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9. illis, 'the enemy's numbers were increasing.'

15. C. 46. gladiis destrictis, they drew their swords and dashed at the enemy's ranks.' The sword, 'cette arme des gens de cœur,' showed which were the better men.

21. in iugum .. connititur, 'scrambled up to the ridge.'

24. ex primo hastato. There was now no real distinction between • hastati,' triarii,' principes,' in a legion ; but the nomenclature was retained to classify officers. Thus, in Livy 42. 34, Sp. Ligustinus relates how he was first a centurion in the tenth maniple of the Hastati, then in the first century of the first maniple of the same, next in the same post as regards the Principes, and last, in the same as to the Triarii : that is, primi pili centurio' to the legion.

25. ex inferioribus ordinibus, · from the lower centurions' posts.'

26. vulnerantur amplius DC. We read in Vegetius, 2. 10, that the quarter-master-general ( praefectus castrorum') had the care of the hospitals and of the surgeons. It is, however, curious how little we hear of the medical department in ancient military history-a formidable fact, considering the masses of wounded men, and the character of sword and javelin wounds.

30. C. 47. praefertur opinio, i. e. ‘hanc de eo die opinionem prae se ferunt utrique,' as Kraner explains.

32. inferiores—in military value.
26. 9. c. 48. biduo quo. Supra, c. 41, note 1.
12. nives proluit, 'the storm washed down the snows.

21. commeatus .. pervenire poterant, the great convoys which were on their way from Gaul and Italy could not get to the camp.' If the Urgel road took the same line then which it does now, they would have had to cross the Segre twice.

23. in herbis erant, on the one hand, the corn was not in the green blade, so as to be good for forage; and, on the other, it was not ripe enough to supply food for men.' 'Herbis' seems a better reading here than • acervis' or hibernis,' which the MSS. have.

24. exinanitae, . while the towns had been drained of corn.' For the asyndeton at reliqui, see c. 11, note 2. The reason is the same here, except that completeness is the idea to be expressed by the juxtaposition of the clauses (as in c. 7, ‘nihil factum, ne cogitatum quidem').

27. secundum . . subsidium, 'which might serve as a substitute for corn. So in Bell. Gall. 7. 17, the soldiers are said pecore extremam famem sustentare.' Unlike the guardsman, they were hardly prepared •to rough it on a beefsteak and a pint of port in the Peninsula ;' and would have done better on the few ounces of corn per diem which starved our army just before the battle of Talavera, in 1809. Perhaps this corn diet had something to do with their power of doing with little surgery when wounded.

31. cetrati. The 'cetrae' were small leathern bucklers (see Class. Dict. p. 270, where they are figured); opposed in c. 39 to‘scuta,' wooden shields covered with metal. These men were sent to hunt down Caesar's foragers; swimming the rivers, as the Scinde robbers do the Indus, on a blown skin (Sir C. Napier's Life, iï. 191), and as the Assyrian troops are represented on the Ninevite sculptures. See also Xen. Anab. 3. 5, 8.

27. 2. c. 49. multum .. multum .. magna copia. This anaphora gives the idea of an enumeration of their means of supply.

5. loca .. integra, 'the untouched ground.'

11. fluminis natura, from the character of the stream,' which would be dangerous.

ex totis ripis; on Napoleon's principle, that · le feu du centre à la circonférence est nul : celui de la circonférence au centre est irrésistible' (Jules César, ii. 222).

13. erat difficile. Bridges of this kind were supported either on a row of casks lashed to the balks which made the roadway (like that figured in Hyde's Fortif. p. 185), or on small boats, hollowed from trees (Veget. 2. 25), which a Roman army carried with it to serve as pontoons. Pile-bridges might be used where the bottom was soft enough to admit of their being driven.

17. c. 51. ex Rutenis, ' from the Rouergue,' the department of the Aveyron, with Rodez for its capital.

