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MR. T. FISHER Uxwin has published a second edition of - 34 km. on February 16, whilst that of the second star “ Methods in Plant Histology," by Dr. C. J. Chamberlain, changed

follows : 1906 January 26, - 164 km.; of the University of Chicago. The first edition of the book January 29, -3 km.; February 12, -243 km. ; February appeared in 1901, and was reviewed in our issue of

16, -92 km. Owing to under-exposure, these results are, November 28, 1901 (vol. Ixv., p. 75). It is only necessary

however, slightly uncertain.

The stars u Orionis and T Monocerotis have also been to say of the present edition that more attention has been shown to have variable velocities in the line of sight. given to the collection of materials. Prof. Kleb's methods OBSERVATIONS OF Nova Persei No. 2.—No. 96 of the for securing various reproductive phases in the algæ and Lick Observatory Bulletins is devoted to the publication of fungi have been outlined, and methods for growing other the results obtained by Messrs. Townley and Maddrill from laboratory material are more complete. New chapters magnitude observations of Nova Persei No. 2. dealing with microchemical tests, free-hand sections, special

The observations extended over the period February 24, methods, and the use of the microscope are included.

1901, to July 5, 1902, the magnitude on the latter date being 9.4:

The table given contains the weighted, mean magnitudes

of the Nova on more than one hundred nights, with notes OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

on the observing conditions and the comparison stars and SrY-SPOT AND CHROMOSPHERIC SPECTRA.-A paper of

instruments employed. exceptional interest to workers in solar physics was read OBSERVATIONS or Shadow Bands.-In No. 4086 of the by Prof. A. Fowler at the April meeting of the Royal | Astronomische Nachrichten Dr. M. Roso de Luna, of Astronomical Society.

Madrid, briefly describes a new arrangement of screens for Whilst observing the bright lines in the spectra of the observation of the shadow bands during total eclipses metallic prominences on the sun's limb, Prof. Fowler has of the sun. Altogether he proposes to employ six screens, been able to classify them into long and “short" one horizontal, two vertical (N. and S. and E. and W.), lines, a fact which points to their origin being in the one oriented to the azimuth of the sun at the moment of higher and the lower chromosphere respectively; he also totality and another perpendicular to it, and one placed in states the fact that the lines emitted by the upper chromo- | the direction of the wind. sphere, the " long lines, are those which, speaking Such an arrangement was employed at Soria (Spain) generally, are enhanced when passing from the arc to the during the last eclipse, and the following results obtained :: spark in terrestrial spectroscopy.

breadth of bands, 2 cm. ; distance from one band to the Further. Prof. Fowler found that these long lines are

next, 6 cm. ; velocity of the movement of the bands, generally weakened in sun-spot spectra, whilst the short

30 metres per minute. lines are generally widened, or strengthened. The evidence for this differential treatment of “ enhanced" and

THE RADIAL MOTION OF B ARIETIS.-In No. 4090 of the lines in the solar atmosphere is most conclusive for the

Astronomische Nachrichten Herr H. Ludendorff publishes elements iron, titanium, and chromium (the Observatory,

the results obtained from an investigation of the radial No. 370).

velocities of B Arietis during the period October 21, 1902,

to December 16, 1904. ProposED Daily PHOTOGRAPHS OF CHROMOSPHERIC Radi

Thirty-seven spectrograms were obtained with the spectroATIOAS.-A paper by M. Deslandres, which is published in graph No. iv. (three prisms) of the Potsdam Observatory the Comptes rendus for May 7, discusses in detail the attached to the 32-5 cm, refractor, and the range of the posibility of obtaining daily photographs of the radiations velocities determined was from +60 km. (on January 19, emitted by the solid and liquid particles of the chromo- 1903) to - 17 km. (on December 25, 1903). sphere, without waiting for the rare occasions afforded by

From an analysis of the results, Herr Ludendorff contotal eclipses of the sun.

cludes that the period of B Arietis is 321/n days, where n In order to do this M. Deslandres proposes to employ is equal to or less than 5. an apparatus similar to that used by him for the same purpose during the last eclipse, and to obtain a concentrated

