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THE TARPAN AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH

British Museum, certain vestigial structures, known as WILD AND DOMESTIC HORSES."

callosities, warts, or chestnuts, are of considerable taxo

nomic value. Warts or chestnuts, as is well known, are So much progress has been made during recent years in present on both the fore and hind limbs of the common

working out the origin and history of domesticated horse, and they also occur on the hind as well as the fore horses that the time has now come when inquiries may be limbs of Prejvalsky's horse ; while in the Celtic pony, as profitably pursued along certain definite lines.

in asses and zebras, the hind chestnuts are completely In the first place (assuming that horses have had a absent. It is especially worthy of note that though the multiple origin), inquiries should be instituted with the view hind chestnuts were not invariably present in Tarpans of ascertaining so far as possible the characteristics of (they were absent in a Tarpan described by Krymsch), the post-Glacial species and varieties which have taken part they were present in the Moscow specimen. in forming the present domestic races and breeds; in the It thus appears that the Moscow Tarpan agreed in its next place, inquiries should be instituted with the view of colour with the specimens referred to by Gmelin and Pallas, scertaining to which of the lower Pleistocene species the but differed in the mane and tail, in both of which, as in its more immediate ancestors of the living horses are most callosities, it resembled the common horse, Equus caballus. intimately related; and, in the third place, an attempt Two Tarpan skeletons have been preserved. The chief strould be made to determine from which of the ancestral point of interest about these skeletons is that, as in the forms the various domesticated breeds have inherited their kyang and Prejvalsky's horse, and in certain Arabs, there more striking characters, i.e. ascertain which are only five lumbar vertebræ. ancestral types the Shire, Clydesdale, Percheron, and other In having only five lumbar vertebræ these Tarpans heavy breeds, the Barb, Arab, thoroughbred, Kattiawar, differed from the common horse of Europe, at least from and other slender-limbed breeds, are indebted for their chief peculiarities.

la this paper I shall not attempt to show that either Prejvalsky's horse, the Celtic pony, or the Libyan variety recently described by Prof. Ridgeway. is genetically related to pre-Glacial species, or entitled to be regarded as an ancestor of one or more domestic breeds.

Sufficient data for a discussion of this kind is not yet available. I propose now, by way of clearing the ground for the investigations mentioned above, to inquire whether the Tarpan (long regarded as the wild progenitor of the common horse of Europe) deserves a place amongst the ancestors of living races and breeds.

The first account of the Tarpan we owe to Gmelin, who came across a troop near Bobrowsk during his journey through Russia between 1733 and 1743. He describes them as mouse-coloured, with a short, crisp mane; the tail always shorter than in domestic horses, sometimes full, sometimes only furnished with short hair ; the legs dark from the knees and hocks to the hoofs; and the head thick, with the ears sometimes long, sometimes short.

Since this description appeared, some ContiDental naturalists have regarded the Tarpan as a true wild species; others, like Dr. Nehring, con

G. A. Ezzart. sidered it the last survivor of the ancient pre- Fig. 1.–The mouse-dun Tarpan-like cross between a Shetland mare and a black historic horses of Europe modified by an infusion

Welsh pony

This pony, though a cross, looks as if it belonged to an old.

established race. of domestic blood; while not a few agreed with

It has a striking, well-formed, massive head, well-placed ears,

full eyes, good quarters, and excellent limbs. The mane is, however, short and Pallas that the Tarpan herds might very well be semi-erect, while the tail consists of three kinds of hair which differ in structure, the offspring of escaped domestic horses.

thickness, colour, and arrangement. From a photograph taken September, English naturalists have, as a rule, adopted the view of Pallas.

Notwithstanding all that has been written on the sub- the forest variety E. caballus typicus, in which I have ject since Gmelin's time, hippologists agree with Salensky invariably found eighteen pairs of ribs and six lumbar that the relationship of the Tarpan with wild and domestic vertebræ. horses has not yet been cleared up.'

