by the shortest route through Samaria. John iv. 4. During this journey must be placed the conversation with the woman of Samaria. This was after a ministry in Judæa, which had lasted eight months (Ellicott, Lectures on the life of our Lord, p. 130), some incidents of which are related by St John, ii. and iii.

Galilee]=a circle or circuit originally confined to a "circle" of 20 cities given by Solomon to Hiram 1 Kings ix. II. Cp. Josh. xx. 7. From this small beginning the name spread to a larger district, just as the name of Asia spread from a district near the Mæander, first to the Roman Province, then to a quarter of the Globe. The Jews were in a minority in those parts. The population mainly consisted of Phoenicians, Arabs, and Greeks.

13. leaving Nazareth] partly because of the unbelief of the Nazarenes, partly (we may infer) in order to be in a frontier town from which He might easily pass from the jurisdiction of Antipas.

Capernaum] or Capharnaum, a town on the N. W. shore of the Sea of Galilee. The exact site is keenly disputed. It was, perhaps, at Khan Minyeh (see map), not quite on the Sea, but on the plain of Gennesaret, at a short distance from the sea. It was the scene of a considerable traffic, and had a large Gentile element in its population.

Others identify Capernaum with the modern Tell Hûm, at the N. end of the Lake in the plain of the Jordan. The name Tell Hûm nearly

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