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signal of death to the Gracchi, to Saturninus, to the Catilinarian conspirators.

4. 5. quinque primis diebus; the seventh of January, as well as the third and fourth, was a comitial day, on which strictly there could be no meeting of the Senate. This would not give five Senate-days up to the seventh of January. Probably, however, a meeting of the Senate might be held on a dies comitialis,’ if there were no actual • comitia’ upon it.

9. profugiunt .. tribuni; thus giving Caesar just the constitutional justification which he required for his hostile advance. In much the same way the Independent army in 1647 A.D., gained a quasi-legality for its proceedings when they were joined by the sixty seceding members of the House of Commons.

10. Ravennae. A picturesque description of this most ancient Gallic or Umbrian town with its shield of tidal morasses, its canals, and ils pile-built houses, is given by Gibbon, chap. xxx. As the name • Rome' appears to have been pronounced • Reven' and 'Rave' in various Celtic languages, we may suspect that • Rome' and · Ravenna' are identical names; a singular fact when we consider that Ravenna was from A.D. 400 to A.D. 750 considered the capital of Italy.

14. c. 6. ostenderat, made the same proposals which he had communicated through Scipio.'

16. legiones .. decem. It is uncertain which legions Pompeius was reckoning here: he probably means the seven in Spain, the two taken from Caesar, which he had at Capua, and the one (Merivale, ii. 101) which was encamped with him near Rome. Or he may be reckoning his troops in Italy only; in which case it is hard to make out the numbers clearly. In Corfinium and the other towns he lost nearly five legions (inf. c. 23, note 4). When he arrived at Brundisium he had six with him (c. 25), three of which however, had been levied by the way. This would roughly and inexactly make ten at the time when Pompeius spoke, as the arrangements for levying these latter may have been partially completed. Pompeius had boasted, a month before, that he had but to stamp on the ground and legions would rise.'

19. saltem, 'even.' This word is sometimes written 'saltim,' that is, .salutim,' reservedly; whence the two meanings.

20. Faustus Sulla ; because, as son of the Dictator Sulla, he would have connections with Bocchus king of Mauritania, and son of the king who had delivered up Jugurtha to Sulla.

22. rege Iuba, son of Hiempsal, who had been made king of Numidia by Pompeius. This king had a special grudge against Caesar (Suet. Caes. 71) for having defended a rebellious subject against him, and against Curio, for proposing to make Numidia a Roman province. The name Juba is shortened for Jobaal, meaning, 'the glory of Baal.'

23. passurum .. negat. Marcellus stopped this measure probably because the combination of Bocchus with Juba, even as allies of the Senate, would be dangerous; especially considering that a stoppage of the African cornships might starve Rome, if events led the two kings to form such a plan.

24. Philippus, who interferes as one of the tribunes on Caesar's side.

25. privatis. The Scipio mentioned in c. I had been consul B.C. 52, and Domitius B.C. 54. Neither of them therefore could properly hold provinces; as the lex Pompeia de Provinciis' ordered that they should not be held till five years after the office of consul or praetor had been vacated.

27. Philippus. This was Q. Marcius Philippus, father of the tribune just mentioned. He had been consul in B.c. 56, and had married a niece of Caesar's: his neutrality in the struggle was offensive to the Pompeians, though not to Caesar.

L. Aurelius Cotta was a relation of Caesar's mother, Aurelia.

30. ad populum feratur. They did not wait for the lex curiata de imperio 'to confer on them, for the government of their provinces, the same powers which they had held as consuls or praetors: that is, military command and the right of taking the auspices. This ceremony was not a difficult one at this time: it merely implied that three augurs should come forward and certify that an (imaginary) comitia curiata’ had been duly held (Cic. Att. 4. 18).

32. quod., numquam ; these words are supposed to be an interpolation, as Caesar could not have forgotten e.g. the presence of the two consuls at Cannae.

