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March, 1906, at the Dresden Technische Hochschule was minds of the authorities of German and French universiseventeen ; of these thirty-three we find that eight passed ties. In both these countries the graduation of students is the viva voce examination with distinction, whilst the ages dependent upon their success in prosecuting research, and of the candidates varied from twenty-three to thirty-nine from France and Germany instruction in research has years. As a reason for this small number of the students spread to the United States. Since 1876, Princeton, who eventually take the degree, it is said that the great Columbia, Chicago, Cornell, and other American universimajority of the students, after having passed through their ties have found themselves bound to establish graduate eight semesters of stiff study and obtained the coveted schools where training may be obtained in research, and diploma, qualifying them to style themselves Dipl. Ing.,' from the United States post-graduate studies have spread have frequently neither the desire nor the means for the to Canada. With us, however, graduate studies are prac. extra semester's study and research necessary for the tically unknown. At Oxford, for instance, which Mr. doctor's degree.

Biggar takes as an example, because it is there alone that

Rhodes scholars may study, the University ceases to enforce There is no diminution in the generosity shown by American citizens towards higher education. Science

any test of proficiency beyond the degree of Bachelor of

Arts. The B.A. has but to continue to pay certain ten announces that Columbia University has received 1000l.

to his college for about three and a half years after taking for a mathematical prize, given by Mrs. Louise T. Hoyt. Mr. Edward S. Harkness has given 5401. to the morpho

his degree, when he may come up, pay some pol., receive

the degree of Master of Arts, and become a member o logical museum at the College of Physicians and Surgeons,

Convocation. What is wanted, Mr. Biggar maintains, and Mr. Archer M. Huntington 2001. to support a lecture

is to establish at Oxford a proper graduate school, that is ship in geography. In April, 1905, Mr. Andrew Carnegie

merely the reinforcement of a thesis, either for the M... offered Morningside College, Sioux City, Iowa, 10,000l.

or for the doctor's degree. The important part is that on condition that they raised 30,000l. On April 3, 1906, his conditions for the gift were

the increase of knowledge should be looked upon as on satisfied, and Mr.

of the main ends to be kept in view. Then, perhaps, the Carnegie's cheque has been received. Mr. Carnegie has also given the sum of 10,000l. to Drury College, at Spring - illusionment which awaits many of them, who

Rhodes scholars will discontinue to experience the din

com field, Missouri, on condition that the college increases its

hoping to find themselves among the makers of new knows resources by the sum of 40,000l. About one-third of this sum has been raised since January 1. Mr. R. Y. Cum

ledge ! and participating in the glorious work. mings has given 4000l. to the Field Museum of Natural The distinguished representatives of the University of History to defray the expenses of an ethnological study of Paris and the Collège de France, together with guests the native tribes of the Philippine Islands.

from nine other French universities, arrived in London on Albion COLLEGE is now building a new biological labor- June 4, and have during the week been entertained by the atory, which is expected, we learn from Science, to be

University of London and the Modern Language Assa

ation. The visitors were met at Victoria Station bv Sir completed in time for the opening of the college year in September. Mr. Andrew Carnegie has promised 4oool. to

Edward Busk, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Londur: the endowment fund of the college on condition that 16,000l.

Sir Arthur Rücker, principal of the University; and many additional is raised for the purpose. Mr. Carnegie has also

members of different faculties of the University and of the given Kenyon College 5000l. to aid poor students.

A new

Modern Language Association. In the evening of June 4 scholarship of 1000l. has been given to Barnard College,

the French guests were entertained at an informal dinner. Columbia University, by Mrs. George W. Collord in

Sir Walter Palmer, chairman of the London Universiti memory of her brother. By the will of Roland Hayward, organisation committee, in proposing in French the toast of Milton, Mass., the museum of comparative zoology of

of Our Guests,” said that the visit is a unique fact in Harvard University will receive the testator's collection of

the annals of university life, which will long Coleoptera

imprinted on our hearts as a new phase in the scientit

and literary development of the two nations representad A CLAUSE in the Education Bill before Parliament will,

What could be of happier augury than so distinguished if it eventually become part of the Act, abolish the

an assembly of men of letters and of science leaving their Teachers' Register. There is a strong feeling among

country and paving a visit to their colleagues in order to teachers in secondary schools and others that such a course draw closer still the bonds existing between the arts an.' would be very prejudicial to the progress of secondary and the sciences of the two countries ? M. Bayet, director ( higher education, inasmuch as it would discourage the

higher education at the Ministry of Public Instruction, the movement to secure adequate training for secondary-school sponding in French, remarked that if there is a domain in teachers. I meeting of the heads of training colleges for

which the entente cordiale has its place it is the domain secondary-school masters and mistresses in all parts of the

of letters, science, and art. It has long had its place there, country was held at Bedford College, London, on May 26,

for if we reascend the current of the centuries we find that to consider the proposals of the Government, and after this entente cordiale has existed almost always bet wif? discussion numerous resolutions were adopted unanimously. England and France. We are creditors and debtors of eac These resolutions declared that, as a result of the proposal, other. Frenchmen, he said, salute the profound influence public confidence in the stability of the Board of Education

which England has exerted upon them in the domainen has been shaken seriously; that a part of the present letters, science, and art. They know the English writers. register fulfils a purpose that is useful and not otherwise

poets, and philosophers, they love them, they have dran provided for; that grants and other administrative aids to

inspiration from them, and in their hearts they associats the training of secondary school teachers, as promised by themselves with the cult of great writers and thinken the Board of Education, do not form a substitute for a

