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'Their rate of payment must Iherefore provide not only for the days on 'which they work, but for those on which they do nothing. Beef and veal 'are hardly ever offered for sale, and mutton very rarely; the common meat 'is goat's-flesh, which is sold at about three-halfpence per pound. Wheat 'flour sells at two-pence per pound; so that in comparing the means of 'subsistence, and the pay of the English and Greek labourer, the balance 'is much in favour of the latter.
'There are few manufactories. The inhabitants make a coarse kind of 'hair cloth for bags, and coarse linens for their dress. They also make soap c and oil in considerable quantity, but they have none of the finer manufac'tories of silk,' &c. Journal.
Athens, in almost every article, is ill supplied. We are told by two old poets, that it formerly had excellent bread:
rov S' us afogow vonvftaon oi&w
ou J»i xoXXtptf tSov, nSt /uffifaf,
It is at present execrable. The wine is so bad that strangers cannot drink it. The water though anciently celebrated for its purity,4 is very disagreeable. What is used chiefly in the city and distributed from several cisterns, * the principal of which is in the bazar, is brought from Mount Hymettus, by a water-course
1. 6. What though deserted are thy ports, 8fc.] Athenio' haranguing the people, and urging them to resist the Romans, exclaimed. 'Let us not see 'the temples shut up, the gymnasia defiled, the theatre deserted, the seals 'of judgment empty, and the Pnyx, consecrated by the temples of the gods, 'taken from the people. Let us not endure, O men of Athens, that the 'sacred voice of Bacchus shall be silenced, the holy edifice of the brolher'deities closed, and the schools of the philosophers mute and unfrequented.'
What Athenio so eloquently deprecated, has long since come to pass, and his words represent a picture of Athens.
* Archest rat us apud Athenaeum, iii. c. 77. 'Matron ap. Athen. iv. c. 13.
+ Antiphanes ap. Athen. ii. c. 18. * An ancient custom: see Theophrast. Char. c. 20.
* Athenaeus. v. c. 51.
I. 78. The glorious scene."] I suppose the spectator to stand on the hill of Musaeus, to the S. W. of the Acropolis. From that point a view expands around, of unparalleled interest and grandeur. The scene, from its variety, its beauty, and sublimity, is sufficient of itself to excite the liveliest emotions of wonder and admiration. But from the contemplation of material beauty, from the dark mountain, the ruined temple, and the majestic ocean, the mind is insensibly called off to those powerful associations which the sight of every hill and bay and promontory awakens. With one glance, the places are beheld where the human mind has most signally triumphed in its different departments of Imagination, Reason, and Fortitude. The eye of Taste and Fancy may repose on the walls of the Theatre; the brow of Science contract into deeper thought at the view of the Academy; and Heroism feel a congenial glow at the sight of the road to Marathon, or the shores of Salamis.
Of this glorious scene Milton' has given us a finished and exquisite picture from the stores of his creative imagination. May I be pardoned for having, in the text, attempted a sketch of the same subject, drawn from personal observation?
I. 94. The rocky Pnyx."] The Pnyx is situated to the W. of the Acropolis. It is a very large semicircle, the arc of which consists of immense stones ; the sides opposite to the arc are cut out of the rock, and form an obtuse angle with each other; so that the figure of the whole may be compared to a drawn bow, the outer wall representing the bow itself, the rock its string. Channels, grooves, and niches, probably for the reception of tablets, decrees, &c. appear in many parts of the walls. In the angle made by the two sides, the rock is shaped into a large square mass, the ancient P*/t.x of the orators. From three sides of this (3n/*« descends a small flight of steps accurately formed out of the rock. (See the engraving p. 45.) Pnyx was the place where the public assemblies were held,* and where the popular orations were delivered:
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When any person was crowned by the people, it was ordained that the honour should be always conferred in the Pynx.'
* Milton Par. Reg. B. iv. ■ Thucyd. viii. c. 97. 9 Aristoph. Concionantes. 1. 243. 1 See JSschin. iu Ctesiph. s. 14."
Plutarch1 says that the (3»i/*« in the Pnyx was changed by the thirty tyrants from its former position, facing the sea, to its present situation.
What is now generally allowed to be the Pnyx, has received different appellations from various travellers. Wheler 3 supposes it to be the Odeum: Stuart4 calls it the theatre of Regilla. Its position is accurately marked by Lucian,' and by Plato.' The former describes Mercury and Justice as descending from the Acropolis by the Areopagus to the Pnyx ; and the latter says that the Pnyx faced Lycabettus. These two accounts agree perfectly with the situation of what is now generally called the Pnyx.
The Pnyx received its name' raf» rv in»cM*o-fl*i t«» T»f @aXtvlxt, » i *wo T«
From the Pnyx the ground rises gradually in a rocky ridge to the highest point of the hill of Musaeus. In this ridge, not far from the Pnyx, there is an opening, through which the ancient road to the Piraeus passed. The traces of chariot wheels, worn deep in the rock, are still very visible.
