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and the later researches of Weber and Buvignier, leave no room to doubt the truth of that generalisation.

Perhaps no two structures have engaged the specuTHE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OF VERTE.

lative fancy of naturalists so much as the swimBRATES.

bladder of fishes and the air-sacs of birds. As to the Lehrbuch der vergleichenden mikroskopischen An- first, it cannot be said that the great number of obatomie der Wirbeltiere, Edited by Dr. Albert

servations which Prof. Oppel has succeeded in massOppel. Part v., Parietal Organ. By Dr. F. K.

ing in his pages takes us perceptibly nearer a conStudnička. Pp. vi +254. Price 8 marks. Part vi.,

ception of the true nature and origin of the swimAtmungsapparat, By Dr. Albert Oppel. Pp.

bladder and its relationship to the vertebrate lung *+824. (Jena : Gustav Fischer, 1905.) Price 24

than were the naturalists of fifty years ago. A marks.

theory which regards it simply as a hydrostatic organ IF F any interruption should overtake the present for permitting a fish to accommodate itself to any

rapid growth of scientific knowledge it will not depth of water gives only a very incomplete exbe in the acquisition of new facts that the break- planation of its presence and structure. On the other doan will occur, but in the systematisation of facts hand, the nature of the air-sacs of birds is now almost already acquired by present and past generations completely understood. When the facts grouped toof workers. The task of systematisation, so neces- gether by Prof. Oppel are considered it becomes sary for further progress, is in the hands of the evident that in the vertebrate lung, be it of a frog, writers of text-books, but, unfortunately, the fate of a lizard, of a bird, or of a mainmal, there are three which presides over that world wherein men of science distinct parts which differ in structure and in function. live and move has ordained that the financial success In no vertebrate form have these three parts become of a text-book is in inverse proportion to its scientific so highly specialised and distinctly separated as in value. The general student can command with ease birds. The three parts are :-(1) a vascular memboth author and publisher, but the specialists, for brane covered by peculiar epithelium and puckered so whom a text-book is a first necessity, find it almost as to form alveoli (the respiratory part); (2) an elastic impossible to obtain either author or publisher. It chamber or series of chambers, capable of being enis the good fortune of those specialists who are ac- larged and diminished on inspiration and expiration sively investigating the finer structure of the verte- (the bellows part); (3) a series of non-collapsible tubes brate body to find that, thanks to the untiring in- for conveying the air to and from the air chambers dustry of Prof. Oppel and the enterprise of Herr (the conducting part). In the avian lung the bellows Gustav Fischer, the text-book they so much needed part has become completely separated from the rehas now been provided for them. In bringing to a spiratory portion, and forms the air-sacs. Intermediate cunclusion the sixth part or volume of this great stages in the process of separation are to be seen in task, Prof. Oppel modestly consoles himself with the lungs of reptiles. In the mammalian lung the the hope that the work, to which he has devoted bellows part is broken up into a series of small twelve years of his life without reward or fee, may chambers throughout the whole organ, which form giuse of use to others. It is in no niggardly spirit what we in England have been in the habit of calling that we in England must acknowledge the service infundibula, but which, in the more elaborate terhe has rendered us.

minology of Dr. W. S. Miller, are now demarcated Within the sixth volume Prof. Oppel has com- into vestibule, atrium, and air-sac. pressed the results of two centuries of inquiry into The progress of our knowledge of the minute the minute structure of the breathing organs of structure of the mammalian lung has been peculiarly vertebrate animals. The facts are drawn from more than slow. In part this has been due to the elaborate 900 separate publications as well as rom his own nomenclature employed. The same term has been n searches, and deal with the respiratory system of used to designate totally different parts, and the same more than 300 species of vertebrate animals. A close part has been called by several different names. Prof. txamination of the great mass of evidence which has Oppel has done us a great service in coordinating the bren thus brought together leaves one convinced that, terininology used by different investigators. It is however unlike they may seem, the gill of the fish clear from the manner in which Prof. Oppel discusses and the lung of the mammal serve not only the same the question as to the nature of the epithelial coverfunctional purpose, but are, indeed, but modifications ing of the gills that he finds it difficult to break away of the self-same organ. It is now clear that in the from the tradition which has come down to us from evolution of the vertebrates there has been no develop the older embryologists—that there is a profound ment of a completely new organ of respiration. By morphological distinction between the ectodermal and a process which we understand but imperfectly at endodermal layers of the embryo. From the minute present, the same organ has been modified to serve manner in which he relates the matter it is evident the same purpose in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, that he quite enjoyed the prolonged scholastic disand mammals. The embryological investigations into cussion which was first raised by Aeby-as to whether the origin of the lungs of the frog by Goette, of the the branching of the bronchial tree was by a prolowl by Kastschenko, of the human embryo by Fol, cess of dichotomy or monopody.