M. Lippmann, who responded for the faculty of scienu register. The recognition of a profession, one resolution of the l'niversity of Paris, spoke in English, and sai? insists, with powers over entrance to its ranks, is an science is not bounded by the Channel nor has it a low essential element in creating a respected and permanent habitation. There is but one geometry throughout t profession; and another lays it down that in view of the

world. The laws of nature reach beyond the stars. Fir difference of conditions at the various centres of training that reason the guests feel at home in any place amk and of the necessity for experiments in the training of the brotherhood of scientific men. He continued, it is a teachers, the Board of Education should give as much

happy dispensation that a university should have heys liberir as possible in the regulations under which the pre

founded within the precincts of this huge city. London is paration for diplomas is conducted.

gigantic in size, wealth, and might; its shipping is usThe current number of the l'niversity Review contains rivalled, its commercial activity unexampled ; but the great a vigorous article by Mr. I. P. Biggar on the establish- the pressure of business, the heavier the load of acrumment of a graduate school at Oxford. One of the chief lated wealth, the more needful it is to augment the pon's aims of a university should be the article insists, the of the priceless element which is the soul of a universites extension of the bounds of knowledge in each department the more so as the experimental work done in laboratorin of learning by masters who are capable of making fresh and in experimental research of any kind is the prur discoveries therein. This object is constantly before the source of industrial progress, as well as an antidote the

rema

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tortune.-On Tuesday the visitors were received at the Museum by Sir William Ingram, Bart., and the Hon. Foreign Office in order that Lord Fitzmaurice and Mr. John Forrest : O. Thomas. The collection included sixLigh, M.P., might welcome them officially on behalf of teen species, of which the two following were of special alte Government. At the conclusion of the reception they interest :-Mus forresti, sp.n. Size, medium. Colour, were driven to the l'niversity of London, where luncheon drab-grey above, white below. Teeth with their laminæ

sersed. Addresses were afterwards delivered by the peculiarly twisted, the first molars with large cingular Vine Chancellor (Sir Edward Busk), M. Liard, Sir Arthur ledges. Head and body, 104 mm.; tail, 72 mm. ; hind Rucker, and Prof. M. E. Sadler, and a visit was made to foot, 19 mm. Type, B.M. No. 6.3.9.39. Phascogale ene ne physicaj and chemical laboratories of the Royal ingrami, sp.n. Size, minute; the teeth and feet smaller College of Science. In the evening several receptions were than in any known Australian marsupial. Head peculiarly Hold in honour of the guests.

flattened. Head and body, 80 mm. ; tail, 60 mm. ; hind foot, 10 mm. Type, B.M. No. 6.3.9.77.-The skull of a

young ribbon-fish (Regalecus): Prof. W. B. Benham and SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

W. J. Dunbar.- Descriptions of two species--one of them

new-of hair-worms of the family Gordiidæ : Dr. von LONDON.

Linstow. The specimens were obtained in Korea by Mr. Geological Society, May 9.–Mr. Aubrey Suaban, Malcolm Anderson, who was making collections of the F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair. The eruption of fauna of eastern Asia for the Duke of Bedford.-DescripTrouvius in April, 1906: Prof. Giuseppe de Lorenzo.

tions of a new lizard, a new snake, and a new toad 11- the great eruption of 1872 Vesuvius lapsed into

collected in l'ganda by Mr. E. Degen : G. A. Boulenger. repose, marked by merely solfataric phenomena, for three -The gestation and parturition of certain monkeys that

Strombolian activity followed, varied by lateral had bred in the society's menagerie in the spring of the outpourings of lava in 1885, 1889, 1891, 1895, &c., and by present year: R. I. Pocock. turbursts from the principal crater in 1900 and 1904.

