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beginnings of the Zoological Society. How it grew


to more Mr. Scherren tells us with no

INVESTIGATIONS. lack of circumstantial detail. We see the long procession into the scientific ark, we hear THE latest publications of the International

Fisheries Organisation consist of the part of creatures arrived,

realise from the the Bulletin des Resultats containing the results of abundant plates how the “houses" increased in the quarterly cruises carried out in May, 1905, the number, size, and efficiency, and we are reminded how fourth volume of Rapports et Procès-Verbaux, and men like Owen, Yarrell, Waterhouse, Gould, Huxley, Nos. 28 to 32 of the Publications de Circonstance. Flower, Sclater, Murie, and Wolf helped the Society The bulletin contains the usual data-hydrographical forwards in varied ways. From time to time there and plankton observations obtained in the course of were new departures, such as the publication of Pro- the obligatory voyages made by the exploring vessels. ceedings and Transactions, the institution of aquarium At first the west coast of England and the coasts of and insect-house, the formation of a library, the ex- Ireland were not included in the area to be investiperiment of the Davis lectures. As in many a devel- gated, but for the last year the Irish Board of Agri. opment there were periods of rapid growth and of culture and Technical Instruction have allowed their temporary arrest, of crisis and metamorphosis, and steamer to make the necessary quarterly cruises, and there was quite recently a general reorganisation. a report on these is now made to the International The author gives expression to the view forced upon

Council by Mr. E. Holt. him by the history " that before the Zoological Society The Publications de Circonstance include an account was half a century old its bionomical work practically of an investigation of the fisheries for salmon and ceased owing to the increasing influence of morpho- sea-trout in the rivers and neighbouring waters of

the Baltic, with special reference to measures of artificial culture, being the report of an international commission appointed by the International Council for Fishery Investigations, and two papers by Dr. R. J. Witting, of a very technical nature, dealing with the measurement of ocean currents, one of them describing a new electrically registering current meter, The two remaining reports are by Dr. C. Kofoid and Dr. L. Gough, the former dealing with a means of studying plankton from deep water layers, and the latter describing the migrations of an oceanic species of Siphonophore.

In the former paper Dr. Kofoid describes the construction of a bucket for obtaining samples of water from considerable depths. Plankton from deep water has hitherto been obtained chiefly .by means of self-closing nets, or by

bringing up water from the rePhoto.)

(Cassell & Co., Ltd.

quisite depth by a pump and hose

pipe, both methods of some unFig. 1.-Rocky Mountain Goat. From "The Zoological Society of London."

certainty in their results. The ap

paratus described consists of a graphers and systematists in its councils. The elec- bucket of considerable dimensions which is lowered tion of the Duke of Bedford as president, the recom- down to the depth required, where it fills with water, mendations of the Reorganisation Committee, and and is then closed by means of a specially constructed subsequent changes, mark a return to lines laid down catch and “messenger." The samples of sea-water by the charter." We fervently hope that this policy obtained by making a number of hauls with this apwill be adhered to, and that the “ Zoo ” will gradually paratus are then filtered in the ordinary way, and become a recognised centre of bionomical research the organisms present are so obtained. It is claimed and evolutionist experiment.

that the apparatus is simple and certain in its results, No naturalist can read this well-told history without and that it can also be used for obtaining temperhaving his gratitude to the Zoological Society revived, atures from the depths to which it is lowered. not only for what it has directly accomplished through Dr. Gough describes the distribution of the Monothe gardens and the workers there, through the phyidan genus Muggiaea atlantica, Cunn., in the scientific meetings and the publication of what has waters of the English Channel, the Irish Sea, and off been submitted there, but also for the way in which the south and west coasts of Ireland during the year the society has given aid and encouragement to 1904. It is shown that a shoal of Muggiæa entered bibliography (notably through the Zoological Record), the Channel in May, and that the shoal was introto institutions such as the biological stations of Naples duced into this area by the current of Atlantic water and Plymouth, as also to travellers, collectors, and, in- which, just before this time, had set into the Channel deed, zoologists at large. The excellence of the plates as a stream flowing north past Ushant from the Bay which adorn Mr. Scherren's volume reminds us also of Biscay. The shoal entered the English Channel of the important part the society has played in sus- and reached as far as Plymouth, from which region taining and raising the standard of zoological illus- it disappeared at the end of the year. After entering tration.