Between the hill of Musaeus and the Acropolis, was the part called by Pausanias, Caele, or the Hollow, and also the district Ceramicus within the city.
1. 94 • the eloquence
Of Athens lightned over Greece^]
1. 100. underneath the shade
Of aged planes.] On the banks of the Ilissus, and underneath the planes which overshadowed its stream, Socrates held many of his philosophical conversations with his pupils. See a beautiful description of the scene in Plato.'
1. 85. The vast Stadium.] To the S. E. of the Acropolis, are the ruins of 'a bridge of three arches thrown over the Ilissus. It led into the Stadium 'called Panathenaean, and by it the multitude passed to the celebration of 'the games. The buttresses still remain; consisting of large stones at the 'foundation, surmounted by strong walls of stone and cement. The bridge • leads directly into the Stadium. It is of an oblong form. At the end
* Plut. in Themist. » Wheler's Travels. * Stuart's Athens. » Lucian. Bis Accusati. Plato in Crit. T Scho1. Vet. in Aristoph. Equit. v. 41. * Aristoph. Acharnen. 1. 530.
• Plato, at the beginning of the Phaedrus.
'nearest the Ilissus, there are remains of walls. The sides now covered with 'turf, but anciently with seats, slope down on each hand, and on the left, ves? 'tiges of walls appear. At the top, the lofty bank which surrounds it sinks 'into an opening where are also ruins of walls. Near the top, on the left 'hand, is a subterraneous passage, by some supposed to have been used as 'the entrance and exit of the judges of the games; by others as a way for 'the unsuccessful candidates to depart unnoticed. Beyond the upper ex'tremity appears Mount Hymettus. Returning towards the Ilissus, on a hill 'at the left of the Stadium, are remains of wails of prodigious thickness, 'stretching up the declivity. These ruins were probably connected with the c Stadium. Pausanias1 says," There is a stadium of white marble, the account '' of which may appear incredible, but which those who view it must regard "with admiration. Its magnitude may be conjectured from this circum"stance: extending: in a lunar form from a mountain above the Ilissus, it "reaches down to the banks of the river, in straight and double walls. This "the Athenian Herodes built, and expended on it much of the marble of "Pentelicus." Journal.
1. 109. Hymettus.] Hymettus is a long range extending to the S. and S. E. of the town. The road to Marathon, passing at the foot of the mountain at its N.W. extremity, is visible from the hill ofMusaeus. Hymettus is a heavy and shapeless mass when viewed from the plain of Athens. It is seen to greater advantage from iEgina, in which point of view it appears foreshortened. It is rugged and barren, covered with wild thyme, and worn into numberless channels by the winter streams. The celebrity of its honey still remains unrivalled. It formerly yielded quarries of marble as well as Pentelicus.1 I regretted much that I was prevented ascending to the summit. Signor Lusieri informed me that the view from its highest point is prodigiously grand, embracing the whole of Attica, great part of Argolis, Corinth, and many of the iEgean isles.
Wheler 3 speaks with great pleasure of the prospect he enjoyed from it. He saw Mount Parnes, part of Eubcea, the isle of Andros, the promontories Schillaeum and Sunium (the two points on the east side of the entrance of the Saronic Gulph) iEgina, Corinth, Helicon, Cithaeron, and Eleusis M. de Pauw4 has also left us a description of the view from the summit of
* Paus. 1. i. c. 19. 1 Strabo, 1. ix. Hor. Od. 18. L. ii. 1 Wheler's Travels.
* Re-cherches sur les Grecs, T. i. p. 42.
Hymettus, but whether from his own observation, or the relations of others, I cannot determine.
1. 124. JEgaleos.] ^Egaleos terminates the range of the Icarian mountains, and stretches far into the sea on the N. E. of the bay of Salamis. It is described 5 as lying on the right hand of the road from Eleusis to Acharnae, in the N. W. part of Attica, seven miles from Athens. Herodotus * says, that Xerxes sat below the mountain to view the battle. An eye-witness of the combat has added some particulars of the Persian monarch's behaviour on that occasion.
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"Deep were the groans of Xerxes, when he saw
M. Fauvel informed me that on the summit he had discovered vestiges of the throne of Xerxes. As it appears, from the passage of Herodotus just referred to, that the monarch sat below the mountain, of course M. Fauvel is mistaken in his conjecture.
1. 133. Pirceus.] The Piraeus is distant five miles from Athens, as I judged from the time which I spent in walking there; and this is confirmed by the accounts of ancient authors. Thucydides' says that it was 40 stadia (5 miles) from the town. Strabo' assigns the same distance; and Antisthenes, we are informed,' walked 40 stadia every day, from the Piraeus to Athens, in order to hear Socrates.
s Thucyd.II. c. 19 and 21. 6 Herod. VIII. c. 90. » jEschy1. Persae, 1.463.
* Thucyd. II. c. 13. 9 Strabo, IX. p. 574. 'Diog. Laert. Vit. Antisth. L. vi. c. 2.