Faraday Society, My 15.—Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin, Fissuring of the cone and slight outpourings of lava began

treasurer, in the chair.—Behaviour of platinised electrodes : in May. 1905, and continued until April 4, 1906, when

H. D. Law. The author desired to find an electrode on the first great outburst from the principal crater occurred,

which the reduction of the aromatic aldehydes and similar scrumpanied by the formation of deeper and larger fissures easily reducible compounds could not be effected. Platinised in the southern wall of the cone, from which a great mass

platinum, as being the metal from which hydrogen is of duid and scoriaceous lava was erupted. After a pause

liberated at the lowest potential, was tried as the kathode the maximum outburst took place during the night of

in an acidified alcoholic solution of benzaldehyde. At April 7 and 8, and blew 3000 feet into the air scoriæ

first energetic reduction took place; the activity of this, and lapilli of lava, as well as fragments derived from the however, diminished in successive experiments, and was wreckage of the cone. The south-westerly wind carried

extremely small after twelve hours' polarisation.—The this åsh to Ottajano and San Giuseppe, which were buried electrolysis of fused zinc chloride in cells heated externally : under ; left of it, and even swept it on to the Adriatic Julius L. F. Vogel. The dehydration of zinc chloride by and Montenegro. At this time the lava which reached Torre Annunziata was erupted. The decrescent phase of the salt in a fused state in externally heated cells were

evaporating under reduced pressure, and the electrolysis began on April 8, but the collapse of the cone of the prin investigated by Dr. O. J. Steinhart and the author jointly cipal cratrr was accompanied by the ejection of steam and

on behalf of the Smelting Corporation, Ltd. Further indust to a height of from 22,000 feet to 26,000 feet. On

vestigations were made after the United Alkali Company April 9 and 10 the wind was north-easterly, and the dust had joined the Smelting Corporation in testing the process, was carried over Torre del Greco and as far as Spain ;

and details are given in the paper of the work as carried but on April in the cloud was again impelled northward.

out under the joint supervision of the author's firm and The ash in the earlier eruptions was dark in colour, and

the chemical staff of the United Alkali Company. The made of materials derived directly from the usual type

author describes how the process was carried successfully of trucot phritic magma; but later it became greyer, and

to a stage when continuous electrolysis was carried on for mi srd with weathered clastic material from the cone.

eleven days and nights, and three cwt. of pure zinc was The great cone had an almost horizontal rim on April 13,

produced. On the failure of the Smelting Corporation the very little higher than Monte Somma, and with a crater work was suspended, and finally abandoned, although which possibly exceeds 1000 feet in diameter; this cone further elaborate investigations were undertaken by the was almost snow-white from the deposit of sublimates. United Alkali Company utilising cells heated internally Vany deaths were due to asphyxia, but the collapse of

by the current. rools weighted with dust was a source of much danger, as ts the cuse at Pompeii in A.D. 79. The lava-streams Royal Microscopical Society, May 16.- Dr. D. H. surrounded trees, many of which still stood in the hot lava Scott, F.R.S., president, in the chair. --Some observations with their leaves and blossoms apparently uninjured. The recently made on the parasites of malaria and the phagosea-level during April 7 and 8 was lowered 6 inches ne cytic action of the polymorphonuclear leucocytes : Dr. l'ozzuoli and as much as 12 inches near Portici, and had Bernstein. The subject was illustrated by drawings shownot resurned to its previous level on April 18. The maxi- ing the results of observations made during the examination mum activity coincided almost exactly with the full moon, of blood taken from a patient suffering from malarial and at the time the volcanoes of the Phlegræan Fields

fever. The observations were made at intervals of a few and of the islands remained in their normal condition. minutes during a period of five hours. A crescent form The author believes that this eruption of Vesuvius is greater of the parasite was seen to become engulphed by a leucothan any of those recorded in history, with two exceptions cyte, in which it was soon surrounded by vacuoles and --those of A.D. 79 and of A.D. 1631.–The Ordovician rocks

was ultimately destroyed, only the pigment granules reof western Caermarthenshire: D. C. Evans. The ground maining; other leucocytes afterwards approached and dealt with is practically identical with that examined by

absorbed some of the granules. The blood film the late Thomas Roberts, whose notes were published in stained, and the preparation, showing the pigment granules 1803 It extends from the River Cywyn on the east to in the polymorphonuclear leucocytes, was exhibited under ha Tave on the west, and from the base of the Old Red a microscope at the meeting. Sandstone on the south to the top of the Dicranograptus- Chemical Society, May 17.- Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., Shales on the north.

president, in the chair. The relation between absorption Zoological Society, May 15.—Dr. J. Rose Bradford, spectra and chemical constitution, part vi., the phenylF.R.S., vice-president, in the chair.-Descriptions of the hydrazones of simple aldehydes and ketones: E. C D two speries of water-mites (Hydrachnidæ) collected by Mr. Baly and W. B. Tuck. A spectroscopic investigation of W.A. Cunnington in Lake Nyasa during the third Tan- the phenylhydrazones of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propylCanvika expedition, 1904-5: J. N. Halbert.--A collection aldehyde, acetone, and diethylketone shows that these exist of mammals made by Mr. W. Stalker in the northern in two forms, an unstable true hydrazone and a stable territory of South Australia, and presented to the National azo-form. The absorption spectra of the hydrazones of the