PUBLICATIONS OF THE NICOLAS OBSERVATORY, ST. PETERSimage of the chromosphere, without the photosphere, by

BURG.–We have just received vols. iii. and xiv. (series ii.)

of the Publications de l'Observatoire central Nicolas, a special arrangement of mirrors and lenses. If the coloured screens are insufficient, it is suggested

St. Petersburg. that the spectroheliograph might be employed. By obtain

The former contains a catalogue of right-ascensions of ing the ordinary spectroheliograms with K, and Ky, and

the principal stars contained in the Pulkowa catalogue for then another in which the bright interspaces, i.e. the con

the epoch 1885.0, the results being based on observations tinuous spectrum, were projected on to the primary slit, it

made between September, 1880, and November, 1887, with would be possible to separate the parts due to the particles

the meridian telescope. The catalogue is published in the from those parts of the chromospheric radiations due to

same form as those which appeared in 1845 and 1865.

Vol. xiv. contains a part of the results of the observpermanent gases. M. Deslandres further suggests that the same methods,

ations made with the vertical circle of the observatory

between May 1, 1896, and May 19, 1899. The remaining if surcrossful in this instance, might be employed for the analysis of the structure of other celestial bodies such as

part of the results and the discussion of the whole are nebulæ and comets.

reserved for the next volume (xv.) of the publications. STARS WITH VARIABLE RADIAL VELOCITIES.-A list of four stars the radial velocities of which have been found to be variable is published by Mr. J. H. Moore in No. 3, vol.

THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY, GREENWICH. uxili., of the Astrophysical Journal.

THE annual inspection of the Royal Observatory, GreenThe radial velocity of ? Ursæ Majoris has been found to wich by the Board of Visitors took place on Wednesrary between -1 km. and - 10 km., that of ^ Hydræ day, May 30, when the Astronomer Roval submitted a between + 15 km. and +24 km., and that of u Crsæ Majoris report of the work accomplished during the twelve months - 16 km. and

+ 27.4 km.

In the of May 1, 1905, to May 10, 1906. A brief summary of this i Ophiuchi, discovered to be a spectroscopic binary by report is given below. Mr S. llbrecht, the variation of the velocity is found to The new working catalogue of stars of the ninth magniagree, in point of time, with the light variation, both tude and brighter, situated between declinations +24o and haring the period 17.12 days.

+32°, is now complete, and includes more than 12,000 Four other spectroscopic binaries with variable velocities stars; the star-places have all been accurately brought up are announced by Prof. Frost in the same journal. The to 1910 from the Astronomische Gesellschaft catalogues. first swn. B.D. -1°-1004 and 29 Canis Majoris, are re- A new determination of the pivot errors of the transit markable for the long range of their velocities and their instrument, made during November, showed that the errors short perinds.

In the former of these two, the radial in the form of the pivots are insensible. The determination velocity changed from +132 km. on February 12 of the co-latitude for 1905 has been delayed by the necessity

NO. 1910, Vol. 74)

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of applying the corrections to the star-places due to the A number of photographs of Jupiter's newly-discovered variation of latitude. The value found for 1904, with satellites vi. and vii. were obtained with the 30-inch rr Bessel's refractions, is 38° 31' 21":74.

flector. This success is remarkable because it was the The second nine-year catalogue, for epoch 1900, which expressed opinion of the discoverer of the satellites that was completed last year, will be divided into two sections, vii. was too faint to be photographed through our Britione containing the fundamental and zodiacal stars, the atmosphere. Yet nineteen photographs of this object ** other the astrographic reference stars. For the second secured at Greenwich on fifteen nights, and right-*! section the places (for 1900) of the stars within 10° negatives of satellite vi. were taken on thirty-six nights of the pole have already been determined, and a The 30-inch reflector was also employed for obtaining parison of these with the places given in Carrington's photographs of twenty-three minor planets, five come: Redhill catalogue should discover a number of proper Nova Aquilæ, and several nebulæ. motions hitherto undetermined, thereby providing new The reduction of the Eros plates is complete, and the material for the discussion of the solar motion.

