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the centre, whilst air from the north fows round the ski, and is expected to occupy about two months and a

half. (5) Southerly winds are generally short-lived as surface Mr. Walter Wellman has formed a project for reaching currents. Other currents last longer. They may persist the North Pole by means of an airship. The vessel is to until they reach the trade winds, or they may turn and start from a base in Spitsbergen, and it is estimated that join the depression from the south, or may disappear in the return voyage of 1200 miles may be accomplished in some depression over the Atlantic.

from five to fifteen days. This expedition is being financed (4) The central areas of well-marked anticyclones have by Mr. Victor Lawson, chief proprietor of the Chicagonot shown themselves to be the usual birthplace of descend- Record Herald, and a very full description of the airship ing currents. These generally originate in the col ” or ---- which is of a quite novel type—is given by Mr. Wellman shoulder of an anticyclone, or the areas of comparatively in the April number of the National Geographic Magazine. low pressure between two anticyclonic or two cyclonic The contract for construction was given to M. Louis areas. Only very rarely has a trajectory been traced back Godard, of St. Ouen. According to a Reuter correspondent to the centre of an anticyclone.

in the Times of June 5, the ship will leave Paris for Spits13) Surface observations have not indicated the con- bergen in a few days. ditons which mark out the track of a barometric minimum.

The publication contains some twenty-six valuable plates af weather charts with the trajectories plotted, and accompanied by full notes and selected observations along the

A CATALOGUE OF FOSSIL INVERTEBRATES." irajectories. The trajectories have also been drawn having Fagard to the centre of the storm as a fixed point. There This catalogue of fossil invertebrates, compiled by Mr. are also some mathematical notes by Mr. G. T. Bennett Charles Schuchert, assisted by Messrs. W. H. Dall, with reference to looped trajectories and the calculation T. W. Stanton, and R. S. Bassler, is arranged alphaof dilatation of areas in travelling storms.

betically, and gives the catalogue number of the department W. M. registers, the name of the species as written in the work

cited, the kind of type (for instance, holotype, cotype), the

formation, locality, author, and place of publication, with NEW ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS.

remarks on the present naine if different from the one cited, or a cross reference when the same species appears

in the list under more than one name. THE present season promises to be one of unusual

Remarks, together importance in the annals of Arctic exploration, both

with sources of such, are added in brackets where necessary. in the way of scientific investigation of specific problems

The list itself is preceded by an admirably clear and such as those stated in the paper by Sir Clements Markham carefully written introduction by Mr. C. Schuchert, dealing published in the January number of the Geographical

mainly with type terms. Use is made of the contributions Journal, and in what may be more correctly described as of Schuchert, Buckman, Cossmann, Oldfield Thomas, attacks on the Pole."

Bather, and others to the discussion of the terminology of According to a note in the current number of the Geo- type specimens, thus furnishing a valuable and concise graphical Journal, Mr. A. H. Harrison's expedition reached summary of definitions, the understanding of which is Herschel Island, near the mouth of the Mackenzie, in necessary for the proper appreciation of the catalogue. In Feliruary last, where Mr. Harrison found Lieut. Hansen addition to terms already in use are others which are inannt the members of the Gjoa expedition. Writing on

troduced here for the first time, and consequently call for March 1, Mr. Harrison expressed the intention of making

brief notice. Primary types or proterotypes are divided his way during April to Bailie Island, and thence to Banks into holotypes, cotypes (or syntypes), paratypes, lectotypes, Land, where he proposes to spend next winter.

and chirotypes, the last two terms being new. The term The general scheme of the expedition-now formally

chirotype” is proposed for the material upon which designated the Anglo-American Polar Expedition

a published manuscript name is based." In cases where undertaken by Mr. Elnar Mikkelsen and Mr. Leffingwell, has

the original diagnosis is without illustrations or is accomalready been outlined in these columns (January 25, vol.

panied by figures based on two or more specimens, the Ixxiii., p. 302). Since his arrival in the United States the first subsequent author is at liberty to select from these Imerican Geographical Society has voted Mr. Mikkelsen a cotypes a type for the old species, adhering, as far as can sum oí 3000 dollars, the largest grant ever given to an

be ascertained, to the intention of the original author." explorer by the society, and the council of the Royal Geo

Such a type specimen is designated a lectotype." Supgraphical Society has made a second grant of rool. Mr.