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three nitrobenzaldehydes show that the colour of these sub- the effect of any possible remedy examined. In the present stances is not due to their existence in the azo-form.-The paper the entoptic phenomena are studied, delineated, and rusting of iron : J. T. Nance. The “rusting" of iron in submitted to exact measurement, such as (1) the so-callei solutions of ammonium chloride is probably due to the Haidinger's brushes, or coloured polarised fasciculieren action of hydrogen ions formed by hydrolysis of the salt. when a brightly illuminated surface is looked at through -Aromatic compounds obtained from the hydroaromatic a Nicol's prism, and the seat of which has been the subje: series, part ii., the action of phosphorus pentachloride on trimethyldihydroresorcin : A. W. Crossley and J. S. Hills. darting fire-flies, seen when a bright sky is looked dr -Studies of dynamic isomerism, part v., isomeric sulphonic through a cobalt blue glass. These are depicted and derivatives of camphor : T. M. Lowry and E. H. Magson. measured in the paper, and the result leaves little doubs -The densities of liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen and of that they are really due to the movement of blood *15 their mixtures : J. K. H. Inglis and J. E. Coates. The puscles in the vessels of the retina, the curved streaks results showed that a slight contraction took place on of light they leave behind being due to the retention of mixing the two liquids. It was found that the solubility the image of a quickly-moving body. Other entoptic phenoof nitrogen in oxygen obeys Henry's law, but that the mena are also discussed.—The absorption of radiation solubility of oxygen in nitrogen does not obey the simple by matter : Prof. J. A. McClelland and J. E. Hackett form of that law, since oxygen dissolved in nitrogen is It is important to know the true coefficient of absorption associated to the extent of about 9 per cent.-Glutaconic of B rays for different substances. There are really to and aconitic acids : H. Rogerson and J. F. Thorpe.- data on the subject, as the coefficient usually measured The chemistry of organic acid “thiocyanates" and their depends to a large extent upon the power of the substanderivatives : A. E. Dixon.—The molybdilactate and the to emit secondary B rays. This coefficient gives, thesetungstilactate of ammonium : G. G. Henderson. Molybdic fore, little information as to the actual stopping power to and tungstic anhydrides are dissolved, the latter with some different forms of atoms. The present paper describes difficulty, when heated on the water-bath with solutions of method of determining the true absorption coefficieni. ammonium lactate, the products being ammonium molybdilactate, M00,(C,H,O,NH), and ammonium tungstilactate, W0,(C,H,O,NH)2, respectively. Descriptions of

Royal Irish Academy, April 23.-Dr. F. A. Tarlciuc, these salts are given.

president, in the chair.-Magneto-optic rotation : F. E

Hackett. The author examines the two dispersion formule Society of Chemical Industry (London Section), May 21. deduced by Drude for the magneto-optic rotation, anut ---Mr. A. Gordon Salamon in the chair.—The electro- brings forward a method to decide between them. The chemical problem of the fixation of nitrogen : Prof. | analysis consists in deducing from the constants of thr Philippe A. Guye. Among the many investigations under- formula, based on the hypothesis of rotating ions, the taken to solve th problem, two directions have led to

quotient of the area of the ionic orbit by the period of tim industrial methods, the one, calcium cyanamide, the other, ion for the absorption bands of carbon disulphide and electrochemical nitric acid. The principal technical details creosote. The radii of the ionic orbits thus obtained sre of the manufacture of calcium cyanamide are given, and it 100 times the ordinary molecular radii. From this result is pointed out that its cost price depends upon that of it is argued that the theory of rotating ions cannot accoura calcium carbide. From this it is concluded that a kilo- for more than one-thousandth of the rotation observed in gram of nitrogen fixed as calcium cyanamide will cost a these substances. A similar analysis applied to the cus little more than ammonia salts and Chili saltpetre, if the stants of the Hall effect formula leads to values of . excess of calcium carbide obtained in carbide works not of the same order as are obtained for electrons. Similar available for the development of acetylene is used. This results are shown to hold in general for diamagnetic sub conclusion seems confirmed by some agricultural tests made stances. It is then concluded that the theory based on the with this new compound of nitrogen of which the value, Hall effect gives a sufficient explanation of the rotation in relative to Chili saltpetre, is not definitely fixed. Passing diamagnetic substances.—The total solar eclipse of August to electrochemical nitric acid, the author summarises the 30, 1905 : A. L. Cortie. The observations recorded 10 principles of its preparation, and although these are very this paper were made at Vinaroz, on the Mediterrani ar simple, the application has presented serious difficulties, coast of Spain. The results were :-(1) the corona was si which, however, now appear to be solved by the experi- the maximum type ; (2) there were numerous prominences, ments carried out in Norway. The absorption of the nitric especially one great group on the east limb of the sun: acid by sulphuric acid is insisted on, as this allows con- (3) the lower corona was much disturbed over this group, centrated nitric acid to be directly obtained, which is of with a marked structure of arches and interlacing rings. greater commercial value than nitrate of lime, and con- (4) a well-marked vortex-ring with a white centre sequently of more interest to a new industry. Analysis of connected with the prominences ; (5) a ray, of presumably the cost of electrochemical nitric acid leads to the con- dark matter, and a group of plumes, marked the southclusion that a kilogram of nitrogen is fixed slightly cheaper east quadrant; (6) the dark ray and plumes coincided in as nitric acid than as calcium cyanamide. In concluding, position with the sun-spot regions, and were possibly cothe author discusses the exterior economic factors which nected with the area disturbed by the great February may hasten the development of the nitrogen industries. spot; (7) some straight bright rays marked the south-west Among these the direct synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen quadrant, also in the region of the spot-zones; (8) the and hydrogen, and the recovery of the nitrogen of coal / general trend of the streamers was north and south, the in the ammoniacal form by the methods of L. Mond are largest streamers being placed almost at the south pole, mentioned. These processes, combined with the production (9) the inner corona was a ring of intense brilliancy, aumof electrochemical nitric acid, will in all probability solve parable to the full moon; (10) the streamers seemed il the problem of obtaining electric energy cheaply by motors general to mark the regions of prominences more thar utilising the power of coal.