the Channel the shoal divided, and, rounding Land's



" that no


End, one portion entered the Irish Sea, and by present made to the International Organisation is in September had reached as far north as the Cardigan | the future made to supplement the efforts of existing Bay and south Arklow light-ships. The other part fishery research institutions, with, of course, proper of the shoal passed along the south coast of Ireland, Government inspection, then the withdrawal of our and was observed in November as far along the west Government from the international scheme need cause coast of Ireland as Galway Bay. The disappearance

no apprehensions. of the shoal from the Irish Sea in September is It is different with regard to the hydrographical attributed to the southerly, flow of water from that investigations. If these are to be carried on at all area into the Channel blocking its further northerly it must be on an international scale, and with proper migration. It is shown that the shoal must have coordination as regards methods and publication of entered the Irish Sea from the south, for plankton results. Quite apart from the assistance which such collections taken from the Bahama light-ship in the research is likely to afford meteorological science, it north of that area did not contain the organism, which

seems now to be certain that it is sure to throw light could not, therefore, have passed through the north on the ultimate causes which affect the shoaling movechannel. The paper is illustrated by charts which ments and migrations of food fishes. There is really show the distribution of Muggiæa from month to no good reason why, even if the fishery investigations month during the year 1904;

of the International Organisation be dropped, the The volume of Rapports is noteworthy only because hydrographical work should not go on.

The present of a statement made by Mr. Archer, the English, Chief hydrographical cruises could be continued by the Inspector of Fisheries, at one of the “ reunions,” that national staffs; and methods having already been it is the wish of the British Government

worked out, the coordination of the work and the tasks should be undertaken or interests created the publication,' in a uniform style, of the results need conclusion of which could not be reasonably looked | entail no great expense. The international for by July, 1907," since it is not the intention of the ferences which have become so marked a feature of Governinent to continue the large expenditure involved fishery affairs, both on the administrative and seienbeyond the five years originally contemplated. It is tific sides, might be dispensed with, and no really very probable, then, that the British share of the useful object would be sacrificed. work will cease in the course of another year, and that with the withdrawal of this country the international investigations will come to a close.

NOTES. It has, indeed, been apparent for some time past that the International Organisation, as at present

The council of the Society of Arts has awarded the constituted, could not continue on a permanent basis.

Albert medal for the present year to Sir Joseph W. Swan, For the last five years it has been necessary to main F.R.S., “ for the important part he took in the invention tain, at a very great expense, the Bureau at Copen- of the incandescent electric lamp, and for his invention of hagen, the Central Laboratory at Christiania; and a the carbon process of photographic printing.' complex system of “reunions” of the council, the " commissions," the “ special commissions," and

A large physical laboratory is, the Pioneer Mail states, "sections." All this organisation was no doubt neces

to be built by the Punjab Education Department in Lahore sary, in the first instance, to bring together those

on the present camping-ground of the Public Works Departengaged in the work, and to secure the necessary ment, as soon as the new Public Works offices are concoordination in the hydrographical investigations. structed. But since this preliminary organisation must now have been completed, it is desirable in any case that some

The British Medical Journal states that a general instisimpler and less expensive means of coordination

tute of psychology specially intended for the study of the should have been evolved. It should be remembered phenomena of subconsciousness, the investigation of the that the international scheme of investigations causes of criminality, and the discovery of means of curing originally included fishery research proper, hydro- social evils will shortly be formally constituted in Paris. graphical investigations, and, though this has never Among those to whom the initiation of the scheme is been stated in so many words, the promotion of inter- mainly due are Profs. Brouardel, d’Arsonval, and Gariel, national agreement with respect to the observance of and MM. Boutroux, Giard, and A. Picard. "closed areas," such as the Moray Firth, and the regulation of fishing on the high seas. With regard