plementary types are divided into plesiotypes, neotypes, and Mikkelsen has purchased a schooner of 66 tons burden,

heautotypes.
Heautotype " is

is a new term proposed by which he has named the Duchess of Bedford, and has now

Buckman for a specimen figured by an author as frn able to elaborate his plans in considerable detail on

illustration of his own already founded species, such not the lines already announced (see the Times, April 21, and

being a proterotype.' Typical specimens are divided into the Geographical Journal, vol. xxvii., p. 507). The pro.

topotypes, metatypes, homæotypes, and “ideogramme is an extensive and extremely hazardous one, but

types" (new). The term ideotype is used by Buckman a part of it is successfully carried out scientific for specimens which come from places other than the prsults of great value will certainly be obtained.

original locality, and named by an author of a species after The Danish or Danmark expedition, for which funds publication. The term "

protograph (suggested by Buckamounting to about 250.000 kr. have been raised by means man for the original figure or figures illustrating a holoof Government grant and private subscriptions, will

type) and

synthetograph (a drawing which is irare Copenhagen on July 1 under the leadership of Mr.

composite figure based upon several specimens of the new I. Vilius-Erichsen, and make its way so far north as

species) are also introduced here for the first time. For possible along the east coast of Greenland. There a landing

any artificial specimen moulded directly from a primary will be effected, and the party will proceed along the east

type Schuchert proposes the term plastotype.” For types Dasl, wintering en route, to the most northerly point of

of genera or genotypes the word "

geno

is prefixed to Greenland, which is, in the leader's opinion, the most

the primary type terms, thus giving the corresponding terms favourable place from which to make an attempt to reach

genoholotype, genosyntype, and genolectotype." the Pole. A sledge expedition will set out for the Pole from

We cannot but feel grateful to Mr. Schuchert for his here, and return in time to winter on the ship the second

clear correlation of type terms. Although distinctly opposed Fear. In March, 1908, Mylius-Erichsen, accompanied by

to a multiplicity of terms in itself, we feel certain that such one of his staff and two Greenlanders, hopes to set out on

as are introduced in this volume justify their usage in the the serind part of his journey, and realise the daring plan

interest of scientific method.

Ι. Τ. of traversing the inland ice of Greenland on the broadest portion of the continent. The crossing is to be effected

1 Smithsonian Institution: Bulletin of the United States National partly by motor-car, partly by dog sledges, and partly on

Museum ; Catalogue of Fossils, Minerals, Rocks, &c., Merrill.

Part i.,
Fossil Invertebrates. Pp. 704.
NO. 1911, VOL. 74]

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UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

INTELLIGENCE. OXFORD.-Dr. William Somerville has been elected to the Sibthorpian professorship of rural economy.

The following have been nominated to examine in the final honour schools :-in physics, Mr. W. C. D. Whetham; in chemistry, Prof. Arthur Smithells; in physiology, Mr. W. M. Bayliss.

An examination for a geographical scholarship of the value of 6ol. will be held on October 11. Candidates, who must have taken honours in one of the final schools of the University, should send in their names to the reader in Geography, Old Ashmolean Building, Oxford, by October 1.

An appointment to the Oxford biological scholarship at Naples will be made next Michaelmas term. Candidates should send their names to the professor of comparative anatomy, the professor of physiology, or the professor of botany, by October 15.

CAMBRIDGE.-Dr. Nuttall, F.R.S., has been appointed reader in hygiene ; Dr. L. Humphry has been re-appointed university lecturer in medicine, and assessor to the regius professor of physic.

The degree of LL.D. honoris causa will, on June 16, be conferred on His Excellency Paul Cambon, G.C.V.O., the French Ambassador.

A prize of 5ol. from the Gordon-Wigan fund will be awarded in next Easter term for a research in chemistry to be carried out in Cambridge by a member of the University under the standing of Master of Arts.

A course of lectures and demonstrations in crystallography will be given during the long vacation by Mr. Hutchinson, beginning on July 7.

In the Mathematical Tripos, part i., two candidates are bracketed as senior wranglers, namely, Mr. A. T. Rajan and Mr. C. J. T. Sewell, both of Trinity. There are thirty-three wranglers. In partii. all seven candidates are placed in the first class.

The diploma in agriculture has been awarded to six candidates, who have passed both parts of the examination.

The certificate of research has been awarded to advanced students, Mr. P. Phillips and Mr. E. F. Burton, both of Emmanuel College, for researches in experimental physics.