those of spots.--Sixteen years' observations on the relatie DUBLIN.

of temperature and rainfall to the spread of scarlatina Royal Dublin Society, April 24.— Prof. T. A. McClelland

measles, and typhoid fever : R. Sydney Marsden. Werkir

returns of cases of these diseases and the correspondira in the chair.--Entoptic vision, part iv., Haidinger's brushes weekly variations of temperature and rainfall had been and other entoptic phenomena: Prof. W. F. Barrett, F.R.S. The term entoptic vision may be employed to

recorded for the years 1890–1905 at Birkenhead, and curve

diagrams had been worked out to show the relatione include the observation of all those phenomena the cause the diseases to amount of rainfall and temperature as their of which is situated within the eyeball. In previous papers varied above below their average normal amount on this subject the author has shown how obscurities in Atmospheric temperature was found to have no effect un the path of a homocentric pencil of ravs within the eye the spread of these diseases. As regards rainfall, this may be self-detected, delineated, and measured with great shown to have no influence whatever as regard

by means of the entoptiscope, a simple instrument measles, but in the case of scarlatina the number of came devised by the author. Obscurities due to incipient increased after deficient rainfall and decreased after rain: Járact can be detected, and its progress watched and the number of cases increases after a series of dry vear

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Newsholme has shown diphtheria to be affected in a Ad. Goy. The apparatus described allows of six determinsimilar manner. Dr. Marsden asks : Is it possible that ations being carried out nearly simultaneously on separate scarlatina and diphtheria are allotropic forms of the samples of muscle, the latter being surrounded by a fluid same disease? In the case of typhoid, the number of cases appropriate to its preservation. Drying in the course of occurring seems to be independent of whether it is a wet the measurements is thus avoided.-The regenerator of or dry year, but there seems to be a slight tendency for fibrin and comparative estimations of this substance in the number of cases to fall after rain.

different vascular territories of the dog after defibrination :

M. Doyon, A. Morel, and N. Kareft.-A reaction of the Paris.

oxydase type presented by the halogen compounds of the Academy of Sciences, May 21.-M. H. Poincaré in the rare earths : E. Fouard. The oxidation of hydroquinone chair.-The president announced the loss by death of M. was determined in the presence of equimolecular solutions Bischoffscheim.—The discontinuity of the specific heats at of the chlorides of thorium, cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, saturation and Thomson's curves : E. H. Amagat.- praseodymium, and samarium. The presence of the salts Simple relations between the dynamical reactions of muscle increased the rate of oxidation, samarium being the most and the energy which produces them : A. Chauveau.- active in this respect. The action is comparable to an Geometrical loci of centres of gravity : Haton de oxydase.—The effect of adrenalin on the amount of glycogen Goupillière.--The intestinal origin of tuberculous tracheo- in muscle : Mme. Z. Gatin-Gruzewska. The injection bronchial adenopathy : A. Calmette, C. Guérin, and A. into a rabbit of a solution of adrenalin (containing 1 mg.) Déléarde. The work communicated in the present paper caused the total disappearance of the glycogen both in the has an important bearing on the question of the spread of liver and muscles. When the effect of the injection ha tuberculosis by milk. It has been shown experimentally passed off, the animal, if fed, has not lost the power of in the case of animals, and clinically in twenty-four cases producing glycogen.—The identity of Hemipygus tubercuof children, that whenever tuberculous infection is mani- losis and Hemicidadis crenularis : M. Seguin. fested by tracheo-bronchial adenopathy, tuberculous bacilli exist in the mesenteric ganglions, even when the latter

CALCUTTA. appear to be healthy. These bacilli make their way into

Asiatic Society of Bengal, May 2.--The relative prothe system by the intestine.-Geodesic and magnetic work in the neighbourhood of Tananarive : Ed. El. Colin. The portion of the sexes in Helopeltis theivora : H. H. Mann.