We notice with regret the announcement of the death, at to the latter point one cannot speak at present, but eighty-three years of age, of M. Raphael Bischoffsheim, it may be pointed out that fishery legislation on an honorary member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. M. international scale has been notoriously difficult to Bischoffsheim was a generous benefactor to science. He obtain in the past, and that the chances of securing contributed largely to the Pic du Midi Observatory, bore this at the present time ought not to be jeopardised the expense of the great equatorial at Paris Observatory, by the unconditional withdrawal of Great Britain from the scheme of international work. Purely fishery in

gave largely to the Montsouris Observatory, and founded

the fine observatory at Nice. He was elected a member of vestigations need not be imperilled by any such action.

the Institut de France in 1890 in succession to M. Cosson. There does not appear to be any real advantage in the prosecution of these on an international scale. No A COMMITTEE has been formed with the object of establishamount of research carried out in another area than ing a memorial of the late Sir William Wharton, K.C.B., Our own will relieve us of the necessity of investi- F.R.S., whose death at Cape Town in September last was gating fishery questions locally with respect to the a sad incident of the British Association meeting in South special economic and legislative problems involved. Fishery research with regard to such issues as the

Africa. For a long period Sir William Wharton filled with protection of immature fishes, closed areas and closed

distinguished ability the important post of hydrographer seasons, the regulation of fishing methods, and the

to the Navy, and the committee has decided that the most like, must be carried on if fishery restrictions are ever

appropriate testimonial would be such as would follow the to be more than an expensive and vexatious inter

same lines and exist for the same purpose as the Beaufort ference with the legitimate operations of our fisher- testimonial, which is awarded as a prize to the officer who ment. If a fair proportion of the annual grant at has distinguished himself as having passed the best examination in mathematics and nautical astronomy for valuable geographical works. It was claimed that the lieutenant in his year. This Sir William Wharton won in society should be recognised officially as one of the sciei. the year 1865. By the proposed arrangement two awards tific societies of Scotland, to be provided with preinises for the same object would be given under the names of free of rent (at present 1201. is paid in rent), to have a “ The Beaufort Testimonial ” and “The Wharton Testi-grant from State funds, and to be represented on the new monial,” thus associating the names of the two eminent Board of Trustees. Reference was also made to the present hydrographers who have served for the longest periods in endeavour to found a chair of geography in the University that capacity. It is proposed in addition, if the funds of Edinburgh. The Secretary for Scotland in reply thanked admit, to present a medal, having on the obverse a bust the members of the deputation for their presence, and of the late Sir William Wharton, and on the reverse a pointed out that their memorial went further than the suitable inscription. The committee includes Vice-Admiral recommendation of the departmental committee which pre Sir Charles Drury, K.C.B., K.C.S.I. ; Captain A. Mostyn commended the remission of the rent of 1201. which th=Field, F.R.S. ; Vice-Admiral Swinton C. Holland ; Admiral society pays for its accommodation in the National Portrait of the Fleet Sir F. Richards, G.C.B.; and Captain T. H. Gallery. He was not sure that this was a convenient time Tizzard, C.B., F.R.S. Messrs. Coutts and Company,

10 urge the Government to further expenditure, but he Bankers, 440 Strand, London, have arranged to receive

would not fail to take into serious consideration all that contributions to the fund.

had been urged in the interests of the society. On May 25 Lord Avebury presided at the annual con- WE regret to announce the death on May 29 of Dr. versazione of the Selborne Society and delivered his presi- William Fream, who since 1894 acted as the agricultural dential address. He spoke of the coming of age of the correspondent of the Times, and was formerly a frequent society, of the interest which many members were taking contributor to our columns. Born in 1854. Dr. Fream was in the forthcoming Country in TownExhibition, and educated at the Royal College of Science, Dublin, and beof the bird sanctuary maintained by the Ealing branch. came professor of natural history at the Royal Agricultural He also alluded to the destruction of roadside beauty, to College at Cirencester. After lecturing for a time on botany the way in which ladies prefer the authority of shop- at the Guy's Hospital Medical School he became professor keepers to that of ornithologists with regard to

