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ters of the alphabet, a correspondence might be carried on between persons not too far asunder for properly detecting and discriminating the lights. This scheme of a telegraph, as old as the days of the Greeks and Romans, may have been picked up by Smith in his military readings, but is by no means too intricate for his own unassisted invention. The fortunate circumstance was that he should have communicated it to Lord Ebersbaught among his "projections" and "conclusions," without entertaining any distinct conception of the present emergency, by which its usefulness was to be determined. The hope now entertained was that Lord Ebersbaught would sufficiently remember the suggestion to comprehend the signals. At all events, Smith succeeded in persuading Kisell to try the experiment. Seven miles distant from the town of Olympach stood a mountain of considerable elevation, which seemed to our hero suited for his purposes. To this mountain he conveyed himself with the necessary agents and implements by night. Here he first displayed three signal fires, equidistant from each other. These drew upon him the attention of the garrison, and were at once comprehended by the governor, whose wits, sharpened no doubt by the emergency, found no difficulty in recalling the scheme as related to him by the English adventurer. What was the joy of Smith when he was replied to by three torches from the walls of the town, showing him that his signals were understood! The rest was easy. The lights were then displayed from the mountain in proper order so as to form the successive words, thus



The answer was immediate-"I will !"-and this matter thus happily adjusted, Smith returned to camp, equally prepared to take part in the conflict, and to attempt further

schemes for making it successful. His active genius conceived a plan for remedying the inferior numbers of the troops under Kisell; and by this means to keep in such a state of doubt and uncertainty a large portion of the besieging army, as to prevent them taking much or any part in the battle. The Turks were divided into two bodies, of ten thousand men each. These bodies lay apart, separated by a river. The entire force of Kisell amounted only to ten thousand. To fall suddenly upon one of the Turkish bodies, and to restrain the other, by reason of its own fears, from any attempt to second or assist it, was the desirable object. The river by which they were separated favored the scheme of Smith. This was to prepare some two or three thousand pieces of match, fastened to divers small lines of an hundred fathom in length, being armed with powder," which "might all be fired and stretched at an instant, before the alarm, upon the plaine of Hysnaburg, supported by two staves at each line's end, and which would thus seem so many musketeers." This scheme, which had for its object to render vigilant the one half of the Turkish army, which it was not intended to assail, in watching the imaginary musketeers, is easily comprehended.

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The result was eminently successful. While ten thousand of the Turks, wholly unendangered, were thus placed hors de combat, waiting anxiously for the momentary charge from the foe that had no existence except in their fancies, the actual warriors of Kisell, with Smith among them, were penetrating with havoc and slaughter among the ten thousand that lay encamped on the opposite side of the river. The ruse was admirably seconded on the part of the garrison. The Turks, bewildered and distracted, ran to and fro, without concert or courage, and offering no effectual opposition, were slaughtered in great num

bers. More than a third of the ten thousand thus attacked, were slain or drowned in the attempt to swim the river to their comrades, who, on the other side,maintained such a resolute and watchful front against the imaginary army, as most effectually to discourage its


The result was a triumphant one for the assailants Two thousand picked soldiers were thrown into the garrison, and the Turks, hopeless now of its conquest, retired in disgrace from before its walls. Our hero was not without his recompense for his share in an achievement, the success of which was due so largely to his ingenuity and skill. He received a command of two hundred and fifty horse in the regiment of his friend, the Earl of Meldritch, to say nothing of other honors and rewards.


But the soul and intel

His was not the spirit to

A BRIEF interregnum, which seemed like peace, followed the relief of Olympach, to be succeeded by newer and greater preparations for the war. lect of Smith were not at rest. which repose is desirable; but, if not absolutely in action, contemplating action with the eye of his imagination, he was perpetually schooling himself for its vicissitudes. Never was mind more observant than his of the progress and condition of the world about him. His narrative, as a volume of travels, would be absolutely worthless to the reader who seeks for anything more than to ascertain the simple fact that the traveller himself had been an observer. Of this there can be no question. The mind of Smith was not given to description, and disdained details. It was of a sort fond of generalization, and taking in at a glance all the vital conditions of its subject. He describes little, but you see that he comprehends. He gives but a few words to the manners and customs of a people, but you see in these words that he conceives and appreciates them. The military eye of our hero is evidently keenly exercised in all the countries that he visits. He comments shrewdly on their forts and garrisons, on their weapons of war, their training, or the ease or difficulty with which their strong places may be overthrown. These notices, sprinkled over all his pages, show the source of that frequent mental provocation by which the resources of his own genius were brought into exercise and development. They show him watchful and shrewd, not easily persuaded by novelty, not easily deceived by show-of a

calm, clear mind, a firm spirit, and one which, if it has not survived its youthful enthusiasm, is at least no longer to be deluded by it.

It was in busy study and contemplation that Smith employed the interregnum following the relief of Olympach, and the resumption of the actual events of war. The campaign opened early in the year. The levies of the Turks were prosecuted with unwearied diligence and activity, while, on the other hand, three large bodies of troops were raised by the emperor. One of these was commanded by the Archduke Mathias; one by Ferdinand, Archduke of Styria; and a third by Gonzago, governor of Hungary. The lieutenant of the Archduke Mathias was the Duke Mercury (Mercœur), who led a force of thirty thousand men, ten thousand of whom were French. Smith served in this division, still under the immediate command of the Earl of Meldritch. To Mathias was given the defence of Lower Hungary, and the Duke Mercury began the campaign vigorously by laying siege to Alba Regalis, a strongly fortified town in possession of the Turks, and considered in that day almost impregnable. Here Smith's talents as an engineer were put in requisition; and here we again find him counselling novel inventions in war, by which to obtain unusual advantages. He suggested to the Earl of Meldritch the employment of a sort of shell, which, filled with combustible matter, was discharged from a sling. These were called "Fiery Dragons" by their inventor, who describes them as "round-bellied earthen pots," filled with "hard gunpowder and musket bullets," and covered with a coating of brimstone, pitch, and turpentine. His plan was favorably entertained. He was permitted to try the experiment, which he did successfully. Having first learned from spies and deserters, or prisoners escaped from the town,

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