results have been communicated to M. Lawy. Mr. Cowell has completed the discussion of the Green- At the date of last year's report the measurement wich meridian observations of the moon from 1750 to the the Greenwich plates for the Astrographic Catalogue wala present time, and has found the necessity of introducing complete, but a number of the measures have been te three empirical terms, of which the third has a period of peated, and the press copy has been prepared for the seven about 300 years. Because the introduction of this term zones 80° to 86o. The measures of the eight zones renders the determination of the secular acceleration of the to 84o have been printed during the year, and includ: moon from modern observations impossible, Mr. Cowell 46,329 separate stars covering an area of 450 square degrees has worked up the conditions for six ancient eclipses of of sky. The remaining 78.5 square degrees between 85 which the historical records seem to be fairly authentic. and the pole will include about 6000 stars. An interesting By introducing accelerations of eleven seconds per century table given in the report shows the number of stars which for the moon and four seconds for the sun, he found it have been measured, and will be contained in the Green possible to bring the conditions of every one of these wich section of the catalogue, and compares it with ita eclipses into agreement with the historical records of the number shown in each of the corresponding zones of the phenomena attending them. By treating ten of the lunar Bonn Durchmusterung and the Astronomische Gesellschatz eclipses recorded in the Almagest in the same way, addi- catalogues. Thus it is shown that the total in the Greentional evidence for the existence of these accelerations was wich section will be about 178,380, whilst for the same obtained. At first glance the acceleration for the sun was region the B.D. contains only 25,184 stars, A similar difficult to account for, and Mr. Cowell hypothecated a table compares the number of stars shown on the Greenresisting medium through which the earth travels; but wich chart plates in several zones with those containri more recently he has found that a lengthening of the day in the corresponding zones of the B.D. In the total are: by the two-hundredth part of a second per century would of 558.3 square degrees the latter contains 2259 stars i account for the quantity required for this acceleration. magnitude 9.0 and brighter, and 6542 altogether, whilst As one of the principal features of Mr. Cowell's discussion for the different exposures given for the Greenwich plats was the employment of the day as the unit of time, the the following numbers are shown :lengthening of that unit would produce the apparent acceleration.

Exposure

3m. бm. 40m. Owing to the re-mounting and re-polishing of the object

Number of stars... 12,019 56,921 ... 58,393

170,180 glass the altazimuth was out of use from July 12

Thus on August 30, but for the remainder of the year it

the plates taken at Greenwich with forst employed for observations of the sun, moon, planets, and

minutes' exposure there are 304.8 stars per square degree, fundamental stars. The lunar crater Mösting A

and about twenty-six times as many stars as are given in observed whenever the conditions were favourable, and, as

the corresponding region in the B.D. The second Greenthe same kind of observations are being made at the Cape

wich volume of the Astrographic Catalogue is printed up Observatory, the results will serve to determine anew the

to the end of 84', and will soon be ready for publication. parallax of our satellite. The value obtained from the

Twelve thousand photographic prints, reproducing on discussion of the two sets of observations should be more

double scale 191 plates in zones 650 to 70°, have been made trustworthy than that previously obtained, which de

during the year, bringing the total number of plates 1ppended solely upon observations of the moon's limb, a

produced since the work began up to 401, or rather more much more difficult feature to

than the crater.

than one-third of those contained in the Greenwich section. Mösting A was also observed with the transit circle when

During the year under report the astrographic telescope ever possible, and the mutual agreement of the two sets

has been used to obtain duplicate plates for the chart to of results was very satisfactory.

replace previous ones which are not entirely satisfactory for Eight hundred and twenty-three double and twentv-four

reproduction purposes. single observations of various stars were made with the

Heliographic observations were carried out as usual, the reflex zenith tube, and the results have been reduced up to

sun being photographed on 210 days. The solar activies March 31.

