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17. c. 63. auxiliaribus; who would be able, if necessary, to hold the fortress and bridge.

20. relinquebatur Caesari nihil, as he could not get his infantry over as yet.

25. sese .. ostendunt, 'came up with the en my's rear, assailed him in force at many points, and tried to stop his advance.'

29. C. 64. equitatus .. praelio, .by the onset of our cavalry.' + 30. sustinere extremum agmen, and that they sometimes had to halt the rear of their column so as to break it off from the main body; while at other times they would form, and our men would be driven back by a charge of the whole infantry, but presently would face round again and renew the pursuit.' The meaning of sustinere' may be seen from the phrases .sustinere equos, sustinere, ut currum, sic impetum benevolentiae.'

33. circulari, 'were gathering in groups;' whence 'circulator' means •a juggler.'

33. 3. certior fieret, might be told' (entreated), as in Bell. Gall. 3.5,'cer tiores fecit suos paullisper proelium intermitterent' (he ordered his men).

7. exercitum obicere, 'to risk his men.' 11. expeditas, “in light marching order.'

magno numero iumentorum. On the same principle, Hannibal, in crossing the Rhone, put a row of large boats above the point of passage in order to break the force of the stream where the smaller ones were crossing.

16. triplicem aciem. Gen. von Göler explains this as meaning not that Caesar deployed into line while at a distance from the enemy, but that he advanced in three parallel columns.

17. milium sex; as the ford was three miles above Caesar's camp at Lerida.

18. de tertia vigilia. These events happened early in June: therefore, according to Leverrier's table already quoted, the third night-watch would have begun at 12 P.M. The distance mentioned was therefore gained in the course of nine hours' marching. 21. c. 65. nova re, at the unparallelled activity of the pursuit.' 34. 4. c. 66. vasa .. conclamari; a well-known phrase for preparing for a march.

7. in angustiis tenerentur, 'or lest they should be overtaken at a defile by the cavalry.'

11. loci naturam, 'the character of the ground.'

14. ab hoc .. negotii, 'whoever got first to these defiles would have no difficulty in repelling the enemy from them.'

17. c. 67. tempus .. quaeritur, they discussed the time for moving.'

23. timori .. consuerit, 'generally thought more of fear than of his military oath.'

25. omnium oculis, 'daylight would bring with it a sense of honour from being under the eyes of all.'

33. c. 68 magno circuitu; not by a shorter path, as would appear natural, his object being to outstrip the enemy's march, and as those commentators must imagine who wish to place Octogesa on the Ebro, some miles below the junction with the Segre.

nullo certo itinere ; taking to the open mountain-side, as Soult did after being driven from Oporto in 1809. (Peninsular War, book vii. c. 2.)

35. 4. per manus .. traderentur, 'were passed from hand to hand' at points difficult to climb.

15. consilium .. ferebant, 'highly extolled their own wisdom.' 19. C. 69. retorqueri agmen ad dextram. This passage is almost unrivalled for graphic interest. We can see the black line coiling up the mountain side in the wrong direction, and then in a moment bringing its leading files round, and heading unmistakably towards the Ebro.

21. fugiens laboris ; an adjective, like 'metuens divum.'

quin putaret (qui non putaret), 'as not to perceive that they must instantly leave their camp and try to meet the difficulty.'

26. c. 70. angustias; the defiles appear to have been not close to the river, but some way up the hills at the point where they approach it most closely.

30. vitarent is the oblique of the potential 'vitemus' (we should avoid). Otherwise we should expect 'vitaturi essent.'

33. ex magnis rupibus, and having gained a bit of level ground after descending some huge rocks.'

36. 3. ante se.. videret. The asyndeton of completeness (supra, c. 5, note 3).

9. in cobortis, 'attacked them' (the cetrati). 13. C. 71. erat occasio, there was evidently an opportunity for striking home.'

18. ne dubitaret, do not hesitate to fight;' the oblique imperative. 23. collatis in unum locum, 'huddled together in disorder.' 28. c. 72. sine vulnere suorum, without any loss of men. So • vulnerari,' below, means 'to suffer loss.'

3.3. cum non minus esset imperatoris, “as it is not less a general's business. In historic constructions the imperfect is regularly used to express general truths, “si bis bina quot essent didicisset? (if he had learned how much twice two make). See Bell. Gall. 1. 36, note 1.

37. 2. rem obtinere, 'to govern the republic,' as he had said in c. 32, per se rempublicam administraturum.'

7. perseverat. He had too much hold on his soldiers' minds to dread such a threat. His views on this point are well given in Bell. Gall. 1. 40 ad fin.

15. c. 73. Tarraconem-by gaining the road which led thither from Lerida. They must have had magazines there.

18. alariarum, of auxiliary cohorts.

19. ad aquam must mean to the Segre, to which they had now got back.

28. c. 74. imperatoris fidem, 'they enquired whether they might trust Caesar.'

29. non .. fecerint, and lamented that they had not done so at first, but had made war on their friends and kinsmen.'

31. fidem . . petunt, “they requested a guarantee for their generals'

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32. in se scelus concepisse, 'that they might not be thought to have committed the villainy of betraying their own leaders.' Scelus is an act so bad as to be reprobated even by bad men.