“ artificial

at the Downton College of Agriculture. Later he was ospreys ” so called, and to the injury to birds, which game-chiefly engaged in writing, and for ten years acted as keepers still continue to do. In the latter part of his editor of the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Sociris, remarks Lord Avebury dwelt upon the manner in which His best-known books were one on the Rothamsted experithe study of nature adds to the happiness of life. Nearly ments and his “Elements of Agriculture," written for the 700 guests were present, and there was a large number of Royal Agricultural Society, which reached its seventh interesting exhibits, including some fifty microscopes ex- edition last year. Dr. Fream will be remembered for the hibited by members of the Royal Microscopical Society, the part he took in a controversy as to the merits of perennial Quekett Club, and other institutions.

rye grass in pastures, a controversy which cannot yet be ppMessrs. R. B. Woosnam, D. Carruthers, and A. F. R.

garded as settled. Mr. Faunce de Laune, and with him Wollaston, three members of the zoological expedition sent

Mr. Carruthers, maintained that rye grass was neglected to Africa under the auspices of the Natural History

by stock, and should be excluded from any mixture used Museum, South Kensington, have made the following for sowing down land to grass. Dr. Fream, however, by ascents in the Ruwenzori range. On April 1 they ascended growing pieces of turf selected from the most famous Duwoni, the peak rising to the north-east of the Mubuku pastures in the country, demonstrated that rye grass was a Glacier. This peak has two tops of apparently equal alti- large constituent of such good grass land, and in contude ; the southern top, which was reached, was found to

sequence argued strongly in favour of the high opinion in be 15,893 feet. On April 3 they ascended Kiyanja, the

which this grass has always been held by practical farmers. peak at the western end of the Mubuku group of peaks. PRELIMINARY arrangements have been made for the The altitude was found to be 16,379 feet. (The altitudes establishment of a great marine museum in New York were taken by aneroid and by the boiling-point thermo- with an astronomical inuseum as an adjunct to it. The meter.) Both these peaks have been thought by different New York Observatory and Nautical Museum will, accordexplorers to be the highest points in Ruwenzori, but from ing to Science, have an endowment of not less than the summit of Kiyanja a still higher peak with two tops 100,000l., and, in addition to this, it is expected that the was seen in a north-westerly direction. The weather at this city of New York will provide a site in Bronx Park season of the year is very unfavourable, the mountains adjacent to the botanical garden and zoological park, and being almost constantly buried in clouds with frequent will also erect the museum building and the domes and snowstorms, which prevented the party from making smaller buildings for the observatory. In the nautical further explorations.

museum will be collected and exhibited models of all types On Friday last, June 1, the Secretary for Scotland re- of vessels, safety and signal devices, nautical instruments ceived a deputation of the Royal Scottish Geographical and methods of determining position, charts, marine Society, laying before him the claims of the society in con- engines and motors, and historic instruments and relics. nection with the proposed National Galleries Bill (see The museum and collections will be arranged so that p. 137). The deputation was introduced by Mr. (. E. properly qualified persons can avail themselves of the faciliPrice, M.P., and the society's position and claims were ties there offered for investigation and research.

The explained by Prof. Geikie (president), Mr. W. B. Blaikie, observatory will be provided with a great telescope, for Dr. George Smith, Mr. l. C. Smith, K.C., and Mr. photographic and visual work, astrophysical instruments Ralph Richardson. The national character of the society for the investigation of solar problems, magnetometers. was touched upon, as also the important work it did in seismographs, and other necessary instruments. A time fostering the study of geography, in providing lectures by ! service will be instituted so that chronometers may be rated, eminent travellers in the four great centres of population, marine instruments will be tested, and tidal investigations and in giving facilities for the inspection of maps and will be inaugurated.