was very pronounced during 1905, the record for that year The weather was not favourable during the year for

being about double that for 1904. observations of difficult double stars with the 28-inch re

The magnetic observations were made as in former years. fractor, but the time utilised in completing the

and the principal results for the magnetic elements for 1905 of neglected doubles in Struve's Mensuræ

were as follow :Micrometricæ"; the total number observed was 606, of Mean declination

16° 9':9 West which 158 have their components separated by less than 1".0, and seventy by less than 0"5. The diameters of

Mean horizontal force

\ 40173 (in British units)

1 18523 (in metric units) Jupiter and his satellites were also measured with this

Mean dip (with 3-inch needle)... 66° 55' 55" instrument. Both the polar and equatorial diameters of Jupiter were observed, first with the filar micrometer and There were no days of great magnetic disturbance, a then with the double-image micrometer, on each night, only twelve days of lesser disturbance in 1905. and it was found that the mean of the results of the two The various meteorological observations were continuousli methods produced a very good value for the diameter. maintained throughout the year, the mean temperatur: The error caused by irradiation in the filar micrometer being 0°:2 above, and the rainfall 1.21 inches below, their observation is apparently exactly corrected by the error respective averages for the fifty years 1841-1890. introduced in the second method by the fact that when In the chronometer and time-service department there the two images are apparently in contact they actually port follows the usual lines, but the Astronomer Rosi overlap to a slight extent.

remarks on the inferiority of the box chronomeier, and The 26-inch refractor was employed on twenty-eight the superiority of the watches submitted for tests during nights in obtaining seventy-two photographs of Neptune the period covered by the report of fifty-nine chronin and its satellite, using the occulting shutter as in previous

sent in, thirti-three werp rejected because thry pears. These photographs are now being measured. failed to attain the minimum standard of constancy. The's

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is a larger number of rejections than in any previous year, Academy will thus be doubled, and ample scope will be although the number submitted was smaller than usual. given for future development. It is not possible to house

In concluding the report, the Astronomer Royal directs the Royal Society and the Royal Academy in the same attention to the serious menace to the continued efficiency building. The decision has been come to after review of of the observatory on its present site involved in the all the circumstances, and it carries with it the obligation stablishment in the immediate neighbourhood of large to find accommodation consistent with the necessities and Senerating stations for the supply of electric power to prestige of the Royal Society. It is the desire and intenListint districts. The most serious danger at present arises tion of the Government to meet the reasonable demands of from the new power station erected by the London County the Royal Society in a liberal spirit; and the Secretary for 1 'ouncil, which is situated directly north of the observatory. Scotland suggested that the Royal Society should consider Vot only will the high chimneys actually prevent stars

the new situation which has been created, and should from being seen when near the northern horizon, but the

formulate some scheme for the consideration of the beated gases arising from the buildings may seriously

Government. affect the accuracy of any results obtained. Again, the rew station is but half a mile from the observatory, and the running of the engines, although their number is not

THE DISCOVERY OF MAGNETIC DECLINset complete, produces serious tremors on the mercury re

ATION. tircting surface, on the steadiness of which the accuracy THE Meteorologische Zeitschrift for April contains an of the astronomical results is critically dependent.

interesting article by Prof. G. Hellmann on the knowpresent the instruments employed in the magnetic pavilion ledge of the magnetic declination before the time of Izave shown no disturbance, but it is greatly to be feared Christopher Columbus. Some years ago Prof. Hellmann that the contemplated increase of the electrical plant will pointed out that, independently of the discovery by also have a serious effect on the work of this department. Columbus, the variation must have been known on the

Continent, from the construction of many pocket sun

dials provided with magnetic needles for adjusting the THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH AND

instruments to the astronomical meridian, and showing the THE NATIONAL GALLERIES OF SCOT- declination by a line on the floor of the compass-box. LAND BILL.