Hitherto no careful investigations have been made as to magnetic elements are given in tabular form for forty-nine

the relative number of males and females in any species stations round Tananarive.—A magnetic collimator which transforms a binocular into an instrument for taking bear

of Heteropteron, but the fact that Helopeltis theivora is ings : A. Berget. A compass with a collimating lens

a serious pest of tea has given the chance for ascertaining

details in its case. and a system of totally reflecting prisms is fitted to one

The paper summarises the result of

daily catching of the insects for three years, and it is of the telescopes of the binocular, allowing the position of

concluded that (1) the females are always much more the needle of the compass to be read off to about 0.25 of a degree if held in the hand, or more closely if a support

numerous than the males; (2) the proportion of males is used. The right-hand telescope is directed at the object increases as the conditions of life become more difficult.

Notes on the freshwater fauna of India, No. 5, some the position of which is to be examined; the magnetic

animals found associated with Spongilla carteri in Calazimuth is read off directly at the same time in the left limb of the binocular.–The correlation between the vari

cutta : Dr. N. Annandale. Several animals have been

observed to use the dead skeleton of the sponge as a shelter ations of the absorption bands of crystals in a magnetic

for themselves or for their eggs, while an Oligochæte field and the magnetic · rotatory polarisation : Jean Becquerel.—The sulphides, selenides, and tellurides of

worm (Chaetogaster spongillae, sp.nov.), two chironomid tin: H. Pelabon. The effect of the gradual addition of

larvæ, a coleopterous larva, and a larva of the neurosulphur to tin on the melting point has been studied, and

pterous genus Sisyra appear to have a more intimate conthe relation between the percentage of added sulphur and

nection with the living organism. The advantage of this the melting point given in the form of a curve. · The corre

connection is in some cases reciprocal.-The life-history of

an aquatic weevil : Dr. N. Annandale and C. A. Paiva. sponding curves for selenium and tellurium are also given. -The direct oxidation of cæsium and some properties of

A general account of the mode of life and metamorphosis the peroxide of cæsium : E. Rengade. Oxygen, even

of a weevil which feeds on and lays its eggs in the subwhen well dried. attacks cæsium energetically at

merged parts of the water-plant Limnanthemum.-A new

the ordinary temperature. At – 40° C. the metal blackens, but

goby from fresh and brackish water in Lower Bengal :

Dr. V. Annandale. An account of a minute fish of the there is no incandescence; at - 80° C. the action is very slow, and it is only after some minutes that the metal

genus Gobius, which appears to have escaped notice owing commences to tarnish. The action of an excess of oxygen

to its retention of juvenile characters.—Preliminary note

on the rats of Calcutta : Dr. W. C. Hossack. The author gives casium peroxide, Cs,,, a yellow oxide, easily dissociated at high temperatures. Water acts

shows that the subject of rats has become of practical ordinary frmperatures, giving the hydroxide CsOH, oxygen,

importance owing to the part they play in the propagation and hidrogen peroxide. Gently heated in carbon dioxide,

of plague. He names and gives chief characters of the four

varieties found in Calcutta. He shows that colour is very cæsium carbonate and oxygen are produced. Dry hydrogen commences to reduce the peroxide at about 300° C.-New

variable and not a trustworthy distinction, and gives a methods of prrparing some organic compounds of arsenic :

table of the principal measurements of the four varieties

found. 1 Auger. Methylarsinic and cacodylic acids can now be obtained commercially at a moderate price, and with these

GÖTTINGEN. substances as starting points the author shows how various Royal Society of Sciences. —The Nachrichten (physico. arsenic compounds can be readily prepared, including mathematical section), part i. for 1906, contains the followmethvlarsine iodide, CH,Asl, ; methvlarsine oxide, ing memoirs communicated to the society :(H 40); methylarsine chloride, CH, AsCI,; cacodyl December 23,

1905.-- The

calculation of chemical chloride, (CH), ICI; cacodyl, As,(CH),; and tetramethyl- equilibrium from thermal measurements : W. Nernst.arvnium iodide, (CH,), Asl.--Researches on diazo-com- Determination of the velocity of propagation and absorppounds. The transformation of azo-orthocarboxylates into tion of earthquake waves which have traversed the anti(vindazylic compounds : P. Freundler.-The gases from point of the original focus: G. Angenheister.-Comthermal springs. The determination of the rare gases : parison of the seismic diagrams, from Upsala and goneral presence of argon and helium : Charles Moureu. Göttingen, of earthquake waves which have encircled the Inilow, are given of the gases from forty-three springs of globe : F. Akerblom. mineral waters. Argon has been recognised in the whole of January 13.—The equilibrium of the sun's atmosphere : the forts-three samples examined, and helium in thirty-nine. W. Schwarzschild, It is powsible that helium is also present in the remaining February 3.—The number and dimensions of the tastetrur bue in proportions so small that its presence is masked buds in the circumvallate papillæ of man at various periods toe the argon spectrum.—The elasticity of organic tissues : of life: F. Heiderich.- The action of luminous rays upon

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living cells : E. Hertel.-Electric phenomena accompanying VICTORIA INSTITUTE, at 4.-Wonders and Romance of Insect Life: the disintegration of ammonium : A. Coehn. (March 3.

