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An important advance in the development of the forestry

follows :-“ Once the American universities were replicas branch of Armstrong College has been made by an agree

of the British system, but now the German university sets ment effected between H.M. Office of Woods and the

the standard. It is this shifting of method and manner college authorities, by which the latter take over the local

that affords us of to-day, in the matter of the practical management of Chopwell Woods, in the county of Durham. virtue of our courses in science, an assured guarantee of

commercial and industrial progress.' These woods are within a few miles of the college, extend over an area of nearly 900 acres, and carry crops of larch, spruce, Scotch pine, oak, ash, and other trees, most of which were planted about fifty years ago. The woods will

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. be gradually brought under a proper rotation of cropping by the clearing and replanting of the more mature portions

LONDON. from time to time, and the carrying out of this work will Royal Society, March 1.-" The Specificity of the Opsonic afford favourable opportunities for demonstrating the Substances in the Blood Serum. By Dr. William various operations relating to practical forestry. H.M.

Bulloch and G. T. Western. Communicated by Leonard Commissioner of Woods, Mr. J. F. F. Horner, has obtained

Hill, F.R.S. the consent of the Treasury to a house being provided in Conclusions.-(1) When staphylococci are brought into the woods as a residence for the college lecturer in forestry,

contact with normal human serum, and are subsequently Mr. A. C. Forbes, and to continue to pay as heretofore

removed by centrifugalisation, the serum loses its opsonic the ordinary working expenses of the woods. The arrange- power for Staphylococcus, although the opsonic power of ment will facilitate the holding of short courses for prac- Bacterium pyocyaneum is preserved. tical foresters and others desirous of acquiring a know- (2) Contact of normal human serum with tubercle bacilli ledge of the subject, while as a practical demonstration leaves the opsonic power of that serum for staphylococcus area for the students attending the college forestry class

almost intact, while the opsonic power for tubercle bacillus the woods will be invaluable, and should render Newcastle

is completely removed. one of the most favourable centres for forestry instruction

(3) Contact of normal human serum with staphylococcus in the United Kingdom.

leaves the opsonic power of that serum for tubercle bacillus In a paper on social conditions in Australia, read at a almost intact, while the opsonic power for staphylococcus meeting of the Society of Arts on May 1, the Hon. J. G. is completely removed. Jenkins, Agent-General for South Australia, dealt with (4) Inoculation of a human being with tuberculin causes the educational advantages of the country. “Generally quantitative increase in the tuberculo-opsonin, whereas the speaking,” he said, “the system of public education is quantity of staphylococcus opsonin is unaltered. free, compulsory, and secular, the whole expense being (5) Inoculation of a human being with staphylococcus met out of the general revenue. The greatest care is vaccine causes a quantitative increase in the staphylococcus taken to provide schools in every part of the country as opsonin, whereas the quantity of tuberculo-opsonin is unwell as in the thickly populated cities, and in some of altered. the thinly settled districts schools of from ten to fifteen

March 8.—" On the Relationship between Hæmolysis children are established. Fortunately, Australia's educa

and the Phagocytosis of Red Blood Cells." By Dr. R. D. tional advancement has not been delayed by sectarian inter

Keith, ference. There it is generally considered that a country's The conclusion come to is that the phagocytosis of red advancement rests on the education of its people, and

blood cells does not depend on the presence of the hæmothat as national education is a national gain, the nation's

lytic amboceptor, since :treasury should meet the bill. Efforts have been made

(1) The substance which induces phagocytosis is partially from time to time by zealous propounders of sectarian

destroyed by heat, while the hæmolytic amboceptor is beliefs to incorporate religious instruction with the Educa- entirely thermostable. tion Acts of the different States, but the majority of the (2) The hæmolytic amboceptor may be present in conpeople are strongly opposed to any form of State aid to

siderable amount in a hæmolytic serum without inducing religion. They feel that in the bitter strife for sectarian

phagocytosis, notwithstanding prolonged contact of the supremacy the efficiency of the schools would become

amboceptor with the red blood cells. impaired and the practical education of the children