Dr. A. Wolkenhauer recently discovered three such sun

dials dating from before the time of Columbus. One of O Friday last, June 1, the Secretary for Scotland re ceived an important deputation of the Royal Society

these, which is in the Ferdinand Museum at Innsbruck, and of Edinburgh regarding the claims of science in the readjustment of grants in aid and allocation of national buildings as contemplated in the National Galleries of Scotland Bill recently introduced in Parliament.

The chiel point discussed was the position of the society in regard to its present occupancy of part of the Royal Institution, Princes Street. The deputation, which was very representative of science in Scotland, was introduced by Sir J. Batty Tuke, M.P. The claims of the society were presented by Lord M'Laren, vice-president; Mr. J. W. Gulland, M.P.; Principal Sir William Turner, of Edinburgh l'niversity; Principal Mackay, Dundee ; Prof. Cash, Aberdeen; Prof. Gray, Glasgow; and Prof. Chrystal, secretary of the society. It was pointed out that in the National Galleries Bill, which contemplates devoting the Royal Institution, as well as the present National Gallery building, entirely to art, no provision is made for the Royal Society, which has occupied the west wing of the Royal Institution since that building was constructed seventy tears ago, and for which, indeed, the building was vriginally designed. The deputation suggested the introduction of a clause safeguarding the position of the society, that it shall not be dispossessed until equally good and

Fig. 1.-Pocket sun-dial with compass and variation line. Date, about convenient rooms have been obtained elsewhere out of public money. It will be impossible to carry on the important work of the society, especially as regards the was probably made at Nuremberg, is shown in the accompublication of valuable and expensive memoirs, without panying photographs by Hofrath von Wieser. The glass This guarantee. Not only so, but it was urged that the shade and magnetic needle have been removed so that the Royal Society of Edinburgh should be placed on the same lines on the bottom of the box might be more plainly shown. fonting as the Royal Society of London and the Royal Irish The lid or flap, which has also been removed, and which Academy, both of which sit rent free in Government build- adjusts the gnomon when opened, shows the date of conings, and receive grants to the extent of 1000l. and 1600l. struction, viz. 1451, the figures 4 and 5 being in the old trospectively. The Royal Society of Edinburgh receives a form (see also the hour numbers of the dial). Srint of zool., which, however, is nearly all paid back to The rim of the compass-box shows the four cardinal the Board of Manufactures in the form of rent. The points :—M. (Meridies), Oc. (Occidens), S. (Septentrio), Royal Society of London and five other scientific societies Or. (Oriens). On the floor of the compass-box is cut the are arcommodated in Burlington House next door to the northerly-pointing bifurcated line of deviation of the magRuyal Academy, and it is hoped that a similar principle net, showing about 11° easterly variation. This line is of will be applied in Edinburgh.

the same depth and thickness as the hour lines, and a The Secretary for Scotland expressed his hearty sympathy careful examination of the instrument shows that it must with all that had been said as to the importance of scien- have been originally done by the maker. It can easily be rifir work and the national character of the work done by recognised, however, that the three other marks west of the Royal Society. The National Galleries Bill introduced the original line (two of which have arrow-heads) were love the prezent Government is practically the Bill of last roughly inserted at a later time, when probably the desession with some minor alterations. The whole question clination had become westerly. The short, thick stroke kas bren gone into very carefully, and the conclusion is lying 4°-5° west of the N.-S. direction has been scratched to put the National Gallery into the south building, and the deepest. The magnetic variation was apparently prohgive to the Roral Academy the Royal Institution, part of ably known before the beginning of the fifteenth century, which is al present occupied by the Royal Society. The but by whom and where it was discovered still remain an Accommodation for the National Gallery and for the open question.

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A.D. 1451.