Prof. Sims Woodhead will represent the University at the dedication of the new buildings of the Harvard Medical School on September 25 and 26.

· The inaugural address of the local lectures summer meeting will be given by the Hon. Whitelaw Reid, American Ambassador, on August 2.

DR. OTTO DIELS, senior assistant in the chemical insti. tute of the University of Berlin, whose brilliant discovery of carbon suboxide was only recently made known, has been granted the title of professor. Dr. Karl Neuberg, assistant in the pathological institute of the same ini. versity, has also received the same honour.

At the meeting of the Glasgow University Court on June 7 a letter of resignation was received from Prof. McKendrick, the professor of physiology. Prof. Mcken. drick has held the chair of physiology for thirty years, and has decided to retire at this time in order that his successor may have a considerable share in the equipment, and an opportunity of arranging the details of apparatus, both for teaching and research, of the physiological labor. atories, which have been designed according to specifications supplied by Prof. McKendrick, and are approaching completion.

It is announced in Science that Yale University has received an anonymous gift of 1000l. to the forestry school, the income of which is to be used for the publication of works on forestry by graduates and members of the faculty.

The council of the University of Paris has definitely approved of the scheme for the extension of the University. This will include, according to the Lancet, the construction of an institute of chemistry covering an

area of 9000 square metres. Here will be established the various departments of chemistry belonging to the faculty of science and the department of applied chemistry which, since its creation, have been provisionally installed in some sheds. The cost of this will be 3,000,000 francs, which will be divided between the City of Paris and the State. The extension scheme also includes the acquisition by the University, in view of future necessities, of a plot of land of 14,000 square metres. Towards the cost of this land the University will pay 1,900,000 francs and the city 700,000 francs, to which will be added the donation from the Prince of Monaco. On a portion of this area will hur erected the Institute of Oceanography, founded by the Prince of Monaco.

two

MR. HALDANE, M.P., Secretary of State for War, has consented to distribute the prizes at the London Hospital Medical College on Friday, July 13.

Prof. LECOMTE has been appointed professor the botany of the phanerogams in the Paris Museum of Natural History, and Dr. Trouessart professor of zoology.

HERR ADOLF HALLICHS, managing director of the Friedrich Wilhelms metallurgical works, Mülheim, has been appointed a professor of the Technical High School at Aachen.

DR, R. SCHENCK, privatdocent for chemistry in the chemical institute of Marburg University, has been chosen for the professorship of physical chemistry in the Technical High School in Aachen.

DR. FRANZ ARTHUR SCHULZE, privatdocent and senior assistant in the physics institute in Danzig, has been appointed professor of physics in the Technical High School as successor to Prof. Zenneck, now in Brunswick.

Mr. J. D. Daly, of the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, Ireland, has been appointed secretary of the Royal Coinmission upon Trinity College, Dublin, and the University of Dublin.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

LONDON. Royal Society, March 15.—"On the Specific Heat of, Heat Flow from, and other Phenomena of the Working Fluid in the Cylinder of the Internal Combustion Engine," be Dugald Clerk. Communicated by the Hon. C. A. Parsons, C.B., F.R.S.

This paper describes experiments made with a gasa'ngine of sixty brake horse-power, devised to obtain data necess sary for a more complete theory of the internal combustion motor, and also to discriminate between the effects of continued combustion in a gaseous explosion, and specitic heat change, at temperatures between 200° C. and 1500° C. The new method of experiment consists in alternately compressing and expanding the highly heated gases within the engine cylinder while cooling proceeds, and observing by the indicator the successive pressure falls and compression and expansion curves from revolution to revolution.

From some two hundred indicator cards taken unde varying conditions have been calculated :-(1) a curve of apparent specific heat of the gaseous contents at constan! volume between 200° C. and 1500° C. ; (2) curves of heat loss to the enclosing walls; and (3) distribution of hest in the working cycle calculated from diagrams only. The apparent specific heat at constant volume is proved to increase from 22 foot-pounds per cubic foot at 200° C. 10 174 foot-pounds at 1500° C., and an examination of expansion curves and specific heat determinations made at different engine speeds and jacket temperatures shows that com. bustion is proceeding, and accounts for a part of the apparent increase of specific heat. Tables I. and II. sbor the apparent instantaneous specific heats and the mean specific heats in foot-pounds per cubic foot of working fluid at o° C. and 760 mm.

