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I. 724. Clouds of frankincense and myrrh.]

Eif of oQm $oij3s irf]«]ai.*

thick clouds of incense rise E'en to the roof of Phcebus' fane.

1.725. Spoils of war] The conquerors of Marathon and Plataea consecrated a part of the spoil to the Pythian God.'

It was usual for the conquerors to suspend the spoils of the vanquished in the temples. 'Take care (said the Plataeans to the Lacedaemonians) lest you 'be accused of perpetrating an act of injustice, if you suspend in the com'mon temples the spoils taken from us, the benefactors of Greece.'1

There were different kinds of bucklers suspended in the temples, sometimes those which had been won from the enemy, sometimes what were called votive bucklers, made expressly for the occasion.1

1. 727. Deep in the vale] The Hippodrome 3 for the celebration of the Pythian games, w?.s situated below the town, in a valley lying between Parnassus and Cirphis. It extended, however, into the Crissaean plain, as we learn from Sophocles.4

1. 731. Io Paean.] The cry of exultation in honour of Apollo. It) It) Tlalnov aKsoptv' ntxa T»7o

Hfxot ixupoXmv xgwiuv tjrsJfixi/Jjo To£«v.*

The shouts of lo Pffian rend the sky,
The martial hymn of glorious victory
By Delphi sung, to hail the winged force
Of thy unerring bow.

The origin of the cry is explained by Athenaeus.'

1. 732. The mighty Pindar.] 'Not far from the altar is placed the chair of

* Eurip. Ion. 1. 89. » Paus. 1. x. c. 10 and 13. * Thucyd. III. c. 57.

* See Mem de l'Acad. des Inscrip. t. i. p. 177- * Pans X. c. 37.

* Soph. Elect. 1.730. * Callim. in Apol1. 1. 97. * Athenaeus, 1. xv. c. 62.


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'Upon hearing all this mingled uproar, fear fell upon the Barbarians; and c the Delphians, perceiving that they fled, descended from the rocks, and fallc ing upon them killed many. Those who survived fled to Bceotia, and re'ported (as I have heard) that they had seen most wonderful prodigies in 'addition to those already mentioned; for that two armed warriors of larger 1 stature than mortal had followed them in their flight, slaying and destroying.'

Pausanias,' in his history of the attack of the oracle, by the Gauls under Brennus, describes the enemy as being repulsed by a succession of similar prodigies. He particularly mentions the thunder and lightning, the convulsion of the rocks, and the supernatural appearance of the avenging heroes.

1. 755. The road where Laius bled.] 'Leaving Delphi we traversed a wild

• and rugged road along the range of Parnassus. This road was formerly

• called Schiste,* and on it Laius was murdered by his son CEdipus. In about 'two hours we came to Aracova, romantically situated on the brow of a steep 'crag. In an hour and a half, descending from the sides of Parnassus into a 'plain, we came to a place where the present aspect of the country marks the 'ancient direction of three roads; one from Delphi, by which we came; one 'towards the north, which may have led to Daulis; and one to the east to'wards Athens. Here I should fix the place where Laius was killed and his 'tomb erected:

#«>Uf /*» l' ft xXt|£fJ«T 2j£IS"»] ¥ Hot

In Phocis is a road
Called Schiste, where two branches parting, lead
From Delphi and from Daubs.

'The tombs of Laius and of his attendant (says Pausanias3) are in the middle 'of the three ways, and upon them stones are heaped. From this plain (the 'same writer adds) a steep way leads to Delphi.

'This is exactly the case, and confirms the conjecture that this was the 'place where Laius was murdered. The road begins to ascend Parnassus 'almost immediately.' Journal.

9 Pausan. 1. x. 23. Callimachus, in his description of the Gallic invasion of Delphi, has not selected the most striking and poetical circumstances. See Callim. Hym. in De1. 1.171.

• Paus. x. c 5. * Sophoc. CEdip. Tyrann. 1 . 733. * Pans. 1. x. c. 5.

Euripides * mentions the road Schiste:

Ef r»vlov apfu 4>uxiJof 2%is-ii? iSx.