Dean has suggested that phagocytosis may be caused by neglected. The parents generally take advantage of the

a complement acting through an amboceptor, and that the public schools for their children, but for those who object, partial destruction, of the property in the serum inducing either from class prejudice or religious scruples, good phagocytosis, by heat may be due to the destruction of private schools are available."

the complement, while the amboceptor, even in the absence Prof. J. F. SELLERS, of Mercer University, recently sent

of the complement, may still be capable of inducing phagonumber of inquiries to forty-four teachers of

cytosis. This theory, while it is difficult to disprove directly chemistry in the southern States of the American union; owing to the complement being destroyed at the same the made by forty of the teachers form

temperature as the thermolabile part of the substance symposium on chemical requirements which was presented inducing phagocytosis, seems to be an improbable one for a meeting of the American Chemical Society. The

the following reasons :paper is printed in Science of May 11. In reply to

(1) That it is not an action analogous to that of other question asking if chemistry should be taught in pre

amboceptors, e.g. that concerned in hæmolysis. If one paratory schools, a majority of five thought it should. destroy the complement of a hæmolytic serum by heat, no Answers to a second question showed that in a small hæmolysis takes place, notwithstanding the presence of the majority of colleges only does chemistry follow a

amboceptor in large amount. of physics. Prof. Sellers found that about equal time is

(2) The hæmolytic amboceptor may be present in Inrge given to lectures and to laboratory work, and most teachers

amount in a diluted serum, without that serum having the consider that individual laboratory work should always

power of inducing phagocytosis even when Dean's method form part of a chemistry course. Similarly, there is a

of testing is employed. consensus of opinion that qualitative analysis should follow

(3) In the dilution experiments recorded in the paper it is general chemistry. The majority of the institutions re

shown that one may dilute the complement to such an presented offer graduate work in chemistry.

extent as to abolish hæmolysis, and yet such a serum has shows that few southern chemistry teachers carry on re

a greater opsonic ” power in these dilutions than has the search themselves, and this is because they are overloaded

serum when heated and employed in corresponding with instruction or executive duties, and are not supplied

dilutions. with adequate library or laboratory facilities for advanced l'pon the Properties of an Antityphoid Serum obtained students. The majority of southern colleges give technical from the Goat. By Dr. Allan Macfadyon. Communicourses, and these are controlled by local demands and cated by Dr. C. J. Martin, F.R.S. natural supplies. The sting of the paper, so far as our Conclusions.-(1) The intravenous injection of the goat universities are concerned, lies in the tail, which is as with the toxic cell juices of the B. typhosus (obtained under

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the conditions described) in small and carefully regulated five minutes to nearly three hours. Photographs of Jupiter doses resulted in the production of an antiendotoxin. had also been taken, which showed that the tabular errors

(2) The antiendotoxin value, as so far tested, reached a are very small. The results were confirmed by meridian puint at which 1/30 c.c. of the serum neutralised thirty observations.-Prints from negatives of the solar eclipse lethal doses of the toxic typhoid cell juice. This action was of August, 1905 : Astronomer Royal.-Seismographic par demonstrable in 3 c.c. of normal goat's serum, and was records taken at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh : Prof. obtained after about four months' treatment of the goat. F. W. Dyson. The records showed that the trace of the The results, after a more rapid method of immunisation, San Francisco earthquake reached Edinburgh in about are better qua goat and rabbit than those obtained by Dr. seven minutes.-Observations of the magnitude and posiBesredka in the course of two years with dead and living tion of Nova Geminorum : E. E. Barnard.-Photobacilli qua horse and guinea-pig.

graphs of the Milky Way taken at Mount Wilson, Cali() The serum was also agglutinative for the B. typhosus, fornia, during the spring and summer of 1905: E. E. thir citrate rising to 1/1,000,000.

Barnard.—The president announced that news had been (4) The serum was also bacteriolytic, 1/10,000 c.c. received that no injury had been caused to the Lick neutralising ten lethal doses of the B. typhosus.