the cruel,



COMPLETING upon Mi. Southerden's letter on * Carbon the previous yer to 177,587, an excess of 112,876 over Dioxide in the Breath," published in NATURE for May 24 any other year. The receipts showed, however, but a com(p. 21), Mr. E . Parkın writes to direct attention to the paratively small increase-£E.1402 against £E.1388 in well-recognised fact that the presence of 0.06 per cent. of 1904. The stock of animals has been largely increased, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere need not be injurious, and a notable new feature in the gardens is the formation but that the gas is generally found in bad company, for of an extensive enclosure, where a number of the larger an increase of carbon dioxide is almost invariably accom- birds of the Nile Valley are allowed to roam at companied by a corresponding increase of organic impurity. parative liberty. In other words, the importance attaching to the rise of OLD church wardens' accounts of various Bedfordshire Carbon dioxide (0 0.06 per cent. is a true indication of the parishes have been utilised by Mr. J. Steele-Elliott, for an vitiation of the air by organic matter given out during article which appears in the May number of the Zoologist. rrspiration.

to afford information with regard to the fauna of the county 4 COMMUNICATION from the Zi-ka-wei Observatory, near

during the last two and a half centuries. The entries Shanghai, iníorms us that the great San Francisco earth

cited refer to sums paid for the destruction of “vermin.”

The absence of mention of birds of prey is noticeable, as quakr was registered by the seismographs there. The

is the infrequent occurrence of rats, but special interest shocks were fairls strong, and they lasted a little more

attaches to certain entries referring to martens. Polecats than th. jm. The first preliminary tremors, transmitted

were evidently once abundant, and it is curious to note the through the mass of the globe, began at gh. 35m. os. p.m. Chinese (nast time. The first large waves, travelling along persistent war waged against the hedgehog-probably on

account of its supposed milk-sucking propensities. Mr. arc of a great circle, were felt at

Heneage Cocks refers, in the same issue, to an artificial oh. 55m. 54. The last waves of decreasing amplitude li ft their trace at soh. zim. 355. p.m., and the last slight abode of a number of bats, some belonging to rare species,

cave at Park Place, Remenham, Berks, which forms the movements of the ground died away at uh. gm. 445. p.m.

including Jyotis bechsteini. April 18. These records should be of service in determining the relocity oi propagation of the seismic undula- We have received seven parts (Nos. 1448, 1449, and 1452 tions by connecting them with observations of the exact to 1456) of the Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, minute and second of the occurrence at San Francisco. which include descriptions of Japanese Hymenoptera and

of South American geometrid moths and grasshoppers, as Mr. Charles Ves NORDEN, writing from East Auburn,

well as of two American river-mussels ; fully illustrated California, USA., savs that he was on the fourth floor

notes on molluscs of the family Pyramidellidæ from Japan, of the Palace Hoiel, San Francisco, on April 18, when the

America, and the intermediate areas; a synopsis of disastrous earthquake occurred. The movement seemed Japanese sturgeons; and an account of the osteology of from south to north, and the rocking of the massive walls

the creodont carnivorous mammals of the genus Sinopa. of the hotel was so violent that its continuance even for

The latter genus, which occurs in the Lower and Middle a few seconds seemed impossible. To Mr. Norden, who

Eocene of North America, according to Mr. W. D. was in bed, the motion seemed like that of a small rowing Matthew, may be regarded as an extremely primitive form, boat on a choppy sea. The shock occurred at 5.13 a.m.,

with cheek-teeth of the opossum-type, from which have and at 6 a.m. Mr. Norden had left San Francisco by the

been evolved the more specialised Cynohyænodon, Pterodon, festy boat for Oakland. While sitting on the deck of the

and Hyænodon of the Oligocene. Japanese sturgeons are, terry boat, looking at the many fires gathering together in

it appears, represented only by two species. Of the a great confiagration, he noticed a thunder-cloud-a white,

Pyramidellidæ, Messrs. Dall and Bartsch name a number cumulous mass, dark at the bottom-hanging over the city of new species, and also figure others. The morning was clear and mild for San Francisco, and no other cloud was in sight. None of the descriptions of

The application of De Vries's mutation-theory the catastrophe mentions this feature, and Mr. Norden is molluscs forms the subject of an article by Mr. F. C. curious to know if other observations were made of it.