19. cuiusque generis hominum, 'a crowd of men of all classes, with their slaves and families.'

22. usi . . licentia, and continued the same careless advance which they had been making on the preceding day's march.

erant .. erant. See c. 49, note 1, and Bell. Gall. 1. 14.6.

25. flumina continebant, 'the flooded waters kept back.' If more than one river is meant, the other may be the Noguera.

28. Galli equites expediunt, quickly prepared for action. They would be impediti’ (Bell. Gall. 3. 24, note 4) as long as they were mixed up with the crowds of civilians.

29. pari certamine, "against weapons like their own.'

32. magnum . . momentum. Supra, c. 21, note 1. 28. 1. desiderati sunt, 'were missing.'

3. non magnus numerus. Where things are naturally numbered, as cavalry, bushels of corn, or the like, 'numerus equitum ., frumenti .. pecudum,' is used; otherwise, multitudo hominum .. avium . . ferarum.' 4. C. 52. his .. annona crevit, all these accidents raised the price of provisions; which is increased not only by present scarcity, but by fear for the future ;' the use of speculators in corn being, as economists point out, to give men's appetites warning, by an early and gradual rise of prices, that they must not indulge in their usual consumption; and so to systematize the fear' of which Caesar speaks.

6. ad denarios L. A modius of corn (Bell. Gall. 8. 4, note 1) was ordinarily worth 31 sesterces or about sixpence-halfpenny. As the denarius contained 4 sesterces, the price of corn was now 200 sesterces, or thirty-one and threepence, for the modius. We may compare this with modern prices by remembering that the modius contained 20 lbs. of corn, the English bushel containing about 60 lbs. Thus the price of a bushel would have been at Lerida 41. 135. 9d., and of a quarter, 371. 1os. In England it is a famine price when wheat is 61. 55. a quarter. In the Talavera campaign above alluded to one pound of corn cost 2s. 3d., which will be seen to be even higher than Caesar's price.

11. illi . . abundarent, 'while the enemy had abundant supplies of all kinds, and had established their superiority.'

17. c. 53. uberiora, ‘with fulness and exaggeration beyond the truth.'

19. magni .. concursus, all the world went to leave their cards at Afranius' house, and to congratulate him.' The crowds outside would do what is called in America' serenading.'

26. c. 54. ut naves faciant, to make themselves some boats, of the kind with which experience in Britain had made him acquainted.'

28. carinae, here the keels,' not, as in Bell. Gall. 3. 13, 'the hulls.' These were the coracles still in use on the Severn. What aptitude the men must have had for difficult paddling! 29. 1. ex utraque parte, from both ends at once.' 4. expedire, 'to have freer supplies of corn.' 6. c. 55. dissipatos, 'scattered in all directions from Lerida.'

16. c. 58. navis longas, 'men of war,' opposed to 'naves onerariae,' as pakpal to otporyúdai in Greek.

17. tectae, 'decked.'
21. certas . . naves, 'some separate vessels for himself.'

24. insulam .. contra Massiliam. This may be the island of the Tour du Plenier : Brutus could hardly have had his station at any of the islands closer in, as this would have facilitated a surprise like Lysander's at Aegospotami.

27. c. 57. antesignanos. These would naturally be the best men; as a good commander begins an engagement with the best he has. If he tried to spare them by sending on second-rate troops, these would

probably fail, and the reserve would lose more men in restoring the battle than they would have lost if sent on at first.

28. id muneris depoposcerant, who had volunteered for that duty.'

29. manus ferreas, 'grappling-irons.'
harpagones, • drags.'
30. The tragula was a lance with a barbed head.
30. 4. animis continebant, . kept thoroughly in mind.'
5. probare operam, 'to get their deeds approved.'

8. c. 58. producta longius acie, 'they extended their line so as to outflank ours . . and endeavoured, if possible, to sweep away the oars of our vessels in passing. It must have required admirable steering to do this without fouling their own.