From this striking difference in the skeleton it follows During the nineteenth century very little was done that, even should the Tarpan turn out to be a true wild towards determining the systematic position of the Tarpan ; species, it cannot be regarded as the sole ancestor of the but in 1866 a Tarpan foal was captured in the Zagradoffe common horse of Europe. Steppe and reared by a domestic mare. When about As to the skull of the Moscow skeleton, Czerski came eighteen years old this specimen was sent to the Moscow to the conclusion that it has, on the one hand, all the Zoological Garden, and eventually described in a paper characteristics of Oriental horses, while on the other it published by Schatiloff.

approaches the Scottish breed to which belongs the pony. This, like Gmelin's specimen, had a somewhat coarse

The skull of the Tarpan in the St. Petersburg Museum head, was of a mouse colour, with legs black below the resembles skulls of immature specimens of E. prejvalskii, knees and hocks. The mane, however, instead of being but the bones of the limbs and limb girdles are decidedly short and crisp, as in Gmelin's specimen, was 48 cm. in more slender, and have less pronounced muscular ridges length and hanging to one side of the neck.

than in the wild horse of Central Asia. As clearly realised some years ago by Gray, of the

It may here be mentioned that for more than a century

all the horses living in a wild state in Europe, which By Prof. J. C Ewart, F.R.S. Abridged from the Proceedings of the happened to be of a mouse-dun colour, seem to have been Royal Society of Edinburgh, Session 1905-6, vol. xxvi., part i.

Origin and Influence of the Thoroughbred Horse" (Cambridge, regarded as Tarpans. 1993)

Seeing that herds of mouse-dun wild horses no longer By the Tarpan I mean the mouse dun horse of Russian and other occur in Europe, and have not during recent years been Continental naturalists, not the so-called "true" Tarpan of Hamilton met with in even the most remote parts of Central Asia, Smith ("Naturalists' Library," vol. xii., 1841).

The chief Jiapers on the Tarpan are mentioned by Salensky, “Mono- it might perhaps be assumed that the Tarpan's place in graph on Prejvalsky's Horse" (St. Petersburg, 1902).

nature must for ever remain a mystery.

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This was the conclusion I arrived at when my attention | 7.5 cm.-spring coarse black hairs, which are now long was first directed to the subject. But having ascertained enough to reach the ground. These long hairs are oval that, by crossing carefully selected forms, remote types in section, have a very thick cortex, and only a small are sometimes restored in all their original purity, I thought central axis or medulla. it worth while to make some experiments.

The fine, short, light-coloured hairs (7.5 cm. to 15 cm. I selected for my Tarpan experiments a mouse-dun in length) at the base of the tail form a conspicuous someShetland pony mare, which seemed to me to be a blend of what lozenge-shaped bunch (Fig. 2); the thicker hairs at least three varieties—in its head it suggests the wild growing from the middle section of the dock reach a horse ; in its mane, tail, and trunk it takes after the forest

length of 30 cm. They emerge from under the lightvariety; while in the limbs and hoofs it approaches the coloured root hairs and expand to form a sort of fringe, Celtic pony. This mare was crossed with a black Welsh

from which escape the relatively few long black hairs of pony, which belongs to an ancient British race, and doubt- the distal part of the dock. less has in its veins not a little Celtic blood. The first foal, black like the sire, but Celtic in make,

In having a limited

number of long hairs failed to throw any fresh light on the question at issue.

growing from the disThough in the first foal

tal end of the dock, the Celtic blood pre- this cross-bred pony vailed, the second foal

decidedly differs from by the same sire has de

the Celtic as well as veloped into an animal from the forest types (Fig. 1),

three of horses. The interest years old, which, though of the tail in the Scotbred in Scotland, will,

tish Tarpan is not so I believe, be regarded much that it suggests by Continental natural- a mule as that it has a ists as typical a Tarpan very striking resem

roamed the blance to the tail of Russian steppes.