IRISH CAVE EXPLORATIONS.

seemed to show signs of having been artificially fractures

indicate the possible contemporaneousness of man sitt OUR knowledge of the Irish fauna in Neolithic and these deer, but the evidence in this case is not conclusive

early historic times has been greatly extended by The bear, however, was clearly coexistent with man, at recent researches into the cave remains of Ireland. These probably lingered on in Ireland long after the Irish ali have been carried out during the past few years by a com- and the reindeer had become extinct. A knee-tap of 3 mittee, under the auspices of the British Association and large bear, showing the incisions of a knife, was found in of the Royal Irish Academy. Two reports on these investi- one of the caves, and other bear bones were obtained from gations have been published in the Transactions of the the upper layer along with charcoal and the remains » latter. The first dealt with the exploration of the caves domestic animals. Unfortunately all the cave deposits had of Kesh, in the county Sligo, and the second, which has been greatly disturbed by burrowing animals, such as just been issued, with that of the county Clare caves. badgers and foxes, which inhabited them chiefly in receni The committee is now at work further south, in the county times. Cork.

Some of the caves show traces of human occupation of The Clare caves, which are situated about thirty miles long continuance in early times, while others may have from the sea coast, among beautiful surroundings, in a dis- been used as shelters for short periods. Scrapers and flint trict of crags and lakes, lie in the lands of Edenvale and fakes, bone pins, and stone implements occurred, while Newhall. Our illustration shows the entrance to two of a gold bracelet, and another, richly decorated, of bronze, these caves (marked A and B) in a steep_ridge of rock were found. Of bronze, also, was a buckle engraved with overlooking an ancient track, known as the Pilgrims' Road, an interlaced pattern and plated with silver. One of the which leads from Ennis to Killone Abbey and the Holy most remarkable of the objects discovered was a lamp. th. Well. The others lie barely a mile to the west of these. receptacle being hollowed out of a round stone, not carved All the caves have been formed by the solvent action of in any pattern, but with deep grooves round the sides. water on the limestone in which they occur. Several of Of these and other objects the plates illustrating the te them are of great extent, with complicated ramifications. port give a good idea. Together with the implements, They are mostly about 100 feet above sea level. They numbers of human bones were found, although there is no differ from many of the great English caves in the absence evidence that the caves had ever been used as places of

burial. The bones revealed nothing which might lead us to suppose that they belonged to a different rare from that inhabiting Ireland at the present time; but their study elicitet the fact that some of them belonged to individuals who habitually assumed the squatting position colmon to all primitive peoples.

R. F. SCHARFF.

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NEW PILOT CHARTS. IN these days of perpetual and

feverish haste, which is charatteristic of life at sea as well as an shore, the desirability has been realised of introducing modifications in the method of conveying practical information for the use of seamen. Formerly, men had more leisure in

wade through the bulky volumes Photo.)

[R. W cich. known as sailing directions when Fig. 1.- View showing entrances of Bat's Cave (A) and Elder-Bush Cave (B), Newball.

they wished to clear up any point in doubt. Now, with less time to

spare, the demand is for the concenof a well-marked stalagmite floor, and of their early cave- trated essence rather than the minute details of the facts, fauna, including the rhinoceros, hippopotamus, cave-bear, and this is one of the objects in view in the production of thir hyæna, &c. The deposits are composed, as a rule, of two several pilot charts originated on both sides of the Atlantic easily distinguishable strata. The upper one, generally within recent years. Many subjects have to be dealt with, consisting of brown earth, contains charcoal associated and the space is strictly limited, so that the mariner has with the bones of domestic animals, while the second is before him on his chart-room table all the essential often of a very tenacious nature, and includes many re- features of the particular subjects. mains of the bear and reindeer, Irish elk, and Arctic Two pilot charts are published by the Deutsche Seewarte lemming.

at Hamburg, one for the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Of particular interest is the occurrence of the Arctic fox area, issued monthly, the other for the North Sea and and of the wild cat. The former of these is exceedingly Baltic region, issued quarterly. They are elaborately and rare in England, and had not been known to occur in excellently got up, and in the quality of their varied conIreland, while as to the latter, it has been held as doubtful tents afford further evidence of that thoroughness character. whether it ever inhabited Ireland. Several jaws and teeth istic of German investigators. The face of each Atlantic were found, however, which agreed, not with the Scottish chart (36 inches by 27 inches) is covered with information wild cat, but with that commonly met with throughout of immediate concern in navigating a ship--the mean directhe African continent, and popularly known as the Caffer tion and force of the prevailing winds in every 50 square ; cat.