196

2468
25 2

constant volume

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TABLE I.-Table of Apparent Specific Heats (Instantaneous) of great license. The village is made genna before the

in fool-pounds per cubic foot of Working Fluid at crop is sown, at the harvest-home, and sometimes on the oo C. and 760 mm.

appearance of the first blade of the crop. When the village Temperature Specific heat at

is genna everyone must stay in until the tabu is over, and Specific heat at

Temperature constant volume

constant volume it sometimes lasts as long as ten days, and no one who is fr .lbs.

C.
ft. -Ibs.

outside is allowed to come in. The village is also genna
800
26'2

when a rain-making ceremony is necessary, and, in fact, ico 20*9

900
26.6

any magical ceremony for the good of the whole com300 22'0 1000

26.8 munity is necessarily accompanied by a general genna. joo 230 1100

27'0 Gennas are also occasioned by natural phenomena, such 100 23:9 1 200

272

as earthquakes, eclipses, &c., and when the annual ceresoo

1300

273

mony of laying the ghosts of those who have died within 600

1400

27'35

the year is held. Individual gennas are necessary at all 700 257 1500

27:45 important events in life, such as childbirth or marriage,

and are as inevitable as crop gennas. They are also exTABLE II.-Table of Mean Apparent Specific Heats in foot, tended to certain foods, especially in the case of the head pounds per cubic foot of Working Fluid at oo C. and

man of the village, and are also necessary when any per700 mm.

son wishes to erect a monolith, usually for self-glorification. Temperature Specific heat at

Temperature

Specific heat at Such an individual is genna from the moment he takes constant volume

the first steps towards erecting a monolith until the stone Ir.-Ibs.

ft. lbs.

is finally in position. Slides of these monuments were 0-100

203
0-900

23'9

shown by Mr. Hodson earlier in the evening. Gennas are 20'9

24'1

also occasioned by the birth or death of any animal within 0-300 214

244

the house, and warriors before and after a raid are subject O-400

219
0--1200

to them. 0-500

22-4

0-1300 0-600

22.8
0-1400
25'0

Geological Society, May 23. --Mr. R. S. Herries, vice0-700

23'2
0-1500

25'2 president, in the chair.-The importance of Halimeda as 0-800 23:6

a reef-forming organism, with description of the The curves of heat loss show that for equal temperature

Halimeda-Limestones of the New Hebrides : F. Chapman differences heat loss per unit surface exposed increases

and D. Mawson, Calcareous algæ, nullipores, Lithowith density, and values are given of the heat losses for thamnion, &c., have been frequently referred to as forming various temperatures. From these curves mean tempera

important contributions to the rock of coral-reefs. The tures of the cylinder walls have been calculated, and shown

material obtained in the great boring, the lagoon borings, to vary at full load from 190° C. for the whole stroke to and lagoon dredging at Funafuti has yielded a considerable 200° C. for the three-tenths stroke.

quantity of Halimeda, and Dr. Guppy has described a Calculations are made of heat distribution in the work

Halimeda-Limestone in the Solomon Islands. Evidence ing cycle of the fluid which show that the total heat such as this shows that the important deposits of calcareous present in the form of combustible gas can be accurately plant-remains forming at the present day can scarcely be calculated from the indicator diagram alone, by means of

paralleled by any deposit formed in past geological times the new data obtained in the investigation.

except, possibly, the limestones of the Alpine Trias, which It is pointed out that with a sufficiently sensitive owe their origin to the thallophytes Diplopora and Gyroindicating instrument the rate of continued combustion

porella. Among other Halimeda-Limestones mentioned by can be determined, and the true change of specific heat

the authors are those of Christmas Island, Fiji and Tonga, outained from experiments made by the new method.

and the New Hebrides.-Notes on the genera Omospira, The determination of the specific heat of gases heated by

Lophospira, and Turritoma, with descriptions of new high compressions, such as one and a half tons to the

species : Miss Jane Donald. The new species described square inch, is suggested, to avoid the complications intro

in the paper belong to three genera, characterised by the dured by combustion. It is shown that in these experi

possession of a band on all the whorls formed by the ments the rate of loss of a mass of flame at 1000° C. to

gradual filling up during growth of a sinus, and not the comparatively cold walls of the cylinder was less than

slit, in the outer lip.--Lantern-slide views illustrating the the rate of addition of heat by work performed by the

late eruption of Vesuvius and its effects : Prof. H. J. piston, 50 that the flame temperature in the first com