33. privati, men with no complete authority under the · lex curiata.' 5. 5. c. 7. omnium temporum iniurias inimicorum. Caesar's favourite genitive on genitive; like “superiorum dierum Sabini cunctatio.' See Bell. Gal. 3. 18 (and 1. 19, note 6).

7. cuius, ' although he had always helped his honours.' quae . . restituta; probably an interpolation, as the sense shows.

13. videatur, ‘had a reputation for restoring the good old institutions' (unless · bona' is interpolated).

18. in vi tribunicia; ‘in cases of violence done by tribunes.' By the pernicious laws' are meant the agrarian laws of the Gracchi, &c.; by the occupying high ground, the act of C. Gracchus in seizing the

Aventine, which led to the execution of martial law being entrusted to the consul Opimus : also to the similar case of Saturninus.

22, nulla .. facta ; the use of the nominative in these words makes it probable that they are an interpolation.

25. pacaverint, 'subdued,' as Tacitus' British chieftain says of the Romans, solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant.' The nine years were from B.C. 58, when the Gallic war began.

28. initio tumultus. We find from the end of the Bell. Gall. that the thirteenth legion had been sent by Caesar into Italy, to guard the posts from which the fifteenth had been withdrawn, in order to go back to Pompeius. On the word “tumultus,' see Cic. Phil. 8. I, .maiores nostri tumultum Italicum, quod erat domesticus; tumultum Gallicum, quod erat Italiae finitimus : praeterea nullum nominabant.'

convenire with the acc. means to meet' or to call upon;' as in Cic. de Sen. 32, 'nemo me adhuc convenire voluit cui fuerim occupatus.'

31. C. 8. Ariminum. His coming into Italy from Cisalpine Gaul with his army was itself a declaration of war. It will be observed that Caesar says nothing of hesitating at the Rubicon. The story is given by Plutarch in his life of Caesar, and, with an added prodigy, by Suetonius (Jul. Caesar, 31. 32): finally, Lucan has swathed it in bad poetry, or rather false rhetoric. The true story is to the invention as Ary Scheffer's picture of Napoleon crossing the St. Bernard on a mule led by a peasant boy is to Lebrun's charger rearing with the First Consul on the crest of an Alpine pass.

6. 1. L. Caesar. See Bell. Gall. 7. 65, note 1, for his relationship to Caesar. He remained, as far as possible, neutral, like Philippus, in the civil wars. A useful list of Caesar's 'legati' in Gaul, with their subsequent history, is found in App. D. to Jules César, vol. 2.

4. velle .. se.. purgatum, 'begged that Caesar would accept his excuses, and not consider as a personal affront the course that he was taking on public grounds.' Pompeius, like Macbeth,

would not do wrong,

And yet would wrongly win.' 8. reipublicae dimittere, “to give up for the sake of the republic;' like 'eius voluntati condonat,' in Bell. Gall. 1. 20.

9. nocere se speret, when he anticipates that he is doing them harm. Curtius considers the Latin root 'spe' to be connected with the Greek φθα- in φθάνω; whence the meaning given above.

18. c. 9. si parvo labore, and thus to try if with small labour,' &c.

21. beneficium; the permission given him to stand for the consulship while absent from Rome.

22. erepto semenstri imperio; "that an attempt had been made to shorten his provincial command by six months, and force him back to the city. He must have retumed, as the note on line 1, chap. I shows, in the middle of 2.C. 49 to sue for the consulship of the following year.

24. populus iussisset; as this favour had been granted by a special ordinance, carried in 2.c. 52, either by the tribunes or by Pompeius himself. (Merivale, vol. ii. p. 57, note).

26. ut omnes .. discederent; in favour of Curio's proposition, that himself and Pompeius should both disband their troops.

29. quonam haec .. pertinere. Rhetorical questions thrown into the oblique form have the acc. and inf. for the first and third persons ('num se posse,' can I ? "num Caesarem posse,' can Caesar? ‘num quidquam superbius esse,' is anything haughtier ? Sometimes, however, the subjunctive is used, as in c. 32, cur ferri passus esset Pompeius?' especially in the second person, where we have quid tandem vererentur ?' and the like (Bell. Gall. 1. 14, note 4).