Prejvalsky's horse This Scottish Tarpan, (Fig. 3). The only a mouse-dun with black difference is that in the points, has a distinct true wild horse the dorsal band (10 mm. to

upper or light-coloured 15 mm. in width) and

section of the tail is faint bars above the longer than in the knees and hocks, Shetland-Welsh cross, somewhat heavy head, which has,

fact, the
but a short body and kind of tail one would
well-formed limbs. The

expect in a Prejvalsky
mane, of a light colour hybrid in which the
along each side, but wild blood was domin-
dark in the centre, is ant.
semi-erect, some of the A study of the mane
hair arching the and tail of the Shet-
right, some to the left, land-Welsh cross, and
and some forwards be- of certain other crosses
tween the ears to form and breeds, strongly
an imperfect forelock.

suggests that we must
The mane, which re- include amongst the
sembles that of zebra- ancestors of our
horse hybrids, conforms domestic horses

to the description of the species having a mane G. A. Eavart.

mane given by Pallas, and tail such as we Fig. 2.-Tail and bind quarters of the but differs from the find in the wild horse

G. 4. Espark. Scottish Tarpan from a photograph short crisp

mane

of taken at the same time as Fig. 1.

still living in Central Fig. 3.-Hind quarters and tail of a threeAs in the wild mare the hair of the Gmelin's specimen, and Asia. In the body year-old wild mare (E. prejvalskri) from tail consists of three portions. The still more from that of hair and the foot-locks a photograph also taken in September, basal portion only essentially differs the Moscow Tarpan, the Scottish Tarpan

1905. In the upper part of the tail the hair, from the corresponding portion in

light in colour and relatively foc, grows Fig. 3 by being of less extent and which, it will be re

closely resembles the obliquely outwards from the caudal portion lighter in colour ; the middle portion membered, reached wild horse. Further, of the dorsal band; the hair of the middle is also lighter in colour and more length of 45 cm., and it resembles the wild part of the tail, darker and stronger than plentiful than in the wild mare, while hung to one side of the horse in having a very

ebat of the root, lies nearly parallel with the hair growing from the end of

the dock and reacbes to the level of the the dock in the Tarpan very closely neck. In the dun Shet- short flank feather, hocks; the hair of the tip, black, coarse agrees in colour and amount with land dam, the mane lies but differs in having and scanty, but long enough to reach the the terminal portion of the tail in close to the right side the face whorl situated ground, emerges from within the hair Prejvalsky's hörse. of the neck, but never above the level of the

forming the middle part of the tail

Like the hair of the mane, the light exceeds a length of

eyes, as in the Celtic bair at the root of the tail is shed 35 cm.

In the Scottish Tarpan the mane, from 15 cm. pony; in Prejvalsky's annually. to 27.5 cm. in length, is either nearly upright, or, horse,

in the as already mentioned, arches outwards well clear of the kyang, this whorl lies well below the level of the neck (Fig. 1), whereas in a Fetlar (Shetland-Arab) pony orbits. of the same age the mane reaches a length of 45 cm. In the Shetland mare the dorsal band is nearly as narrow and clings to the side of the neck. The tail of the as in the Celtic pony; the right hind chestnut measures new Tarpan (Fig. 2) is even more remarkable than the 1.5 cm. by 0-4 cm., while the left is only 0.5 cm. in mane. The dock, which is 27.5 cm. in length, is furnished diameter; the front ergots are absent, and the hind ergots with three kinds of hair. The basal portion for 6.5 cm.

are very sinall. In all these points the Shetland mare carries fine hair nearly circular in section, which, except approaches the Celtic type. In the Scottish Tarpan the in the part continuous with the dorsal band, is almost front ergots are small, the hind normal; the front chestcolourless; the middle portion of the dock—about 13.75 cm. nuts are oval as in the wild horse, but decidedly smaller, -carries thicker hair, slightly oval in section, with a while the hind chestnuts are only one-fifth the length of thick cortex containing in some cases a considerable amount those in the wild horse. Finally, in the head, ears, form of pigment; from the terminal part of the dock-about of the limbs and hoofs, the Tarpan-like Shetland-Welsh

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cross is as nearly as possible intermediate between a wild liquid satellite is the problem of Roche. It is true that horse and a Celtic pony. Of the skeleton it is, of course, he virtually considered the larger body or planet to be a impossible to speak, but, judging by the shortness of the rigid sphere, but in this abstract the distinction introtrunk, the form of the head, and the conformation of the duced by the fact that I treat the planet as ellipsoidal limbs, the probability is that there are only five lumbar may be passed over. It appears that, as we cause the two vertebra, as in the Moscow and St. Petersburg skeletons,

to approach one another, the partial stability of and that the skull and limb bones resemble those of a Roche's satellite first ceases to exist through the deformFoung Prejvalsky horse. After very full consideration, ation of its shape, and certain considerations are adduced Salensky some years ago came to the conclusion that the which show that the most interesting field of research is Tarpan is a type specialised more to the side of E. caballus comprised in the cases where the satellite ranges from than to E prejvalskii.