Observatory by the recent earthquake. (5) The serum did not give a precipitin reaction with ryphoid cell juices.

Paris. (6) The serum, whilst neutralising the typhoid, did not Academy of Sciences, May 14.-M. H. Poincaré in the neutralise the cholera endotoxin.

chair.—A singular effect of friction : E. Guyou. An ex

A Entomological Society, May 2.—Mr. F. Merrifield, presi planation of an experiment of M. de Saintignon. dens, in the chair.-Fourteen examples of both sexes of spherical glass globe, filled with water and containing a

fine powder, is rotated with a high velocity round one of Hystrichopsylla talpae, Curtis, the largest British flea,

its diameters as axis. The powder, if lighter than water, taken in the nest of a field-mouse in a tuft of grass at Grange, near Gosport, Hants, on March 28 : Commander

collects along the axis of rotation, but if heavier than

water the sphere is divided into three zones, separated by bij. Walker-Living specimens of Apate capucina,

two parallels of latitude equidistant from the equator. Deilus fugax, a Cryptocephalus (rugicollis), two species of

The upper and lower segments are clear, the powder being Anthasia, &r., forwarded by Dr. T. A. Chapman from Ste.

distributed in the central zone and mainly on the two Maxime, South France : G. C. Champion.-An example of

boundary lines. A simple explanation is given of this the weevil Procas armillatus, F., taken near Dartford.

paradoxical effect.—The influence of velocity on the law kent, on April 13: F. B. Jennings. This species appears

of deformation of metals : P. Vieille and R. Liouvilleto be extremely scarce in Britain, and, with the exception

Low temperatures and chemical analysis : MM. d'Arsonval of a single specimen taken near Chatham by Commander Walker in 1890, has not been recorded from this country

and Bordas. An arrangement is described permitting of

the direct determination of water in aqueous solutions by for a considerable period.-Beetles from New Guinea, including Aesernia meeki, Jac., A. costata, Jac., A. gestroi, kept at -80° C. The method is very rapid compared to

distillation at the ordinary temperatures, the receiver being Jac., and Cetoniadæ and Lucanidæ from South Africa and

those in ordinary use.- New researches Borneo M. Jacoby.--Specimen of Hydrochus nitidicollis,

diastatic

saccharification : L. Maquenne and Eug. Roux. The Muls., a beetle pot hitherto recorded in Britain, taken at

action of malt on starch has been studied under varying Yelvertan, in the River Meavy, in April : H. St. J. Donjs.

conditions of time, acidity, and nature of the starch, and thorpe.-Lantern-slide photographs (from nature) of the

the experimental results tabulated.-Three toxins of human calcaria postica in Hymenoptera belonging to divers groups,

trypanosomiasis of different origin : A. Laveran. The mostly Aculeate, but including also representatives of chiryeids ichneumonids, and

cases studied came from Gambia, Uganda, and Ubanghi.

sawflies: Rev. F. D. Morice. Mr. Morice submitted that, in all the examples

From the morphological point of view, no difference could

be noted between them. Experiments with guinea-pigs, shown, the structure of the calcaria themselves and also of the parts adjacent to them) clearly indicated that their

rats, and mice showed slight differences only. All the

observations support the view that the three trypanosomes main function was that of an elaborately constructed instru

from the different localities belong to the same species.ment for tilet purposes.-Specimens of Mylothris agathina,

The centres of gravity of discontinuous systems : Haton Cram., and of Belcnois thysa, Hopff.: Dr. F. A. Dixey. The close resemblance between these species obtained chiefly

de la Goupillière.-A new octane, hexamethylethane :

Louis Henry. This hydrocarbon is formed as a bye-proin the dry-spason foru' of the latter, and not in the wet. Dr.

duct in the action between the magnesium compound of Dixey considered this .w be a fresh illustration of the special liability to the attacks of enemies experienced under dry- tertiary butyl bromide and acetaldehyde, probably by the

action of some unchanged butyl bromide upon the magváson conditions, leading in some cases to the adoption of a cryptic coloration, and in others, as here, to mimicry

nesium compound. It is a solid, volatile at the ordinary n! a prutected form such as M. agathina.-A criticism of the

temperature, and possessing a penetrating odour. It boils

at 106° C. to 107° C. under 765 mm.-An account of an lute Prof. Packard's paper on the markings of organisms : Heltringham.-The genus Imma, Walk. (=Tortrico earthquake at Bogota on January 31 last : M. Souhart. morpha, Feld.): E. Meyrick.