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The fifth volume, which deals with our knowledge value is that in which an account is provided of the of the pineal body, and the pineal eye or parietal new developments in genetics, especially Mendelian organ, was entrusted by Prof. Oppel to the safe analysis and the experiments of de Vries. The cons. hands of Dr. F. K. Studnička. That authority has quences of Mendelian segregation are described with not only coordinated the results contained in some great clearness, and are illustrated by some excellent three hundred papers dealing with this structure, but diagrams, of which one (p. 101) is striking and novel. has added much new and valuable work of his own. The members of the various generations are shown

The study of structure by itself and for itself is a in a perspective view, drawn approximately to scale, most unprofitable occupation, and Prof. Oppel, by in a way which should do something to remove the including a free reference to function and develop- supposed obscurity of these phenomena. Both the ment, has not only added greatly to the interest, but description of the facts and the critical discussion of also to the value of these two volumes.

the bearing of Mendel's discovery on the earlier or A. K. Galtonian method of calculating inheritance are

especially lucid and to the point. A TEXT-BOOK OF GENETICS.

The weaker features of this section are such as are

almost inevitable in attempts to confine a rapidly l'orlesungen uber Descendenztheorien mit besonderer

growing study within text-book limits. The relative Berücksichtigung der Botanischen Seite der Frage importance of the various elements is continually gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. By

changing. For example, though due stress is laid on Dr. J. P. Lotsy. Erster Teil. Pp. xii + 384. Tschermak's fine series of cases illustrating the influ(Jena : Gustav Fischer, 1906.) Price 8 marks.

ence of hidden factors, or cryptomeres, Cuénot's useful AS

S the moment is favourable, may it be suggested exposition of the part played by double factors in the

that the branch of science the rapid growth of case of mice seems to have been left out. Having which forms the occasion of Prof. Lotsy's book regard to the remarkable developments which have should now receive a distinctive name? Studies in

followed, this omission is unlucky. In the same con“ Exper nental Evolution" or in the “ Theory of nection it is a matter of special regret to myself that Descent,” strike a wrong note; for, theory apart, the the revised and simplified account of the walnut" physiology of heredity and variation is a definite combs in fowls did not reach Prof. Lotsy in time to branch of science, and if we knew nothing of evolu- prevent reproduction of my former and erroneous tion that science would still exist. To avoid further idea in his text-book. periphrasis, then, let us say genetics.

By all who are working at genetics the discussion Prof. Lotsy's lectures are a welcome contribution of de Vries' mutations will be read with interest. Till to genetics. They are expository and critical rather now those remarkable observations have been regarded than creative, but there is plenty of room for such a either with indiscriminate enthusiasm, or with still work. Since it must be admitted that to most of us more unreasoning suspicion. But on those who know facts appeal“ first when we see them painted," such that the mutations of (Enothera are not errors of oba presentation as this book provides should attract servation, and hesitate to accept them as the single key many who would find little to detain them in original to the final mysteries of evolution, the question begins records.

to press : What are those mutations? C'pon this There are twenty lectures in this first part, and a point the teaching of genetic research is clear. Befort second part is promised. After a philosophical intro- we can form a definite view as to the nature of any duction, which must be left to the judgment of those given mutation we must know its gametic relations versed in such matters, the author proceeds to a care- to the type from which it sprang, and to the sisterful discussion of the evidence for direct adaptation. mutations. So far, these relations, as expressed by Though no Lamarckian in the usual sense, he has a the ratios in which the forms appear, seem

to be high respect for Lamarck's penetration and breadth of almost always irregular in the (Enothera cases. Exview. In this revindication of a great name, perience, however, has shown that such irregularities, naturalists of the younger generation who have studied as in the case of Miss Saunders' Matthiola, may conLamarck's writings at first hand will probably ceal an underlying regularity which fuller analysis can sympathise with Prof. Lotsy. In a limited sense the reveal. For instance, we know that various individuals modification produced by environment-- biaiometa- of a form A may give respectively an F. ratin morphosis, as Prof. Lotsy calls it-is important. No 9.1: 7B; or 3 : 1B; or all\; or 274, 9C, 28B, and botanist doubts that the forms of plants can be pro- so on, and the causation or meaning of these several foundly changed by the conditions to which they are ratios is clear. May not such complexities be the exposed. The normal or habitual form in which we source of the confusion which apparently besets the know a species is only one of these modifications. Enothera cases? That is the opinion to which Prof. Consequently each experimental proof of the depend. Lotsy inclines, and the position is for the most part ence of form on environment has a direct bearing on unassailable as yet. All that can be positively asseried the genesis of type. But the question of purposeful is that these mutations are forms arising disconor adaptative modification is quite distinct, and of any tinuously, and that their distinctions are exactly comtransmission of purposeful modification in descent . parable with those that often appear to characterise there is no evidence.

species. But now that we understand what a medley The section of the book which gives it its chiet of phenomena is included in the term “specific


sterile pollen grains are suspicious, I may mention that (1) THE preparation of this tenth edition of a well

difference " it becomes necessary to go further and to long for decent woodcuts again. The figure of the ascertain which phenomenon is exemplified in each Norwich canary would surprise the fanciers of that case. That genetic analysis can alone answer that city, and it suggests that the crest is a Norwich charquestion everyone now perceives. De Vries' own dis

Lastly there is a profusion of most distracting cussion of his results contains manifest traces of an misprints.