Johnston-Lavis. Nearly all the photographs were taken pression rose from 1000° C. to about 1300° C., that is,

by the exhibitor, who explained the different phenomena compression in 0.25 second enabled a mass of flame to be

portrayed. He considered this eruption to resemble mostly handled in such a manner as to obtain accurate results.

that of 1822, although the present crater was larger, In these experiments, with maximum pressures of four

attaining 1500 feet both north-by-south and east-by-west; hundred pounds per square inch, nearly twenty-eight tons

it was probably 500 feet to 600 feet deep at least. The retotal pressure was applied from 120 to 160 times per

markable character about this eruption was the large minute.

amount of fragmentary material ejected, especially in a Mallard and Le Chatelier's experiments are discussed,

north-easterly direction, crushing in the roofs of the buildand it is shown that no curve of specific heat can be

ings in the towns of Ottajano, San Giuseppe, and Terzigno. deduced from their observations. It is pointed out that

At the first-named locality the depth attained was nearly the curve of apparent change of specific heat of certain

0.75 metre, made up as follows :-0.04 m. grey dust, gases from o° C. to 1500° C. has been here determined

0-49 m. reddish lapilli, chiefly supplementary ejecta, experimentally for the first time. The gases forming the

m. black vesicular scoria, chiefly the essential working fiuid consist mainly of carbonic acid, steam,

ejecta. The material which fell at the observatory and nitrogen, and oxygen. The composition and all other

Naples had much the same arrangement, but was, of details are given in the paper.

course, less, and practically only sand and dust. Near the

base of the cone the ejecta attain to blocks several tons in Anthropological Institute, May 22.- Prof. W. Gowland, weight; and it may be estimated that, at the north-eastern president, in the chair.-(1) A series of slides of stone toe of the great cone, in some places, the débris must be monuments found in Assam ; (2) a paper on the “ genna 60 feet thick. It is to be seen as much as 30 feet in thickness (tabu) among the tribes of Assam : T. C. Hodson. The in the new ravines that have been formed. After careful tabus are of two kinds, general or communal, as contrasted study, Prof. Johnston-Lavis had come to the conclusion that with private or individual tabus. Communal tabus are the remarkably uniform and deep scoring of the cone by observed by the whole village, which consists of several

very regular barrancos was due to the sliding and exogamous subdivisions, and are automatic, in the sense avalanche-like effect of the rapidly accumulating fragmentary that they are of regular occurrence or necessarily follow material on the steep slopes, and not due to water-action. the occurrence of some event. These regular tabus are The volcano seems to have opened at four, if not five, mostly connected with the crops, and are frequently times different places on the south-western, southern, and south

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eastern sides, giving rise to at least three important streams 40 ohms resistance is 400 mm, at I metre for 0.001 ampere. of lava. Another rift, to the north-north-east of the cone, The full deflection may be maintained for hours without emitted lava that forms an apron on that side of the causing a zero creep of i part in 2000. To attain good mountain, and must, of course, have been formed early damping a powerful magnet is used. in the eruption, that is, before April 7 to 8. The ejected

Zoological Society, May 29.- Mr. Frederick Gillett, vice blocks are chiefly old lavas and scoria, partly re-cooked

by Mr. and metamorphosed, with their cavities filled by tachylytic president in the chair.—Mammals collected

C. H. B. Grant in the Zoutpansberg district of the Traris. juice from the fluid magma of the neighbouring chimney.

vaal, and presented to the National Museum by Mr. C. D. The cavities are also often lined by sublimations of augite,

Rudd : H. Schwann and O. Thomas. The collection was hornblende, leucite, microsommite, hæmatite, halite, and a

obtained at two localities–Klein Letaba at 1000' altitude well-crystallised, yellow, deliquescent mineral which proves

and Woodbush at 4500' and so gave a good general to be a new chloride of manganese and potash for which

idea of the fauna of the region. in all it consisted a new mineral name is proposed. A few fragments of

of about 250 specimens belonging to fifty-one species and limestone, and the various mineral aggregates derived by

subspecies, of which several were described as new. In metamorphism from it, are met with, but they are chiefly addition, the old genus Macroscelides was broken up into re-ejected old ejected blocks. A light green spongy tachylyte is also frequent. The “ essential ejecta, either as

three, the new name Elephantulus being given to the group

of which M. rupestris was the type, and Nasilio to that scoria or lava, does not show any marked difference from

typified by M. brachyrhynchus.-The vascular system of the usual products of Vesuvius in such eruptions during the

Heloderma, with notes on that of the monitors and crocolast three centuries. Although much damage has been

diles: F. E. Beddard.—The external characters of an done, great areas of rugged lava-surfaces that would have

unborn fætus of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardales required centuries to render cultivable are now available

antiquorum X G. c. wardi 9): F. E. Beddard. The for the growth of woods, vines, and herbaceous plants.