Frederick Enock.

THURSDAY, JUNE 14. A second communication on the same subject.) February 17.-Researches from the Göttingen University | Royal Society, at 4.30. - Probable papers : The Experimental Analysis

of the Growth of Cancer : Dr. E. F Bashford, J. A. Murray, and W. H. Chemical Laboratory, xv. :-(1) The process of isomerisation

Bowen. - On the Electrical ard Photographic Phenomena manifested by in oximes; (2) isomeric forms of cyclodimethylhexylamine; certain Substances that are commonly supposed to be Ætiologically (3) the simplest methene-hydrocarbons of the various ring- Associated with Carcinoma: Dr. W.'s. Lazarus-Barlow.-The Bone systems and their transformation into alicyclic aldehydes :

Marrow; a Cytological Study forming an Introduction to the Normal and

Pathological Histology of the Tissue : Dr. W. E. Carnegie Dickson. O. Wallach.—Contributions to the theory of vortex-rings : On the Relation of the Liver Cells to the Blood Vessels and Lymphatics J. Weingarten.

P. T. Herring and S. Simpson.-(1) Note on Lipase ; (2) The Hydrolytic

Action of Acids in Presence of Salts : Prof. H. E. Armstrong, E.R.S. MATHEMATICAL Society, at 5.30.-Exhibition of Models of Space-b1ltog

Solids : W. Bailey.-The Algebra of Apolar Linear Complexes : Dr.

H. F. Baker.
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS, at 11 a.m. --Address by the Pre-
THURSDAY, JUNE 7.

sident.-The Commercial Possibilities of Electric Winding for Main

Shafts and Auxiliary Work: W. C. Mountain.-Electrically-driven AirROYAL Society, at 4.30.-On the Osmotic Pressures of some Concentrated compressors, combined with the working of the Ingersoll-Sergeant

Solutions : Earl of Berkeley and E. G. J. Hartley-On the Regeneration Heading machines, and the subsequent working of the Busty Seam of Bone: Sir William MacEwen, F.R.S.-The Effects of Self-induction in A. Thompson.-Practical Problems of Machine-mining : Sam Mavor.an Iron Cylinder: Prof. E. Wilson.-An Account of the Pendulum Ob- The Strength of Brazed Joints in Steel Wires : Prof. Henry Louisservations connecting Kew and Greenwich Observatories, made in 1903 : Bye-product Coke and the Huessener Bye-product Coke Ovens: J. A. Major G. P. Lenox-Conyngham.

Roelofsen.- Considerations on Deep Mining: George Farmer. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Man and the Glacial Period: Prof. W. J.

FRIDAY, JUNE 15. Sollas, F.R.S.

INSTITUTION OF MINING ENGINEERS, at 10.30 a.m. --Rescue Apparatus LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-On Two New Species of Populus trom and the Experience made therewith at the Courrières Collieries by the

Darjeeling: H. H. Haines.-Biscayan Plankton, part viii., The German Rescue Party: G. A. Meyer.-A New Apparatus for Rescue

Cephalopoda : W. E. Hoyle.--Part ix., The Medusa: É. T. Browne. work in Mines: W. E. Garforth.-A Rateau Exhaust-steam-driven CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.—Ammonium Selenate and the Question of Three-phase Haulage Plant ; William Maurice. -Development of Placer

Isodimorpbism in the Alkali Series: A. E. H. Tutton.-An Improved Gold-mining in the Klondike District, Canada: J. B. Tyrrell.-Mining Beckman Apparatus for Molecular Weight Determination : J. M. Education: Prof. J: W. Gregory. -The Capacity current and its Effect Sanders. -Resolution of Lactic Acid by Morphine: J. C. Iivine. — The

on Leakage Indications on Three-phase Electrical Power-service: Sydney Vapour Pressures of Binary Mixtures, part i., The Possible Types of

F. Walker.-- Petroleum Occurrences in the Orange River Colony: A R Vapour-pressure Curves : A. Marshall. --Action of Sodium on aa-Dichlor- Sawyer. propylene : 1. Smedley.-Thiocarbamide as a Solvent for Gold : J. Moir.

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE PROMOTION OF TECHNICAL AND
-The Action of Sulphur Dioxide and Aluminium Chloride on Aromatic SECONDARY EDUCATION, at 3.-Annual General Meeting.
Compounds: S. Smiles and R. Le Rossignol.