Baker in the May number of the American Vaturalist.

The shells selected for observation are fresh-water snails, At excellent little résumé, by Mr. D. J. Scourfield, of

more especially Limnæa and Valvata, the former of which the leading scatures and possible developments of Mendel's

is well known to be an exceedingly variable or unstable law of heredity appears in the Proceedings of the South

type. Series of specimens of Limnæa from particular London Entomological and Natural History Society for

localities are figured to exhibit the range of variation, 1903-6. Other articles are devoted to the British plume

which is so great that the extreme forms, if isolated, moths, the lengthened pupa-stage of certain Lepidoptera,

would be allowed specific rank. Special attention is and notes on Hawaiian entomology.

directed to the sudden development of an apparently new The contents of the Sitzungsberichte und Abhandlungen species in a newly-formed pond in the United States. of the Dresden Isis for the second half of 1905 include an

While the mutation-theory seems to account more satisarticle by Prof. 0. Drude on the meaning and scope of

factorily than any other for these variations, the author the term wology (ökologie), or the manifestations of plant deprecates haste in applying a hypothesis founded upon and animal life in regard to the struggle for space (or

plant-variation to animal life. In the same issue Dr. pgistrnce) in connection with climate and other external

E. A. Andrews discusses the mode in which American inluences. Mr. H. Engelhardt contributes an illustrated crayfish of the genus Cambarus lay their eggs. The first article on the Tertiary flora of Chili.

process is the careful cleansing of the lower surface of the

body preparatory to the extrusion of a glairy substance o SirianG instance of increased patronage due to the from the “ cement-glands " in which the eggs are afteradoption of popular prices" is recorded by Captain wards laid. During oviposition the female lies supine and Stanler Flower in his report of the Giza Zoological Gardens externally inert, but after this occurs a long, rhythmic for the past year. By the reduction of the gate-money the alternation of poses connected with the fastening of the number of visitors to the garden leaped up from 64.711 in leggs to the abdominal appendages.

to a


The Haslemere Museum Gazette is the title of a new or cane, now in the possession of the Royal College of serial published by the institution the name of which it | Physicians of London, which made its appearance in bears, and to be issued in monthly parts at the price of medical circles about the year 1689, and for one hundred sixpence. The Haslemere Museum specially devotes itself and thirty-six years was carried by a leading London practo education at first-hand, that is to say, by inculcating titioner, including John Radcliffe, Richard Mead, Anthony familiarity with actual specimens rather than the cultiva- Askew, William Pitcairn, and Matthew Baillie, all welltion of mere book-knowledge. One of the objects of the known names in medical history. new journal is to assist and amplify this excellent concep- We have received from Mr. Herbert Kynaston, director tion. It is proposed to refer in turn to the chief museums of the Transvaal Geological Survey, a copy of his memoir in London (including those devoted to art), the Zoological on the geology of the Komati Poort coalfield (Pretoria, Society's Gardens, &c., and to direct the attention of

1906, price 75. 6d.). It covers 55 pages, and constitutes readers to some of the most noteworthy objects in each. the second of the series of descriptive memoirs which it is By this means—without in any way usurping the function the intention of the Geological Survey to issue from time of a “guide "—it is urged that the educational value of to time. It is an admirable piece of work, giving a consuch establishments will be largely increased. Nor will nected account of the character, behaviour, and distribunature itself be neglected, as is demonstrated by the frontis- tion of the coal-bearing strata of the Komati Poort district. piece, representing two oaks growing under similar con

A description is also given of the associated sedimentary ditions, but one with and the other without leaves. Excel- and igneous rocks. Apart from the prevalence of intrusive lent “lecturettes" on prehistoric times and the severance sheets and dykes of igneous rock throughout the coalof Britain form part of the contents of the first number. bearing strata, the conditions are favourable, and no Giraffes in the British Museum, with a (not absolutely evidence was observed of the beds having been disturbed accurate) transcript of the accompanying label, form the by faulting in a manner that would be discouraging to subject of another section.

mining operations. The actual Coal-measure series occupy IN connection with the study of the occurrence of