-A new arrangement for the spectroscopy of phosphor

escent substances : C. de Watteville. The phosphorescent Royal Astronomical Society, May 11.--Mr. W. H. Maw, substance under examination is illuminated by an electric president, in the chair.-Some points arising out of a spark about eighty-two times per second, the interval of Usiun of the double stars in Struve's

“ Mensuræ time elapsing between the exposure to the spark and exMikrometrica": T. Lewis. A memoir upon the subject posure to the photographic plate being about 1/3000th of a had just been completed, and was about to be published second. The period of the spark is governed by a rotating to the suriety. Questions concerning the distribution of disc, and is independent of the speed of the contact breaker thuole stars, and the relation between those relatively of the coil. The phosphorescence of bodies examined with hxred and those in motion, were considered. The facts this apparatus is very bright, and in the spectra obtained, appeared to point to the conclusion that the sun is situated which are rich in ultra-violet lines, none of the lines in a cluster. but not centrally.—The orbit and mass of corresponding to the metal of the electrodes are visible.

Pegasi : W. Bowyer and H. H. Furner.—Somne con- The measurement of very short intervals of time by means siderations concerning the number of the stars : Miss W'. of a condenser : M. Devaux-Charbonnel. The method is Gibson. The conclusions were derived from a discussion based on the measurement of the charge of a condenser of seventy-two stars, and the relations between parallax, through a variable resistance, first during the short magnitude, and proper motion were considered.-Observ- interval of time to be measured, and then completely. alions of Jupiter's sixth and seventh satellites, from photo- Experimental results are given showing the graphs taken at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich : obtainable to be of the order of 0.0001 sec.—The conducAstronomer Royal. A large number of plates had been tivity of ammonium sulphate in mixtures of sulphuric acid taken for the positions of the satellites with exposures of | and water : G. Boizard.—The complete synthesis of some

accuracy

09

camphor derivatives. Isolaurolene and isolauronolic acid :

THURSDAY, JUNE 7. G. Blanc. The starting point of these syntheses is Royal Society, at 4.30.–Probable Papers : On the Osmotic Pressures aa-dimethyladipic acid, the synthesis of which has been some Concentrated Solutions: The Earl of Berkeley and E. G. ) described in a previous note. The anhydride of this acid by

Hartley --An Account of the Pendulum Observations made at Kew and

Greenwich Observatories in 1903: Major G. P. Lenox-Conyngham slow distillation at the ordinary pressure gives 2 : 2-dimethyl- The Self-induction of an Iron Cylinder: Prof. E. Wilson. cyclopentanone. The tertiary alcohol obtained from this ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Man and the Glacial Period: Prof. W. J by Grignard's reaction on distillation at ordinary atmo

Sollas, F.R.S.

LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-On Two New Species of Populus froes spheric pressure splits up into water and isolaurolene.-

Darjeeling: H. H. Haines.- Biscayan Plankton, part viii., Tbe a-Chlorocyclohexanone and its derivatives : L. Bouveault Cephalopoda : W. E. Hoyle.- Part ix., The Medusæ : E. T. Browne. and F. Chereau. This substance is obtained by chlorin- CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-- Ammonium Selenate and the Question af ating either cyclohexanone or cyclohexanol in the presence

Isodimorphism in the Alkali Series: A. E. H. Tution. -An Improved

Beckman Apparatus for Molecular Weight Determination : J. M of calcium carbonate. The chlorine in this derivative is