FRIDAY, JUNE 8.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.–Studies on Charcoal and Liquid Air: Sir

CONTENTS,

PAGE James Dewar, F.R.S.

The Rothamsted Experiments. By Prof. T. H. PHYSICAL Society, at 8.-On the Solution of Problems in Diffraction by the Aid of Contour Integration : H. Davies. - The Effect of Radium in

Middleton

121 Facilitating the Visible Electric Discharge in vacuo : A. A. Campbell Evolution and Philosophy. By F. W. H. Swinton.-Mr. J. Goold's Experiments with a Vibrating Steel Plate, The University Idea exhibited by Messrs. Newton and Co.-Fluid (liquid) resistance : Col. de

123 Villamil.

A Ramble in the West

124

Our Book Shelf:-
ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 5.— The New Reduction of the Meridian
Observations of Groombridge: Lewis Boss.--On Mr. Cowell's Discussion

Eggar : “A Manual of Geometry"

124 of Ancient Eclipses of the Sun: Simon Newcomb.-The Physical Condi. Frilley : "Les Procédés de Commande à Distance au tion of Mars : R. Crawford.-Promised Papers : Results of Micrometer

Moyen de l'Électricité"

123 Measures of Double Stars made with the 28-inch Refractor in the Year

Papius : “Das Radium und die radioactiven Stoffe.' 1905: Royal Observatory, Greenwich.--Errors of Jupiter from Photographic and Transit Circle Observations : Royal Observatory, Greenwich.

-R. J. S.

125 -A Simple Method of obtaining an Approximate Solution of Kepler's Letters to the Editor:Problem (an Instrument will be shown by which the Solution is Effected): Ionisation and Temperature.-Prof. C. D. Child and A. A. Rambaut. -Solar Parallax Papers, No. 4; the Magnitude Equation in Meridian Circle Right Ascensions of the " Étoiles de Repère":

Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.

[25 A. R. Hinks.-Spherical Slide Rule: W. B. Blaikie.- Discussion on

A Horizontal Rainbow.-V. Schaffers

125 some of the Results of Observations of the Solar Eclipse of 1905 August

Notes on Some Cornish Circles. III. (Illustrated.) 30.-Contributions are promised by Prof. H. H. Turner and Mr. H. F. By Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S.

126 Newall.-Mr. Newall promises a Paper, Notes on Polarisation Phenomena

The Stability of Submarines. By Sir W. H. White, in the Solar Corona.

K.C.B., F.R.S.

128 GEOLOGISTS' Association, at 8.-The Higher Zones of the Upper Chalk

The Rise and Progress of the Zoological Society. in the Western Part of the London Basin: H. J. Osborne White and LI. Treacher.

(Illustrated.).

129 MALACOLOGICAL Society, at 8.-Mollusca of the Porcupine Expeditions,

The International Fisheries Investigations

130 1869–70, Supplemental Notes, part iii.: E. R. Sykes.- Notes on the

Notes

131 Dates of Publication of the “Mineral Conchology" and "Genera Rec. Our Astronomical Column :Foss. Shells": E. R. Sykes.--Description of Oliva ispidula, L., var. longispira: F. G. Bridgman.-On Chloritis heteromphalus : H. A.

Sun-spot and Chromospheric Spectra

135 Pilsbry.

Proposed Daily Photographs of Chromospheric RadiaMONDAY, JUNE 11. tions

135

Stars with Variable Radial Velocities ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.- The Geography of the Indian

133 Ocean: J. Stanley Gardiner.

Observations of Nova Persei No. 2

135 SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.- Recent Progress in the Cement

Observations of Shadow Bands

135 Industry : Bertram Blount.-On Purifying and Stabilising Guncotton :

The Radial Motion of B Arietis.

135 Dr. R. Robertson.

Publications of the Nicolas Observatory, St. PetersINSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES, at 5.--Fifty-ninth Annual General Meeting.

burg

135 The Royal Observatory, Greenwich :

135 TUESDAY, JUNE 12.

The Royal Society of Edinburgh and the ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTItute, at 8.15.-Two Years among the Akikoyu National Galleries of Scotland Bill

137 of British East Africa : W. Scoresby Routledge.

The Discovery of Magnetic Declination, (Illus. MINERALOGICAL Society, at 8.-On the Occurrence of Axinite in the

trated.)

137 Area South of Bodmin, in Cornwall: G. Barrow.-Cassiterite Pseudo- Irish Cave Explorations. (Mustrated.) By Dr. R. F. morphs from Bolivia : R. Pearce.-Notes on Skiodromes and Isogyres: Scharff. Dr. J. W. Evans.

New Pilot Charts
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 13.
Geological Society, at 8.-Recumbent Folds produced as a Result of Societies and Academies

University and Educational Intelligence

139 Flow : Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. - The Crag of Iceland -an intercala

141 tion in the Basal Formation : Dr. Helgi Pjetursson.

Diary of Societies

144

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