infinite smallness relatively to the planet to equality thereto. When all the facts now available are taken into con- The limiting partial stability of a liquid satellite is detersideration, there seems no escape from the conclusion that mined by considering the angular momentum of the system, the larpan, once common in the east of Europe, cannot exclusive of the rotational momentum of the planet. This be considered as a true wild species.

corresponds to the exclusion of the tidal friction of the Further, it may be assumed that the Tarpan herds were tides raised in the planet. For any such given angular derivert from at least three primitive stocks, viz. :- momentum there are two solutions, if there is any. When (n) from a variety or species identical with or closely these two solutions coalesce for minimum angular momenrelated to the wild horse (E. prejvalskii) still surviving in tum, we have found a figure of bifurcation ; for any other Central Asia; (2) from a variety having the characteristics larger angular momentum one of the solutions belongs to of the Celtic pony--E. c. celticus; and (3) from a variety an unstable series and the other to a stable series of resembling the forest horse-E. c. typicus. It is only by figures. Thus, by determining the figure of minimum assuming the multiplex origin of Tarpans that it is possible partial angular momentum, we find the figure of limiting to account for some of them having a heavy head, long partial stability. eff, & nearly upright mane, a mule-like tail, and five The only solution for which Roche gave a numerical lumbar vertebra, thus suggesting E. prejvalskii; for result was that in which the satellite is infinitesimal reothers, wanting the hind chestnuts and possessing a skull latively to the planet. He found that the nearest possible like that of certain Scottish ponies, thus suggesting E. c.

infinitesimal satellite (which is also in this case the satellite sollicius; and for others having a thick head, full mane of limiting partial stability) has a radius vector equal to and tail, and hind as well as front chestnuts, thus suggest- 2.44 radii of its spherical planet. He showed the satellite ing E. i. iy picus,

to have an ellipsoidal figure, and stated that its axes were Bs experiments now in hand I hope to settle what part proportional to the numbers 1000, 496, 469.

In the paper Prejvalsky's horse has taken in forming the Tarpan. If the problem is solved by more accurate methods than those I succerd in showing that crosses between Prejvalsky's used by Roche, and it is proved that the radius vector is hors and either the forest, Celtic, or Libyan variety are 2.4553, and that the axes of the ellipsoid are proportional pratically identical with the cross between the Shetland to 10,000, 5114, 4827. The closeness with which his miarr and the Welsh pony stallion, I shall prove that at numbers agree with these shows that he must have used lease certain of the domesticated breeds are indebted to his graphical constructions with great care. Prejvalsky's horse for some of their characteristics, and at For satellites of finite mass the satellite is no longer the same time bring additional evidence in support of my ellipsoidal, and it becomes necessary to consider the deview that domesticated races have had a multiple origin, formation by various inequalities, which may be expressed and include plain as well as striped forms amongst their by means of ellipsoidal harmonic functions. less remote ancestors--have not, in fact, as Darwin The general effect for Roche's satellites of finite mass thought, descended from a single dun-coloured more or in limiting partial stability is that the ellipsoidal form is Trys striped primitive stock.

very nearly correct most of the periphery of the satellite, but at the extremity facing the planet there is a

tendency to push forth a protrusion towards the planet. TIE FIGURE AND STABILITY OF A LIQUID In the stable series of figures up to limiting stability this SATELLITE.'

protrusion is of no great magnitude, but in the unstable

series it would become strongly marked. When the unMORE than half a century ago Edouard Roche wrote stable figure becomes much elongated, we find that it finally

his celebrated paper on the form which a liquid overlaps the planet, but before this takes place the satellite will

when revolving, without relative approximation has become very imperfect. motion about a solid planet." As far as I know, his Turning now to the case of complete secular stability, laborious computations have never been repeated, and their where the tidal friction in each mass is taken into account, Pritication and extension form a portion of the work con- we find that for an infinitely small satellite limiting stability tainast in the present paper.