150 square miles, and the great thickness of the coal

bearing strata, and the favourable situation of the better glycogen and paraglycogen in fungi, the late Prof. Errera compiled a bibliography of the subject. The list of papers

portion of the field, render the prospects eminently satiswith his abstracts on their contents is published in Recueil

factory. The memoir is accompanied by two coloured de l'Institut botanique, Brussels, vol. i., 1905.

geological maps and six sections, and six photographic

views giving an excellent idea of the character of the In the Bulletin du Jardin impérial botanique, vol. vi., scenery on the Crocodile and Komati rivers. part ii., Madame O. Fedtschenko writes a note on species

Some valuable results of an experimental investigation of Eremurus in which she refers the species Eremurus

on the effect of fire on building stones were described by Aucherianus and Eremurus Korolkowi from Turkestan to Mr. W. R. Baldwin-Wiseman a meeting of the Eremurus anisopterus and other species. Mr. V. Arci- Surveyors’ Institution on May 14. The purpose of the rechovskij discusses the size of plants as a specific character.

search was not so much to determine the design of a To replace the list of ferns and fern-allies cultivated in building for fire resistance as to estimate the ultimate the Royal Gardens, Kew, issued in 1895 and now out of stability of an edifice after subjection to print, a second edition compiled by Mr. C. H. Wright has flagration, and to afford some small assistance to those been published. The plants are enumerated under the who may be called upon to decide whether demolition or three groups of ferns, fern-allies, and cultivated forms of reconstruction shall succeed the wrecking influences of a British ferns. The table of fern-distribution throughout big conflagration. The points of primary importance in the world, drawn up by Mr. J. G. Baker for the previous determining the most efficient design for fire resistance edition, has been revised, showing a considerably increased are summarised as follows :-(1) That the edifice should in percentage for temperate Asia.

no wise be flimsy ; (2) that it should be constructed of

stone possessing a uniform or fairly uniform coefficient of A detailed account of the distribution of the forest flora expansion, and retaining a considerable strength after subof the Bombay Presidency and Sind has been contributed jection to high temperatures ; (3) that all combinations of by Mr. W. A. Talbot to the Indian Forester (January to different stones should be avoided as much as possible; March). Mr. Talbot distinguishes an

evergreen forest

(4) that combinations of stone and metal should be avoided, flora of Malabar showing a decided Malayan affinity, a especially when the former rests directly upon the latter, Deccan dry deciduous flora in which African elements pre- even when the metal is entirely enshrouded in stone, for dominate, and the flora of the Western Ghats and Konkan,

stone acts as a fairly good conductor of heat; (5) that in which there is a mixture of high deciduous and ever- stair wells and lift wells should open as little as possible green forests. The dry Deccan flora includes such typical

on to the main building, and should preferably be enclosed species as Zizyphus jujuba, Acacia catechu, Sterculia

and glazed with wired glass from basement to roof; ureus, and Bombax malabaricum. Myristicas, Diptero- (6) that floor areas should not be unduly large or corti. carpeæ, laurels, and palms are characteristic of the tropical dors unduly long. evergreens.

The first parts of two serial publications, issued by The Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital for May

Messrs. Cassell and Co., Ltd., have been received. A new (xvii., No. 182) is mainly devoted to medical subjects. Dr.

edition of Prof. G. S. Boulger's “ Familiar Trees " is to be Cushing contributes an interesting article on a course of completed in twenty-nine fortnightly parts, and will coninstruction in operative medicine, and Dr. Pratt one

tain 114 coloured plates and 114 illustrations from photothe home sanatorium treatment of consumption, in which graphs. Mr. W. F. Kirby's Butterflies and Moths of the problem of applying the open-air treatment of tubercu- Europe will be published in thirty-two instalments at losis in the homes of the poor is dealt with. The proceed fortnightly intervals; and the completed volume, with its ings of the Johns Hopkins Historical Club are devoted large pages and fifty-four coloured plates, will form an to a “symposium " of the “gold-headed” cane, a stick

attractive addition to the naturalist's reference library.

a severe con


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