W. BATESON. attempt to incorporate the Mendelian ideas into earlier and pre-Mendelian conceptions, and the result is not always harmonious or convincing. We look to de

TEXT-BOOKS OF PHYSICS. Pries and the many observers who are now at work (1) Müller-Pouillets Lehrbuch der Physik und Meteoron Cnothera to bring the various possibilities to a ologie. Edited by Leopold Pfaundler. Tenth edi. strict test, case by case, and so complete what has tion. First vol. (in two parts). Pp. xiv + 801. Illusbeen begun with such astonishing success.

trations. (Brunswick : F. Vieweg und Sohn, 1905 Meanwhile, however, it must be conceded that there and 1906.) Price 7 marks and 3 marks 50. are serious difficulties in the way of a purely Mendelian (2) Cours de Physique de l'École Polytechnique. By account of the Enotheras--more perhaps than Prof. J. Jamin. Troisième supplément. Radiations, Lotsy indicates. Of these one of the most formidable Électricité, Ionisation. E. Bouty. Pp. vi+ 420. is the behaviour of the form nanella, for which other (Paris : Gauthier-Villars, 1906.) Price 8 francs. cases afford no parallel. There are, further, the | (3) Lehrbuch der Physik. By H. A. Lorentz. Transobjections de Vries himself has urged in the passages lated into German by G. Siebert. Erster Band. contributed to Moll's exposition of his work--particu- Pp. vi+ 482. (Leipzig : Johann A. Barth, 1906.) larly, that no indication of a hybrid origin of his Price 8 marks. original stock is forthcoming. Again, though the

known text-book has been undertaken by in a collection of wild anotheras (? species) made near Dr. Pfaundler, in succession to Dr. Wild, whose death Baltimore, I found none which had not some bad

occurred soon after the publishers had put the revision pollen grains. Were all these hybrids ? it may well be

in hand. For the present instalment on mechanics asked. li su, hybrids of what? Our Rubi hybridise

and acoustics Dr. Pfaundler is responsible; but for freely, but, as Focke showed, there are pure forms

other parts of the four volumes in which the work with períect pollen, and hybrid forms with an ad

will be completed the co-operation has been secured mixture of bad grains. This test should be made in

of Dr. Lummer (optics and heat), Dr. Kaufmann America on a large scale, to discover whether any (magnetism and electricity), Prof. J. M. Pernter Enothera is “ pure by that criterion.

(meteorology), Dr. Nippoldt (terrestrial magnetism), But again, we know that the production of analyti- | Dr. Drucker (physical chemistry), and Dr. Wassmuth cul varieties by a hybrid, and the production of novel (heat conductivity and thermodynamics). forms by a mutating species, must be exceedingly It is intended to maintain the characteristics of the similar and perhaps indistinguishable phenomena.

book as being essentially non-mathematical. This Hybridisation cannot be regarded as the sole source plan, of course, very niuch restricts the treatment of of analytical variation-witness the case of Primula

most of the problems dealt with, and in many cases sinensis and the sweet pea, where analytical variation

prevents any proof being given of formulæ which are is rise, though no hybridisation has taken place. discussed. There is room, however, for a text-book The interrelationship of the two sets of occurrences of this kind, as is amply testified by the success of is still obscure; but by experimental breeding it can the previous editions. In spite of the limitation in in great measure be elucidated, and in the course of the treatment, the author has succeeded in giving a that inquiry the meaning of mutation will probably very comprehensive account of his subject. He is be discovered

very clear, and takes special pains to be so in cases Only salient features of the book have been men- where difficulties are commonly met with. tioned; many others must be passed over. Capsella ample, in connection with mass and weight he is very has provided (p. 180), as might be expected, good precise. The kilogram is a mass, and not a weight; examples of the constancy of petites espèces. Time one can only say it has a weight, and can call this brings revenges, and we must hope that Jordan would the kilogram-weight. In stating this he is in agreehave felt satisfaction in the recognition now accorded ment with the International Committee of Weights to his once discredited work, though, by the per- and Measures (Paris, 1901), whose decisions may be Tersity of things, that work is used to complete and considered as representing the common-sense of the support those views he most detested. Strange, too, scientific world. would it seem to his opponents to see Jordan's micro- The intention is to bring out the remaining volumes species received as a valuable element in the general quickly. It is expressly hoped that owing to the large doctrine of mutability !

number of collaborators, the treatise may be comIn several minor points the book is open to criticism. pleted before the first volume is out of date. The Artemia-Branchipus story should not be repeated (2) The second of the volumes under notice is the even incidentally without words of caution. The pic-third supplement to the treatise on physics, commonly Tures even in these half-tone days are below the mark, known as “ Jamin et Bouty.” The subject-matters and such pictures as those of peloric Linaria make one embraced are radiations, électricité, ionisation. It is

For ex

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