occurs when the two masses are infinitely far apart. It Two problems involving almost identical analysis, but is clear that this must be the case, because a rotating Pry distinct principles, are here treated simultaneously. liquid planet will continue to repel its satellite so long as It se imagine two detached masses of liquid to revolve it has any rotational momentum to transfer to orbital abou oor another in a circular orbit without relative momentum through the intervention of tidal friction. Thus mmotion, the determination of the shapes of each of them an infinitesimal satellite will be repelled to infinity before 18 common to both the problems; it is in the conditions it reaches the configuration of secular stability. As the of their secular stability, according to the suppositions mass of the satellite increases, the radius vector of limiting maste, that the division occurs.

stability decreases with great rapidity, and for two equal The friction of the tides raised in each mass by the masses, each constrainedly spherical, the configuration is attraction of the other is one cause of instability. If now reached when the radius vector is 2.19 times the radius of the larger of the two masses were rigid, whilst still possess

either body. ing the same shape as though liquid, the only tides subject When we pass to the case where each liquid mass is a u friction would be those in the smaller body. It amounts figure of equilibrium, the radius vector for limiting stability to exactly the same whether we consider the larger mass is still infinite for the infinitely small satellite, and to be rigid or whether we consider it to be liquid, and diminishes rapidly for increasing mass of the satellite. agran to disregard the instability which might arise from When the two masses are equal the radius vector of limitthe tidal irirtion of the tides generated in it by the smaller ing stability is 2.638 times the radius of a sphere the mass bodi Arcordingly I describe secular stability in the case of which is equal to the sum of the masses of the just considered as partial,” whilst complete secular two bodies. This radius vector is considerably greater stability will involve the tidal friction in each mass.

than that found in the case of the two spheres, for the The determination of the figure and partial stability of a 2:19 radii of either sphere, when expressed in the same By Sir G. H. Darwin, K.C.B., F.R.S. Read before the Royal Society

unit, is only 1.74. Thus the deformations of the two on February 2

masses forbid them to approach with stability so near as * Méin. Acad. Sci. de Montpellier, vol. i., 1847-50, p. 243.

when they were constrainedly spherical.

over

1

assume

In all these cases of true secular stability, instability One question remains : If the present conclusions are supervenes through tidal friction, and not, as in the case right, do they entirely destroy the applicability of this of Roche's problem, through the deformation of figure. group of ideas to the explanation of the birth of satellites

When Poincaré announced that there was a figure of or of double stars? I think not, for we see how a tenequilibrium of a single mass of liquid shaped something dency to fission arises, and it is not impossible that a like a pear, he also conjectured that the constriction between period of turbulence may naturally supervene in the process the stalk and the middle of the pear would become de- of separation. Finally, as Mr. Jeans points out, heteroveloped until it was a thin neck; and yet further that the geneity introduces new and important differences in the neck might break and the two masses become detached. conditions. The present revision of Roche's work was undertaken in the hope that it would throw some light on the pear-shaped figure in the advanced stage of development. As a preliminary to greater exactness, the equilibrium is

THE RUSTING OF IRON. investigated of two masses of liquid each constrainedly spherical, joined by a weightless pipe. Through such a THE first view taken of the atmospheric corrosion or pipe liquid can pass from one mass to the other, and it

rusting of iron was that it was due to a simple will continue to do so until, for given radius vector, the

process of oxidation. In 1888 Prof. Crum Brown sugmasses of the two spheres bear some definite ratio to one

gested, on the basis of experiments described by Crace another. In other words, two spherical masses of given

Calvert in 1871, that the first stage in the rusting of iron ratio can be started to revolve about one another in a

is the production, under the influence of carbonic acid, of circular orbit, without relative motion, at such a distance

ferrous carbonate, which is subsequently converted, by that liquid will not pass through a pipe from one to the atmospheric oxygen in presence of moisture, into terric other.

hydroxide or rust. In 1898, however, Prof. Dunstan, in The condition for equilibrium is found to be expressible forward another explanation ; he considered that pure

a lecture delivered to the Royal Artillery Institution, put in the form of a cubic equation in the radius vector, with coefficients which are functions of the ratio of the masses.