the northern and southern limits of the trade winds; the More than 2000 bones of birds were obtained, comprising paths and the intensity of storm systems; the regions oi fifty-eight species, the most noteworthy of which is the mist and fog; the dust atmosphere off Africa; the tropical

The Welsh traveller, Giraldus Cambrensis, stated rain area; the set and velocity of ocean currents ; ice; that when he visited Ireland in the twelfth century cranes derelicts ; steamship and sailing-ship routes and great cirde were to be met with in flocks, and it is of interest that tracks; copious remarks bearing on all these subjects, this account of their presence has been verified by the variation curves; and illustrations of the storm-warning discovery of these remains.

signals adopted by countries on both sides of the ocean. The occurrence of a shed antler of the Irish elk, and of The whole of the back is devoted to articles, with or withlong bones of this species and of the reindeer, which out illustrations, discussing subjects of general interest to

:

crane.

139

Thin navigator, and not necessarily limited to the North UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
tlantic area. A special investigation of the winds,

INTELLIGENCE.
currents, and air and sea temperatures experienced along

OXFORD.—The electors to the Linacre professorship of the Mediterranean steamship routes is being carried out at

comparative anatomy will proceed to an election next the Seewarte, and the resulis are now appearing month by

month. Candidates are desired to send in their names so month on the pilot chart.

as to reach the registrar's office not later than Saturday, The issue for last February contains a very complete July 7. The Linacre professor is by virtue of his office a wurds on the handling of ships in tropical hurricanes

fellow of Merton College. He is entitled to receive from Stisntia, Indian and Pacific Oceans, the Arabian and

the college a stipend of 700l. a year in addition to the China Seas. The April number gives an account of a very

emoluments of a fellowship, which amount at present to were Atlantie storm, the maximum violence occurring on

2001, a year.
live rise of the barometer ; a still longer article deals with
saler-spouts. The May chart gives the true bearing and

CAMBRIDGE.- Mr. E. S. Roberts, Master of Gonville and ther compass bearing at about three hundred positions round

Caius College, has been elected Vice-Chancellor for the thr roasis of the British Isles. The North Sea-Baltic ensuing academical year. pozilication is equally complete, each quarterly issue con

Mr. L. Noon, Trinity College, has been elected to a Laiting one general chart for the region and others for John Lucas Walker studentship in pathology. ito everal months of the quarter, together with an The assessment to be paid by the colleges to the Unixhundance of letterpress dealing with a great variety of versity in the present year has been fixed at 30,0381., or *ubjects, such as the investigation of the fisheries and the 131. per cent. on the college incomes. 76,1sical condition of the waters of the region, the surface

The Chancellor, His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, has rrents of the Kattegat and Sound, ice, and tidal streams.

made a gift of 5ool, to the special fund now being raised With five years' experience in the preparation of the

on behalf of the University library. Pilunthly Vorth Atlantic pilot charts, our Meteorological

Mr. C. L. Boulenger, King's, has been nominated to comtat has now commenced the publication of a similar

the University table at the Naples Zoological Station; and ories of “ Monthly Meteorological Charts of the Indian

Mr. K. Lucas, Trinity, to the table at the Plymouth
Arfan Yurth of 150 South Latitude, and Red Sea.

Marine Biological Laboratory.
Ilis area covered by the map extends from 30° N. to

The special board for mathematics has made some minor
S., between the meridians of 30° and 100° E. The

alterations in the proposals for the re-modelling of the Post number, issued in London on May 9, is for the month

Mathematical Tripos, parts i. and ii., but it is proposed to May. Presumably future issues will be well in advance

submit unchanged to the Senate the principles of the the month to which they relate, so as to be in the original report. funds of mariners navigating the Indian Ocean during the

Ten candidates have been successful in the special ex1310nth Generally, the chart presents the same features

amination in agricultural science and the first examination as the North Atlantic one. For each ocean space of 5° of

for the University's diploma in agriculture. Latitude by 50 of longitude the frequency of winds of light,

