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called the Lake of Gennesareth (Luke v. 1), the Sea of Tiberias, John vi. I and xxi. 1).

Bethsaida Julias, rebuilt by Herod Philip, the tetrarch, and called Julias after Julia, daughter of Augustus. See note, ch. xiv. 19.

Kerazch, identified by Capt. Wilson with Chorazin. Ch. xi. 21.

Highland or The Mountain, the probable scene of the Sermon on the Mount and of the appearance of Jesus Christ, ch. xxviii. 16.

Tell Hum, the site of Capernaum, according to Thomson (Land and Book), Capt. Wilson, Dean Stanley latterly, and others.

Et Tabigah, by some thought to be the Bethsaida ("House of Fish "), mentioned as being the home of Peter, Andrew and Philip (John i. 44); see chs. viii. 14 and xi. 21. Near Et Tabigah is a large fountain, probably "the fountain of Capharnaum" mentioned by Josephus, B. J. III. 10. 8, from which water was conveyed by an aqueduct to the plain of Gennesareth. Traces of this aqueduct and of an octagonal reservoir are distinctly visible. See Recovery of Jerusalem, p. 349.

Khan Minych, the site of Capernaum according to Dean Stanley in S. and P. (in Preface to Rec. of Jerusalem the Dean inclines to the Tell Hûm site), Dr Robinson, Mr Macgregor (Rob Roy), and others.

El Ghuweir or The Land of Gennesareth, a fertile plain 2 miles in length, about 1 mile in breadth; ch. xiv. 34.

Mejdel, the Magdala of ch. xv. 39.

Tiberias. Not mentioned in this Gospel. But possibly Herod Antipas was holding his Court here when John Baptist was put to death at Machærus; ch. xiv. 6 foll. It was built by Herod Antipas and named Tiberias in honour of the Emperor. See note, ch. xiv. 13-21, and cp. John vi. 1, 23.

K'hersa, identified with Gergesa. Gerasa (not the well-known Gerasa N. of the Jabbok; see Smith, Bib. Dic. sub voc.) is probably another form of the same name. See ch. viii. 23.

Gadara, the capital of "the country of the Gadarenes," to which district Gergesa belonged.

A and B, disputed sites for the miracle of feeding 5000; ch. xiv. 13-21.

borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthalim, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gen16 tiles; the people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up.



17-22. The Call of Peter and Andrew and the sons of Zebedee.


From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: 18 for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called

corresponds with Kefr na Hum, thought by some to have been the ancient form of Capernaum. The most interesting point in the identification is that among the ruins at Tell Hûm are remains of a Synagogue, in which some of the Saviour's "mighty works" may have been wrought. See map.

Whatever the truth may be in this question it is certain that in passing from Nazareth to Capernaum Jesus left a retired mountain home for a busy and populous neighbourhood, "the manufacturing district of Palestine."

• 14. Esaias] Read the whole of the prophecy (ch. viii. 11—ix. 6) which is unfortunately broken in the E. V. by the division into chapters. 15. Galilee of the Gentiles] See above, v. 12.

16. the people which sat in darkness] The invasion of Tiglathpileser, whom Ahaz called in to assist him against Rezin and Pekah, fell with great severity on the Northern tribes (2 Kings xv. 29). Yet even they are promised a great deliverance ["there shall not hereafter be darkness in the land that was distressed," Is. ix. 1], in the first instance, by the destruction of Sennacherib, from temporal distress (cp. Is. chs. x. and xi. with ch. ix. 1—6); secondly, by the advent of the Messiah, from spiritual darkness.


In Luke Simon is mentioned without any introduction, ch. iv. 38. The narrative of Luke v. 3-11 must be referred to a different occasion, though v. II corresponds with v. 22 of this chapter. St Luke adds that the sons of Zebedee were partners with Simon. John, i. 35-42, refers to a previous summons. We learn there that Andrew was a disciple of John the Baptist, and that Bethsaida was the city of Andrew and Peter.


For Metanoia (Repentance) and the Basileia (Kingdom), which are the key-notes of our Saviour's preaching, see note, ch. iii. 2.


Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. And he saith unto them, Follow me, 19 and I will make you fishers of men. And they straightway 20 left their nets, and followed him. And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him.

23-25. Jesus preaches the Gospel and cures Diseases in Galilee.

And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their syna- 23 gogues and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and

18. a net] a casting-net; the Greek word is used only here and Mark i. 16. Cp. Verg. Georg. I. 141, Alius latum funda jam verberat


fishers] The fisheries on the Sea of Galilee, once so productive, are now deserted. It seems that the Bedawin have an invincible dislike and dread of the sea. Consequently there is scarcely a boat to be seen, and the Lake yields no harvest. See Land and Book, 401.

19. fishers of men] A condensed parable explicitly drawn out, ch. xiii. 47-50.

22. and their father] St Mark (i. 20) adds "with the hired servants. We may infer that Zebedee and his sons and their partners were raised above the lowest social rank.

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Special instances of cure are recorded in Mark i. 13 and foll.; Luke iv. 31 and foll.

23. their synagogues] The synagogue, built on a hill or on the highest place in the city, distinguished sometimes by a tall pole corresponding to a modern steeple, was as familiar and conspicuous in a Jewish town as the Church is in an English village. Sometimes, however, the synagogue was placed on the bank of a river. Sometimes it was constructed without a roof and open to the sky.

1. Divine service was held in the synagogue on the Sabbath and also on the second and fifth day of each week.

2. The service consisted in reading the Law and the Prophets by those who were called upon by the ". Angel of the Church," and in prayers offered up by the minister for the people; the people responding "Amen" as with us.


3. But the Synagogues were not churches alone. Like Turkish mosques they were also Courts of Law in which the sentence was not only pronounced but executed, "they shall scourge you in their synagogues. Further, the Synagogues were Public Schools, "the boys that were

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