- they met

In Phocis, upon Schiste's road

And Sophocles alludes to the triple way.5

n tffif xeAiufloi, xai xfxfujujufw i/«7m,
Apujuof 7i, xai rlvwTOf fi / tpurAajf eJoif.

O ye three paths, ye dark-embosom'd dells,
Woods, arid defile, within the triple way.

1. 760. Cave of Trophonius.~\ 'Pausanias' says that this celebrated cave 'was situated in a grove on the mountain; that the excavation was not 'natural, but effected by art; that in form it resembled an oven; and lastly, 'that the diameter was four cubits. In most of these particulars the cavern 'which was shewn me by Herasimo Melona (a Cephaloniote of some learning 'and intelligence) as the oracle of Trophonius, agrees tolerably well. It is a 'small square hole in a rotk. on the side of the mountain, and above the

• town, evidently formed by art, with a stone seat on each side. High cliffs

* rise perpendicularly above it, and near the mouth of the cave are several 'oblong excavations in the wall of different sizes, probably for the reception 'of statues, or tablets bearing inscriptions. It disagrees in one particular, 'which may however be accounted for by the change and removal of the land 'adjoining. It is now entered by ascent, whereas anciently those who repaired 'to consult the oracle descended:

'A fountain gushes out of the rock close below the cave.* Pausanias says 'there were two streams, one of Memory, the other of Oblivion. A few yards 'from this is the spring of the river, anciently called Hercyna. It bubbles

4 Phoeniss. 1.37. * Sophocl. CEd. Tyran. 1. 1398. * Paus. 1. ix. c. 39.

7 Aristoph. Nubes, 1. 506. See also Pausan. ix. c. 39. and Strabo, 1 . ix. p. 602, and Livy, xlv. c. 27- * Paus. Id. ib.

* up from amidst some stones, falls over rocks, descends through the town, and ■ traversing the plain, falls into the Cephissus. In its course to the plain, it 'waters many gardens, and turns mills. It was supposed to be one entrance 'to the infernal regions.' Journal.

Those who had descended into the cave of Trophonius, never laughed again.1

1. 761. Cheeronea's plain.] 'We left Livadia, and descended into a plain 'covered with gardens. The town presented a singular appearance, extend

* ingup the side of a hill, and surmounted by a bold rock, on which are the 'ruins of an ancient castle, with lofty mountains in the back ground. We 'deviated from the direct road to Thebes, in order to pass over the plain of 'Chaeronea. We traversed some very barren hills, and descended into the 'plain. It is narrow, not more than a mile in breadth, terminated to the W. 'by Parnassus, whose aspect is bold and rugged, and when we saw it, capped 'with clouds. The plain is open to the S. E. and extends in that direction 'through a space of about three hours ride, or twelve miles.' Journal.

I. 767. Ogygian Thebes.] The word Ogygian1 is used by the Greek poets to signify very ancient.

At the sight of Thebes, that most eloquent description of Theban desolation, by a great Athenian orator,3 will occur to the traveller's recollection.

EiriiJii teif <yufA»<rw x ira.gihvKrh, aX'Aa Txis fi Jiavoi«if «7ro(3A.f\|/a1' xvluv iif rxs <ru/upofaf, xai vopKrofle ofav aXnrKOfjLil/riv up noXw, niymv xaWx«paf, ipirfn<rm oixiw, afejufvaf fuvaixaf xai irouSxs fif SaXuxv, irffo-(3u]af a K 9 o to Try J, irfio-(3uliJaf Juvaixftf, o<f>c /UflauanOani^af rr:v cAiuOffiav, xAaioi/la?, Ixflevovlas upas

'Since ye cannot in your persons be present, let your imaginations be'hold the miseries of Thebes. Think that ye behold the city taken, the 'walls destroyed, the houses wrapped in flames, the women and children led 'into captivity; old men, aged matrons weeping, imploring your protection, 'and learning, when it is too late, the blessings of that liberty which they 'never must enjoy again.

•Lucian. Necyom. t. i. p. 486. 1 Athenaeus, xiv. c.2.

1 .(Eschy1. Persse. 1 . 37. See also Spanheim's note on the 14tn line of Callim. Hym. in Jov.

1 jEschin. in Ctesiph.

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