Mr. W. A. Cunnington, Christ's, for a dissertation on Toitlerate, or gale force is shown for the sixteen even

Tanganyika,” and Mr. C. Shearer, Trinity, for a dispoints of the compass, the observations upon which the

sertation on “ The Development of Larval Nephridia, Piles are based covering a period of fifty years. Appar

have been approved as advanced students for the certificate through inadvertence a pecked line intended to

of research. ridinate the northern limit of the south-east trade has been

Prof. Bradbury, Prof. Osler, Dr. S. West, and Prof. upsird. Tracks of some cyclonic storms are given in red.

Rose Bradford have been appointed examiners in medicine ; It is left to the sailor to assume whether the date given

Dr. Rivers Pollock and Prof. Spencer, examiners in mid11 the commencement or end of the tracks, there being

wifery ; and Dr. Kellock, Prof. Barling, Mr. Stanley Boyd, 1 directing arrow heads. The set and velocity of the

and Mr. Dunn, examiners in surgery for the ensuing

academical year.
A man currents are shown in blue, and in a lighter blue
the variation curves for 1907. Use is made of the land

A sum of 60ool. from the benefaction fund, raised by the bles for supplying a variety of information by means of

University Association, has, with the approval of the Chan'ferpress and inset charts.

cellor, been contributed to the cost of the botany and \small chart of the whole area gives, for the month, the

medical school buildings. prage distribution of barometric pressure over the sea,

The name of " Frederick James Quick, of Trinity Hall,” and the mean temperature of the air and of the water.

founder of the Quick professorship of biology, has been In enlarged map of the Guardafui and Ras Hafún district

added to the list of benefactors in the Commemoration

Service.
shows the currents, sea temperatures, and misty weather
in this dangerous locality, and suitable notes accompany
map. Over Arabia appear remarks on the various air

A Royal COMMISSION has been appointed for the purpose und water elements of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

of holding an inquiry into Trinity College, Dublin, and n the back of the sheet are given complete summaries

the University of Dublin. The terms of reference of the til the elaborate storm and weather signals of the Bay of

commission are as follows :-“ To inquire into and report Bengal and of the Hügli River storm signals, which are upon the present state of Trinity College, Dublin, and of far more precise than those in use in any other part of

the University of Dublin, including the revenues of the map of the southern Indian Ocean, from College and of any of its officers and their application, the the equator to 400'S., and 30° to 120° E., is used for re

method of government of the University and of the College, poroducing the late Dr. Meldrum's monthly tracks of

the system of instruction in the College and the teachers. vrlones between 1848 and 1885. There are notices to

by whom it is conducted, the system of University examinzamains relating to the collection of meteorological observations, and the provision made for post-graduate study and ativins, to the necessity for accurate determination of the

the encouragement of research; and also to inquire and efters of barometers in use, and to the compass adjustment

report upon the place which Trinity College, Dublin, and works at Kalpi anchorage.

the University of Dublin now hold as organs of the higher Ilogether the new publication gives promise of supply

education in Ireland, and the steps proper to be taken to ng a much-needed want in a simple and easily accessible

increase their usefulness to the country. Among the comform for a part of the ocean about which there has hitherto

missioners are Sir Edward Fry (chairman), Sir A. W.
uvent but little information. The monthly variations

Rücker, F.R.S., and Prof. D. J. Coffey.
the circulation of the waters of the Arabian Sea and of ACCORDING to the Reichsanzeiger, the number of students
" Bay of Bengal will alone well repay careful study, who took the “ Doktor-Ingenieur degree of the technical
whila a more accurate knowledge of the different winds Hochschulen at Berlin, Hanover, and Aachen during the

the nigion covered by the chart cannot fail to be of last winter semester was seven in Berlin, five in Hanover,
the greatest practical benefit to shipmasters and their and four in Aachen, while the number who took this

degree during the two semesters from March, 1905, to
NO. 1910, VOL. 74]

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