12. ad virtutem montanorum. The use of such mercenaries is characteristic of an aristocracy. So Carthage employed Spaniards and Africans, mediaeval Venice its Stradiots, Swedes, Saxons, and even English : and we ourselves (while so governed) our Hessians, and, more recently, our German Legion.

13. cum .. utebantur, .. tum .. impediebantur. As these two clauses are strictly coordinate, they both have the indicative, like Cic. Rep. 1. 34, 'quae virtus cum in paucis est, tum in paucis iudicatur et cernitur. The subjunctive in the former clause would make it integrant to the second ; an universal of which the second is a particular case ( quum soleam in omnibus caussis agendis commoveri, tum in hac causa vel plurima me perturbant').

14. qui . . erant producti, as the latter had been suddenly pressed from merchant-vessels.' A purely adjective sentence like this may be quasi-causal, if the causation is not strongly present to the writer's mind.

19. dum locus . . daretur, 'provided only they had a chance of fighting hand to hand.'

25. cum iis quae sunt captae, ' including those which were taken.' 27. c. 59. hoc primum, 'first this piece of news came to Caesar at Lerida.'

angustius pabulabantur, 'they had short space for foraging in.' 31. 1. plures intermittere dies, they left off foraging for several days together.'

4. c. 60. erant .. contributi, 'were in federation with the Huescans.' In Bell. Gall. 8. 6, Hirtius states that the Suessiones were attributi Remis.' This implies more dependence; see the note at the place.

Caladhorra is a little above Tudela, on the Ebro.

9. pollicentur .. deportant. Understand • frumenta.'

11. et signa ex statione transfert, actually coming over to him while on the mainguard ;' supra, c. 43, note 4.

12. magna celeriter commutatio rerum. The verbs facio' and 'fio' occasionally drop out by ellipsis (as here). So Cic. Off. 1. 24,

considerandum est ne quid temere, ne quid crudeliter;' and Tusc. 2. 22, “cave turpe quidquam ;' Tacit. Ann. 1. 22, 'Flagrantior inde vis, plures seditioni duces.'

15. per Mauritaniam. The Spaniards might believe such a report, Caesar (supra, c. 39) was unlikely to do so.

18. c. 61. quibus rebus perterritis animis, 'finding that the enemy were alarmed at these desertions.'

20. fossas. History would furnish Caesar with several examples of rivers thus dealt with. Cyrus had made 360 such channels in order to draw off the waters of the Gyndes (Herod. 1. 202), and had even turned the course of the Euphrates in order to take Babylon. So in later times, Civilis, the Batavian, destroyed the dam made by Drusus, so as to throw the waters of the Rhine back into the channel of the Waal, from which Drusus had diverted them to follow the course of the old Rhine (Tacit. Hist. 5. 21).

26. locis excedere, 'to retreat and carry on the war in Celtiberia.' Supra, c. 38, note 4.

27. ex duobus contrariis generibus, 'of the two opposing parties.'

30. beneficiis, supra, c. 29, note 4. 32. 2. ad Hiberum. Octogesa was close by the confluence of the Segre with the Ebro; nearly opposite the modern town of Mequinenza. Sir W. Napier imagines Octogesa to be actually Mequinenza; he must have imagined that the Cinca, not the Segre, was the river last crossed by the combatants.

4. pontem (a bridge over the Ebro).
5. Sicorim traducunt; by the bridge of Lerida.

castraque muniunt. This camp was to serve as a point d'appui on the other side. It would take nearly a whole day for such an army as that of Afranius to defile across a narrow bridge; and they would execute this movement with much more steadiness if they were marching on a camp partly prepared.

8. c. 62. diem noctemque. Caesar's bridge was twenty-two miles up the Segre. If he had marched for it with all his forces he would have given the enemy more than two days start in the retreat.

15. in Sicori vadum. For the cavalry only, as the next chapter shows.

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