33. quibus confirmatis rebus, 'if a pledge to this effect was given them.' 38. 3. invitandi causa, as guests.'

9. aditum commendationis, “any chance of being introduced to Caesar.'

14. magnum fructum . . ferebat, 'was considered to have reaped an abundant harvest from his former clemency.' 17. c. 75. Afranio.. discedit; an unusual omission of the nominative. 20. armat familiam, 'he armed his slaves.'

21. praetoria cohorte, ‘his bodyguard of infantry,' which might be a legion (Bell. Gall. 1. 40).

22. beneficiariis suis. The ordinary meaning of this word is 'those recommended by the tribunes for admission among the “evocati.”' From the context here it would seem rather to mean those who had received from Petreius grants of land, such as Domitius promised his men in c. 17.

29. in statione. Supra, c. 40, note 4. 30. c. 76. flens Petreius. On the propensity to tears of the Romans, see Bell. Gall. 1. 39, note 9, and 5. 33, note 5.

33. ut iurent omnes. A fresh oath taken at the moment would have more strength than the ordinary one taken when the men were enrolled. So an oath exacted from the young Roman nobles by Scipio Africanus, after the battle of Cannae, is said to have frustrated their plans for abandoning Italy. 39. 3. in haec verba, “to this effect.'

6. ut producatur. The construction would naturally have had ‘ producat.'

9. nova religio, the fresh solemnity of the oath just sworn.' 16. c. 77. in priores ordinis. Supra, c. 46, note 3.

equites Romanos ;-that is, those who were . equites equo publico,' and therefore eligible for commissions above that of a centurion. Hence we find, in Bell. Gall. 7. 65, that equites often acted as volunteers until an appointment of this class was vacant. Those mentioned here must have been tribunes already, commanding cohorts in Pompeius' army.

18. c. 78. premebantur pabulatione, “were hemmed in from foraging.'

19. dierum xxii. As the soldier's allowance was 50lbs. of corn per month, it is easy to see how much this order added to the load with which they habitually marched.

21. facultates, 'pecuniary resources.'

26. reliquum consilium explicaturos, 'they trusted to form plans for the future' (not a very hopeful resolution).

28. plures rem posse casus recipere, “they were aware that a march there admitted of many possibilities of accident.'

40. 1. c. 79. pluresque in .. subsistebant, “and were reinforced for the purpose of making a stand where the ground was level.'

6. equites vero, “and where our cavalry, moreover, were throwing missiles at them from behind.'

10. incitati cursu, they should suddenly break into the double, plunge down the side of the valley, pass it, and make a stand again on the other side.'

12. ab equitum suorum auxiliis, “they were so far from getting any help from their own cavalry,'

17. c. 80. lente .. proceditur, ‘men never make much way, and have to be always halting to support their rearguard.'

20. una fronte, .only on the face towards the enemy; and that without unsaddling the pack-animals.

28. subsequi pabulatoris . . iubet, 'ordered his own foraging parties to follow up the enemy.'

41. 8. c. 81. animadverso vitio castrorum, ' perceiving the vice of the position chosen for their camp.'

9. castra castris convertunt; literally, ' turn camp with camp,' that is, edge their camp backwards by continually forming a new one in rear of the old and in contact with it.

16. male haberi .. malebat, Caesar chose that they should be tormented in this way, and driven to surrender, rather than allow them a battle.'

21. ad id, ' for the purpose of sallying.'

29. c. 82. famamque omnium, and contrary to what they were all saying,' like . adversus famam rumoresque hominum' in Livy 22. 39.

32. spatii brevitas. Even if they were' beaten, little damage could be done to them in a space of 700 yards or so, after which they would be safe in their camp. The difficulty of attacking a camp held by good troops was a Roman military axiom, and has been excellently illustrated by Napoleon I, in commenting on Q. Cicero's defence, in Bell. Gall. 5. 52 (Jules César, iii. 8. 16).

42. 2. duas partes. "Two-thirds of the space, moreover, would be occupied by the armies themselves ; only one-third would be left for the movement of men and for the onset.'

8. c. 83. duplex legionum quinque. That is, the Pompeians, formed their whole first and second lines out of their legions, not venturing to bring up to the point either their demoralised cavalry or their foreign auxiliaries. Caesar, on the other hand, brought both of these arms forward into their proper place, and therefore had a manifest superiority, if obliged to fight. But his ordering neither archers nor cavalry to advance would indicate clearly that he would only do so if compelled. Afranius had, on the other hand, the satisfaction of keeping Caesar under arms, and thus hindering him from working at his lines of circumvallation.

23. C. 84. omnibus rebus obsessi, .finding themselves beset and hampered in every respect.'

43. 4. ad ultimum supplicium progredi, ‘that they might not be obliged to march forward to their death.'

7. c. 85. nulli omnium, 'no one in the world,' said Caesar, · had ever had less right than Afranius to adopt this tone of complaint or put forward such claims for pity.'

15. omnium suorum vitae, . they had thought it necessary to covenant for the life of all their officers.'

16. omnium ordinum partis, 'the opposite sides in every subordinate rank of the army had been bent on mercy.'

24. quibus rebus, “anything by which his own power might be increased.

29. ad pacandas Hispanias, ' with a view to the conquest of Spain.' He himself had • pacified' Gaul.

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