oxygen in presence of water is capable of attacking iron, Only one of the three roots of the cubic has a physical giving rise to ferrous oxide and hydrogen peroxide, part meaning, and in all cases the two masses are found to be

of the latter then converting the ferrous oxide into rust, very close together; but the system can never possess

while the remainder directly attacks the iron, giving rise secular stability.

to a fresh quantity of ferrous oxide, which in turn is When the masses are no longer constrainedly spherical again oxidised in a similar manner. the equation of condition for equilibrium, when junction is

A detailed account of the experiments made in coneffected by a weightless pipe, becomes very complicated, junction with Drs. Jowett and Goulding, and of the theory. and can only be expressed approximately. It appears that

which may be called the hydrogen peroxide theory of rustin all cases, even of Roche's ellipsoids in limiting stability, ing, was published in October of last year in the Transthe masses are much too far apart to admit of junction

actions of the Chemical Society (vol. lxxxvii., P. 1548). by a pipe ; but when we consider the unstable series of The theory was based on certain phenomena of oxidation much elongated ellipsoids, it seems that such junction is in which hydrogen peroxide was known to be formed, and possible, although the approximation is too imperfect to on the consideration that certain substances which deenable us to draw the figure with any approach to accuracy.

composed hydrogen peroxide were found to prevent the If two ellipsoids are unstable when moving detached from

conversion of iron into rust by damp air. The older theory, one another, junction by a pipe cannot possibly make them

that rusting was due to carbonic acid, was considered stable. This then points to the conclusion that the pear

quite untenable, since it has been shown that rusting shaped figure is unstable when so far developed as to be can take place in the absence of carbonic acid "; the part better described as two bulbs joined by a thin neck. played by carbonic acid was regarded as “subsidiary and

Mr. Jeans has considered the equilibrium and stability not essential,” and it was held to be proven that the of infinite rotating cylinders of liquid.' This is the two- " aërial oxidation of iron can take place in the absence dimensional analogue of the three-dimensional problem. of carbonic acid.” This view was arrived at as the results He found solutions perfectly analogous to Maclaurin's and of experiments in which the authors failed, by attempting Jacobi's ellipsoids and to the pear-shaped figure, and he to exclude carbon dioxide, to prevent iron from rusting in was able to follow the development of the cylinder of pear- presence of oxygen and water. shaped section until the neck joining the two parts had In the April number of the Transactions of the become quite thin. The analysis, besides, points to the Chemical Society, however, Dr. G. T. Moody shows that rupture of the neck, although the method fails to afford these attempts to prevent iron from rusting were unthe actual shapes and dimensions in this last stage of de- sucessful owing to the extreme difficulty of completely ex: velopment. He is able to prove conclusively that the cluding traces of carbon dioxide. When very special cylinder of pear-shaped section is stable, and it is important precautions are taken to eliminate this substance iron may to note that he finds no evidence of any break in the be left in contact with pure oxygen and water for many stability up to the division of the cylinder into two parts. weeks without undergoing change. In one experiment

The stability of Maclaurin's and of the shorter Jacobian thirty times the quantity of oxygen necessary to convert ellipsoids is well established, and I imagined that I had the whole of the iron into oxide was passed during the proved that the pear-shaped figure with incipient furrow- course of five weeks, but not even a speck of rust appeared. ing was also stable. But M. Liapounoff? now states that On the other hand, by removing the scrubbing arrangehe is able to prove the pear-shaped figure to be unstable ment by which the air was freed from carbon dioxide, so from the beginning. For the present at least, I still think as to permit the ingress of this gas with the air, rusting it is stable, and this belief receives powerful support from commenced almost immediately, and in seventy-two hours Mr. Jeans's researches.

