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1. 698. Hurfd the disk.]

YlxXxptifox 9' iv TeXI TOH? 0 Tltm

There Palamedes led

The warlike sports, with Diomed

Hurling the disk.

1. 699. Bounded in their car*.]

TlnXu3«{ ovv SwXtH irxf' xvlvfx

Pelides, clad in steel,

O'er whirling axle-tree, and wheel,

Sprang in his car.

I. 712. A cloud rising in air.] The Persian invasion. See the account of the different nations that composed Xerxes' array in Herodotus.'

1. 732. The morn

Rose tranquil ] See iEschylus's vivid picture of the battle of


1, 748. All the din of war,

Was husKd. ] The age of Pericles.

1. 774. Brothers 'gainst each other rushing fierce '} The civil convulsions of Greece from the age of Pericles to that of Alexander.

1. 779. a host

All iron-clad. ] The invasion of the Romans. See the description of the Roman Legion in Polybius.'

> Eurip. Iph. in Au1. 1. 198. ♦ Id. ib. 1 . 228.

* Herod. 1. vii., and a note on the passage by Gibbon, iii. p. 9. 6 Jischy1. Persw, 1 . 384.

» Polyb. 1.ri. c. 18, to 23.

786. 77*e ridges of grim tear.]

"Open when, and when to close The ridges of grim war." 1

1. 787. A motley band ] The irruption of the Goths. I have taken my description from Claudian:

revocat fulvas in pectore pelles,
Frenaque et immanes pharetras, arcusque sonoros.'

Crinigeri sedere patres, pellita Getarum
Curia, quos plagis decorat numerosa cicatrix,
Et tremulos regit hasta gradus, et nititur altis
Pro baculo contis non exarmata senectus.*

1. 798. Far different was the host] The conquest by the Turks.

1. 803. One 'bove the rest.] 'The Sultan himself on horseback, with an iron 'mace in his hand, was the spectator and judge of their valour: he was sur'rounded by ten thousand of his domestic troops, whom he reserved for the 'decisive occasions; and the tide of battle was directed and impelled by his 'voice and eye. His numerous ministers of justice were posted behind the 'line, to urge, to restrain, and to punish; and if danger was in the front, 'shame and inevitable death were in the rear of the fugitives. The cries of 'fear and of pain were drowned in the martial music of drums, trumpets, and • attabals.'1

1. 807. Low levelVd tubes.] 'From the lines, the gallies, and the bridge, 'the Ottoman artillery thundered on all sides; and the camp and city, the 'Greeks and Turks, were involved in a cloud of smoke, which could only be 'dispelled by the final deliverance or destruction of the Roman empire.'3

* Milt. Par. Lost. vi. 535. » Claud. in Rufin. ii. 1 . 79. 'Claud, de Bello Getico, 1. 481.

* Gibbon, xii. p. 227. 3 Id. ib. 228.




1. 25. The whole earth is his tomb, 8fc.~\ In the noble and eloquent language of Pericles:

AvStm Cm tiriQavuv warx fn Tx$os, X«j « friXuv Fmovov tv T»i oixtia <rtifA»ivti twifgettpri, »XKx

"For to famous men all the earth is a sepulchre ; and their virtues shall be "testified, not only by the inscription in stone at home, but by an unwritten "record of the mind, which more than of any monument, will remain with "every one for ever." Hobbes.

A somewhat similar expression, though not so forcible, is used by Xenophon,* in summing up the character of his hero Agesilaus.

1. 27. The plain of Marathon."\ 'We left Keratia early in the morning. * The country presented nothing interesting, preserving the same character 'of rugged barrenness which marks the rest of Attica. In about four hours 'we passed through the small village of Macropoli (anciently Potamos); a 'ride of three hours more brought us to Vrana (the ancient Brauron) situated 'in the plain of Marathon. This celebrated plain is narrow and long, about 'a mile and a half in breadth, and seven or eight in length. In this estimate, 'however, I include a tract which slopes down from Pentelicus at the 'southern extremity, and though not quite level, is sufficiently so for the

* Thucyd. ii. c. 43. f Xcn. Agesi1. c. xi. s. 16.

'operation of armies. On the E. is the sea, and beyond it the mountains of 'Eubcea. The plain is of a semilunar form, having the concave side towards 'the sea. Near Vrana, which is situated close under Pentelicus, are several 'tumuli, and the dry bed of a river. From this village there is a fine view of 'the plain.

'We rode to inspect the plain. There is a large tumulus between Vrana 'and the sea, supposed to be that of the Athenians. It is of a sandy earth; 'its sides are covered with a great number of small blue flowers, and its 'summit with a few bushes. A considerable excavation has been made in 'one side of it. From the top is a very interesting panoramic view of the plain, 'sea, &c. I shall suppose the spectator to begin at the western point of the 'compass, and from thence taking a northerly direction the following objects 'will successively present themselves in the panoramic view.

'To the W. appears Vrana, distant about a mile at the foot of the Pente'lican range:—beyond it lies Marathon in a narrow valley:—thence, alow 'range of hills (at the foot of which is a marsh") extends to the sea;—the isle 'of Eubcea, with its bold point Carystus (now Carysto):—I. of Zea, Giorgio, 'Macronisi, and Pentelicus, complete the circuit.

'Proceeding from the tumulus of the Athenians near the sea, we came to a 'marsh on the northern extremity of the plain; and the bed of a river which 'emptied itself into it. Into this marsh the Persians were driven and lost 'many men.3 In our way over the plain we saw many tumuli, and a square 'piece of marble, perhaps the remains of a trophy, and several broken pieces 'of stones, the ruins probably of the tomb of Miltiades.

'We passed through a small village, called Bey, into a narrow valley 'opening into the great plain, at the head of which is situated the village of c Marathon, not exactly on the site of the ancient town of that name. Through 'this valley flows a river which terminates in the marshes near the sea. The 'bed when we saw it was quite dry. From Marathon the road to Athens 'begins to ascend immediately, passing over the Pentelican range.' Journal.

Pausanias4 contradicts himself in his account of the plain. First he describes the tomb of the Athenians and the pillars which were placed on it with the names of the warriors arranged according to their tribes, and afterwards, he says, he could discover neither tomb nor tumulus.

The battle took place most probably in the narrow valley mentioned above, 1 Paus. 1 . i. c. 32. 4 lb.

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