Sanders. --Resolution of Lactic Acid by Morphine: J. C. livine – The reactive, potassium carbonate solution giving a-oxycyclo- Vapour Pressures of Binary Mixtures, part i., The Possible Types hexanone. Substituted homologues of cyclohexanone are

Vapour-pressure Curves: A. Marshall. ---Action of Sodium on aa-Dichlor

propylene : 1. Smedley.- Thiocarbamide as a Solvent for Gold : J. Mar obtained without difficulty by the action of alkyl-magnesium

-The Action of Sulphur Dioxide and Aluminium Chloride on Aromatis compounds on chlorocyclohexanone; the methyl, ethyl, and Compounds: S. Smiles and R. Le Rossignol. isopropyl derivatives are described.--Stereoisomerism in the

FRIDAY, JUNE 8. group of unsaturated ab-acyclic compounds : E. F. Blaise and P. Bagard.--The genus Mascarenhasia : Marcel

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.- Studies on Charcoal and Liquid Air: Sur

James Dewar, F.R.S. Dubard.—A case of a green organ deprived of assimil

PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On the Solution of Problems in Diffraction ! ating power : Jean Friedel. The ovary of Ornithogalum

the Aid of Contour Integration : H. Davies.--The Effect of Radium is arabicum is green and contains chlorophyll, but is devoid Facilitating the Visible Electric Discharge in vacuo : A. A. Cample. of assimilating power, although the ovary of Ornithogalum

Swinton. ---Mr. J. Goold's Experiments with a Vibrating Steel Piare,

exhibited by Messrs. Newton and Co.-Fluid (liquid) resistance : Col de umbellatum, which is also green, has a well-developed

Villamil. assimilating power. The difference is possibly due to a ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL Society, at 5. superficial alteration of the chlorophyll grains.—The GEOLOGISTS' Association, at 8.- The Higher Zones of the Upper Chale diseases of the coffee plant in the Congo Free State :

in the Western Part of the London Basin : H. J. Osborne White ar

LI. Treacher. E. De Wildeman.-The replacement of the vibrating muscles of the wing by adipocyte columns in ants after

MALACOLOGICAL Society, at 8.–Mollusca of the Porcupine Expeditiers,

1869-70, Supplemental Notes, part iii. : E. R. Sykes.-Notes on the the nuptial flight : Charles Janet.--A new myxosporidium Dates of Publication of the "Mineral Conchology" and " Genera Re of the common tench: Louis Léger. This species was Foss. Shells": E. R. Sykes.--Description of Oliza ispirula, L.. var. discovered in looking for the cause of heavy mortality

longispira: F. G. Bridgman.-On Chloritis heteromphalus: H. A

Pilsbry. of the tench, and is named by the author Chl. cristatum. The disease of the fish was due to other causes.Culture of the spirillum of recurrent African fever in man (tick fever) : C. Levaditi. Details of the method of culture

CONTENTS.

PACE are given. The virulence of the spirillum was maintained

Family Ability. By I. ...

97 through a long series of cultures.—The pathogeny of Topographical Surveying. By H. N. D. tuberculosis: H. Vallée.-The terraces of the Rhone

98 valley below Lyons : M. de Lamothe.—The tectonic and

Garden Shrimps. By T. R. R. S..

ICO stratigraphical relations of Sicily and Tunis : Émile Australian Ethnology. By N. W. T. Haug.-The geology of Calabria : Maurice Lugeon and The Breeding Industry. By Dr. Francis H, A. Émile Argand.-A method of taking samples of sea-water

Marshall . for bacteriological studies : P. Portier and J. Richard. Our Book Shelf:The construction and use of the apparatus are made clear Norton : "The Elements of Geology."--G. A. J. C. 102 by four diagrams. The increase in the flow due to the

Lector : “ Letters from the Dead to the Dead”, cold season in the Seine and Loire basins : Edmond Maillet.—The mineralisation of subterranean waters and