32. proficiscatur . . ipsi dimittant .. discedant. The asyndeton between the clauses gives the idea of a rapid summary of the possible adjustment. Cp. Bell. Gall. 1. 20 (ad finem), and 7. 89, for summaries made rapid by the omission of conjunctions.

7. 4. fore uti, &c., "some reason would be found to settle all controversy.' The periphrases “fore ut,' factum est ut,' &c., represent the expected consequence as the result of the whole body of coming circumstances-things would so turn out that,' &c.

6. c. 10. cum Caesare, with the young L. Caesar.

10. reverteretur is the oblique imperative, depressed for 'revertatur, like . quare ne committeret ut,' reminisceretur veteris incommodi populi Romani,' &c.

15. 11. iniqua condicio, "an unjust proposal,' whether .dicio' comes from 'do' or from dico.'

18. delectus habere ; Caesar's idea in omitting conjunctions here is to place the contradictories as closely as possible to one another, so that they may show their own deformity

19. peracto consulatu Caesaris, .if he stayed till the end of B.C. 48.'

22. polliceri; on the derivation of this word, see Bell. Gall. 1. 42, note 3, and 1. 18, note 3.

23. Arretium. M. Antonius was sent to Arezzo, because this lay on the direct road from Ariminum to Rome, through Etruria.

25. Pesaro and Fano, were on the Flaminian Way. Auximum (Osimo) and Ancona defended the coast road. It must be remembered that Pompeius was at Teanum ready to advance northward;

and it could not be known beforehand on which line he would advance.

27. c. 12. Iguvium (Gubbio) was just off the Flaminian Way. 8. 3. Auximum (Osimo), just south of Ancona. 6. c. 13. decuriones. See below, c. 23, note 1.

Il. posteritatis seems to mean of the coming time.' Hofmann quotes Cic. Cat. 1. 9. 22, quanta tempestas, si minus in praesens .. at in posteritatem impendeat.'

13. ex primo ordine means either from the first maniple or from the first century of the first cohort. See Dict. of Antiquities, p. 501.

17, 18. ordinem ducere is a phrase meaning to be a centurion;" and primi pili centurio means the first centurion of the first maniple of the Triarii, ib. p. 508.

24. c. 14. profugeret. At the very moment when he had opened the gates of the more sacred treasury, he was struck by a sudden panic and fled.' This more sacred treasury' was, like the ordinary one, in the Temple of Saturn; but it had been kept separate, from early times, to meet the chance of a Gallic war. To account for this terror, it must be remembered that some of Caesar's troops were Gauls; and that his opponents thought that he would turn on them the habits of ferocious warfare learned in that country.

28. iter ad legiones habebat, “was now on the way to join the legions.'

32. lege Iulia. We have an account of this agrarian law in Suet. Jul. Caes. 20. During his consulship with Bibulus, B.C. 59, Caesar, in conjunction with Pompeius, carried an agrarian law giving some Campanian lands to 20,000 of the needy citizens, who had each not less than three children. His colleague, with three tribunes and the whole aristocracy, opposed this bill, but were driven by force of arms from the forum. As this was during the time of Caesar's league with Pompeius, many of the colonists were Pompeian veterans, who were mistakenly supposed to be likely now to join their old leader.

9. 3. omnium iudicio reprehendebatur. It was only twenty years since Spartacus, at the head of 30,000 gladiators, had waged a civil war in Italy, not second to Hannibal's in its formidable character, and held command of the whole country for two years. A somewhat similar proposal, to arm the negroes of the Southern States during the American War of 1813, and thus abolish slavery there at a blow, was declined by the British Government. (Sir C. Napier's Letters and Journals, i. 370.)

4. conventus Campaniae; of the district of Campania. The

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