the whole of the surface of the metal was seen to be But there is another difficulty raised by the present paper. corroded, and a considerable quantity of red rust I had fully expected to obtain an approximation to a stable formed. Specimens of iron which had been exposed for figure consisting of two bulbs joined by a thin neck, but several weeks to the action of pure oxygen and water withalthough the present work indicates the existence of such out rusting were exhibited by Dr. Moody at the recent a figure, it seems conclusive against its stability. If then conversazione of the Royal Society. Mr. Jeans is right in believing in the stable transition from It is also shown by Dr. Moody that while rust is being the cylinder of pear-shaped section two detached formed from iron under natural conditions a large proporcylinders, and if I am now correct, the two problems must tion of ferrous carbonate is produced ; the composition of part company at some undetermined stage. M. Liapounoff rust in the course of formation is thus altogether out of will no doubt contend that it is at the beginning of the harmony with the hydrogen peroxide theory, since this pear-shaped series of figures, but for the present I should theory postulates that twice as much hydrogen peroxide is dissent from that view.

produced by the interaction of iron, oxygen, and water as i Phil. Trans., A, vol. cc., pp. 67-104.

is necessary completely to oxidise the ferrous oxide to the · Acad. Imp. des Sci. de St. Pétersbourg, vol. xvii., No. 3, 1905.

ferric state. The fact that certain compounds such as the

was

to

now

as

on

astrorum

alkalis, sodium nitrite, and potassium ferrocyanide prevent and a majority of laymen in favour of its abolition. It rusting is due, not to their power of decomposing hydrogen seems as if nothing but a Royal Commission can peroxide, but of interacting with carbon dioxide. Some remove what to many is an absolute bar to their entrance substances, such potassium iodide, which destroy to the University. hydrogen peroxide do not inhibit, but actually accelerate, The Hopkins prize of the Cambridge Philosophical the rusting of iron.

Society for the period 1897–1900 has been adjudged to Mr. The facts recorded thus afford no basis for the assump- S. S. Hough, F.R.S., of St. John's College, for his papers tion that iron can be caused to rust by pure water and pure on the dynamical theory of the tides, published in the ou gen alone, and give a satisfactory explanation of pheno- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. mena which were considered as being explicable only in The professor of chemistry gives notice that the chemical the light of the hydrogen peroxide hypothesis.

laboratory of the University will be open for the use of students in the Long Vacation during July and August.

Dr. Fenton will give a course of fifteen lectures on general UNITERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

chemistry Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, INTELLIGENCE.

beginning on July 5. Mr. J. E. Purvis will give a course

of lectures and practical demonstrations in pharmaceutical OXFORD.—The Herbert Spencer lecture will be delivered

chemistry for the first part of the third examination for in the examination schools on Thursday, June 7, at 3 p.m.,

the degree of M.B. on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, or the Hon. Auberon E. W. M. Herbert, St. John's beginning on July 4; and also a revision practical course College.

in the chemistry and physics of hygiene. Dr. G. C. Bourne, fellow of New College, has been The Board of Agricultural Studies announces that an exnominated to the office of public examiner in zoology for amination will be held for one * Surveyors' Institution 1ou6 in succession to the late Prof. Weldon.

scholarship on July 24-27. The scholarship is tenable At a meeting of the Junior Scientific Club on May 25 for three years, and is of the value of sol. per annum. some experiments on liquid crystals were shown by Messrs. 11. B. Hartley (Balliol) and H. L. Bowman (New

Prof. F. FRANZ MARTENS, privat docent for physics in Collegel.

the Cniversity of Berlin, who, on Prof. Matthiessens's The following is the text of the speech delivered by Prof.

resignation of the physics chair of the University of Lurt in presenting Captain H. G. Lyons for the degree

Rostock was temporarily appointed as his substitute, has of D.Sc. honoris causa on May 29 :

been appointed professor of physics in the Berlin HandelsMagnas projecto gratias hodie debemus Aegypto fluvioque hochschule. Nilo, quo quotannis campos inundante, orta est ex necessitatibus hominum agellos suos summa cura dimetientium,

At the May meeting of the Columbia University trustees, Geometria, subtilissimae cuiusque scientiae

Mr. J. K. Rees, Rutherfurd professor of astronomy and parens.

head of the astronomical department, was made a proDebitum pro portione solvit Magna Britannia, cum moribus institutisque Europaeis in Aegyptum inducendis, tum viris

fessor emeritus. Mr. Harold Jacoby succeeds Prof. Rees;

Dr. C. Lane Poor will be associated with him as a proinanio et scientia pollentibus eo missis, qui ipsis rei publicae rectoribus quasi moderatores et gubernatores sint.