Langeron: “Atlas colorié des Plantes et des Animaux the causes of its variation : F. Dienert.--The Abannets of

des Côtes de France" Nimes, Belgium : E. A. Martel and E. Van den Broeck. Letters to the Editor :

Osmotic Pressure.-W. C. D. Whetham, F.R.S. . 102
A New Vesuvian Mineral.-Dr. H. J. Johnston-

Lavis
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

103 The Photography of the Fundus Oculi.

(illus THURSDAY, MAY 31. trated.) By Dr. J. Herbert Parsons

104 Royal Society, at 4. 3o.-On the Main Source of “. Precipitable" Sub- The Birds of the Isle of Man. (Illustrated.) By F.. 105 stances and on the Role of the Homologous Proteid in Precipitin Reactions : D. A. Welsh and H. G. Chapman.-The Viscosity of the Blood :

The Beaufort Scale. By W. E. P.

100 A. du Pre Denning and J. H. Watson.-The Affinity Constants of Prof. Metschnikoff's Harben Lectures

107 Amphoteric Electrolytes, i., Methyl Derivatives of Para-Aminobenzoic Acid and of Glycine : J. Johnston. - The Affinity Constants of Ampho

Notes. (Illustrated.)
teric Electrolytes, ii., Methyl Derivatives of Ortho- and Meta-amino- Our Astronomical Column:-
benzoic Acids: A C. Cumming.– The Affinity Constants of Amphoteric
Electrolytes, iii., Methylated Amino-acids: Prof. J. Walker, F.R.S.

Astronomical Occurrences in June
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Man and the Glacial Period : Prof. W. J. Photographing the Corona without a Total Eclipse
Sollas, F.R.S.

Terrestrial Temperatures and the Solar Radiation.
FRIDAY, JUNE 1.

The Distribution of the Stars
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-L'ébullition des Metaux : Prof. H. Moissan, Observations of Comets ...
For. Mem. R.S.

The Tarpan and its Relationship with Wild and TUESDAY, JUNE 5.

Domestic Horses. (Illustrated.) By Prof. J. C. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.--Northern Winter Sports, Sweden and its People : Colonel V. Balck.

Ewart, F.R.S.

113
The Figure and Stability of a Liquid Satellite.
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 6.
Sir G. H. Darwin, K.C.B., F.R.S.

115 SOCIETY OF PUBLIC ANALYSTS, at 8.

The Rusting of Iron .

116 ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-(1) Predaceous Insects; (2) On soine University and Educational Intelligence

Forms of Papilio dardanus : Prof. E. B. Poulton, E.R.S. --Notes on the Societies and Academies .
Blattidæ : R. Shelford-On the Bionomics of some Butterflies from the
Victoria Nyanza Region: S. A. Neave.

Diary of Societies

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PRINCIPAL CONTENTS FOR JUNE. The Teaching of Experimental Arithmetic. By C. Godfrey, M.A.-Spelling and Dictation. By Arthur Burrell, M.A. - History Teaching in Junior Forms. II. By A. J. Pearsons. - French Girls' Secondary Schools. By Winifred A. Todhunter.-The School Education of the Future Engineer.—The Position of Assistant Masters. Revised Schemes for Endowed Schools.—The Teaching of Model-Drawing. A Criticism and some Suggestions. (Illustrated.) By E. M. Carter. The Healthy School. - The Best Arrangement of the School Day. By H. B. Tristram, M.A.-Commercial Education in Japan. By Prof. Takeo Nishi.-Correspondence : The New Association of Teachers of English and Others. By G. E. S. Coxhead, M.A.-Is School Science Worth Having? By Chas. E. Browne, B.Sc.; A. E. Dunstan, B.Sc.; F. Brett, M.A., B.Sc. ; E. S. A. Robson, M.Sc.- Programme of the Educational Section of the British Association. By W. Mayhowe Heller, B.Sc. –The Production of Artificial Speech Sounds. By Prof. Walter Rippmann, M.A.-A Safety Pipette for Chemical Laboratories. (Illustrated.) By E. T. Bucknell.

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