fessor in the department, and Dr. S. A. Mitchell has been In hoc numero locum insignem obtinet Henricus Georgius promoted to an instructorship in astronomy. Lyons, qui cum decem abhinc annos omnia quae ad It is reported, says Science, that the University of CaliBrurum dimetiendorum, ad

observandorum fornia will lose 12,000l. yearly by the destruction of buildrationem pertinent, intermissa invenisset, non solum operam ings owned by it in San Francisco, and that it will lose insiauravit, sed etiam ipse nova quaedam commentus est, a further sum of 10,000l, yearly by the reduction in value cum de harenae solique aevo et materia, de varia cam- of assessable property in the State. Our contemporary prorum planitie, de imbrium diversitatibus diligentissime hopes, however, that the loss of income on the San Franquaereret : quod genus cognitionis quam late pateat nemo cisco property is only temporary, and that the State will non videt. Agrorum quidem irrigandorum causa hoc opus not permit the University to suffer from the decrease in ooster suscepit, neque praeclarissimos fructus in hac re the taxes. non assecutus est : nunc agit ut, custodibus et speculatoribus Tue Society for the Advancement of Mathematical Scienin ripis Nili tanquam in statione dispositis, his nuntiis tific Instruction will hold an annual general meeting in fretus furninis incrementum quantum

proximo | Erlangen during next week. Among the papers of general futurum sit ante praedicat : qua de re voce non incerta iam interest will be :—the investigations of glaciers, by Prof. loquitur augur optimus. Neque tamen huic viro satis est

Hess, of Ausbach ; the experiment in ancient times and in scientiae et rei publicae inservire : quin vetustissimis illis the Middle Ages, by Prof. Wiedemann, of Erlangen ; the monumentis quibus abundat Aegyptus magno opere delec- proposals of the education commission of the Naturforschertatur. Veluti cum Nili regendi causa maximus ille prope gesellschaft (p. 92), by Prof. Pietzker, of Nordheim ; and Philas agger aedificaretur verebantur homines ne amplifi- the conception of number and quantity in teaching, by cata fuminis vis templis nobilissimis damnum adferret, Prof. Wieleitner, of Speyer. Excursions will be made to huius viri laus est fanorum fundamentis confirmatis Nürnberg and the French Switzerland. stabilitisque ita civium commodis consuluisse ut antiquitati venerandae parceretur.

An agreement for the mutual recognition of certificates

has been arrived at between the Universities of Manchester, CAMBRIDGE.-The voting on the proposals of the studies Liverpool, Leeds, and Sheffield Joint Matriculation Board and examinations syndicate, which took place last Friday and the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. This Joint and Saturday, is likely to be misunderstood. The pro- Matriculation Board will grant exemption from its matricuposals put forward were those suggested by the Bishops of lation examination to persons who have passed Responsions Bristol and Ely and by Mr. S. H. Butcher when the at Oxford with one additional subject, or have passed parts previous recommendations of the syndicate had been re- i. and ii. of the Previous Examination at Cambridge with jected. The committee presided over by Dr. Henry Jack- one of the additional subjects. Under certain conditions as son, which exists for the support of the movement in favour to the subjects taken, exemption will also be granted to of the abolition of compulsory Greek, took no part in the holders of higher certificates of the Oxford and Cambridge recent agitation; indeed, many of its members voted Senior Local examinations. It will be remembered that a against the proposals of the syndicate. The committee similar arrangement between the Universities of Oxford, made no effort to bring up its supporters from the country, Cambridge, and London has been announced already. and regarded, in fact, the proposals of the syndicate as Holders of Oxford and Cambridge Local certificates or hardly worth accepting. The studies and examinations higher certificates of the Oxford and Cambridge Joint syndicate will probably now cease to exist. It has sat for Board are, if they have taken certain subjects, given thiren years and has produced two reports, both of which exemption from the London Matriculation. Similarly, the have heen rejected in the main by the clerical vote. It is Matriculation examination, in certain circumstances, gives a well-known fact that in the first contest over compulsory exemption from Oxford Responsions and the Cambridge Greek there was a majority of residents in the l'niversity | Previous examination.

anno

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