South African diaptosaurian reptile Howesia : Dr. R. Physical Society, May 25.-Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S., vicepresident, in the chair.—Colour phenomena in photometry

DUBLIX. J. S. Dow. The author has found that to compare lights Royal Irish Academy, May 14.-Dr. F. A. Tarleton. of different colours is chiefly a matter of practice. The president, in the chair. -Some applications of Bessel's central portion of the retina is more sensitive to red, and

functions to physics : Prof. F. Purser. In this paper the less sensitive to green, than the surrounding portion. | author applies (1) the Besselian forms K (nr) sin, cos 12 When an attempt to photometer lights of different colour

and J.(mr) (sin h, cos h m2), where K (nr) = J.(<nr), to the is made, differences are found as the distance of the eye solution of problems of electric potential, viz. the finit from the photometer-screen is altered, and different results | Leyden jar and equal circular disks fronting one another are obtained with different photometers. Differences of

at different potential, the theory of the condenser formed 5 per cent. can easily be obtained. The Purkinje pheno- by a circular disk midway between two large circular menon, generally regarded as a cause of uncertainty in plates, and of the guard-ring electrometer. (2) The samordinary work, only becomes noticeable at small illumin- functions are applied to some problems in fluid motion, ations and with large fields of view. Experiments are (3) Certain problems in the theory of the elastic equilibrium described to show that Aicker photometers seem to be

of a right circular cylinder are discussed by the use of the affected by colour-phenomena, but to a smaller extent than Besselian forms ordinary ones. Whether Alicker or an ordinary photometer is adopted, it is necessary to specify the size of the field,

(

sin h, cos h, 12 the distance of the eye, and the order of illumination used in order to get consistent results.--Automatic arc-lamp : H. Tomlinson and G. T. Johnston. A simple form of automatic arc-lamp. A vertical brass tube supported by a wooden framework carries the upper carbon, which can

where be raised or lowered by hand and clamped in any position in the tube. The lower carbon fits into a hollow brass

d'. tube, and into the lower part of the tube is fitted an iron plunger. The plunger is surrounded by a solenoid, con

(4) Lastly, the functions J.(mr), L.(mr) are applied to sisting of a layer of No. 14 copper wire, the internal

some problems of vortical motion of fluids under the indiameter of the solenoid being slightly greater than the

fluence of viscosity --A map showing the relative distribudiameter of the plunger. The plunger dips into a box of

tion of various types of rock on the sea-floor off the west mercury, and is made to float upright by means of a brass

of Ireland, based on materials dredged by the Fisher collar and by the rounded ends of three nails forming an

Survey of the Department of Agriculture for Ireland : Prof. equilateral triangle. The current enters the upper carbon

Cole. It is proposed to publish further details in the through the brass cylinder, passes through the lower carbon

report of that survey, but meanwhile it is believed that the into the mercury, and then through the solenoid. To

stones show the actual local distribution of rocks on sunken " strike the arc the lower carbon is raised to touch the

land, and are not the result of casual drift. The Porcupine

Bank undoubtedly consists of a upper one, and the plunger is then permitted to sink into

mass of olivine-gabbro, the mercury until the suction of the solenoid balances the while a Carboniferous area west of co. Galway indicales buoyancy of the mercury.--The theory of moving coil and

that Connemara may have risen an island in the other kinds of ballistic galvanometers: Prof. II. A.

Carboniferous sea. Wilson. The exact formulæ giving the quantity of elec- Royal Dublin Society, May 15.-- I'rol. J. A. McClelland tricity passed through various types of ballistic galvano- in the chair.-Injurious insects and other animals observed meters in common use are obtained. The various types in Ireland during 1905: Prof. G. H. Carpenter.

In require different formulæ, all of which reduce to the same addition to records of several wrll-known farm and orchard formula when the angle of deflection is small.

In the case
insects, the paper contains an account of the rare

cauli of a moving-coil galvanometer with rectangular coil, iron

flower

disease of the strawberry, due to the small nema. core, and pole-pieces arranged so as to give a radial mag- tode worm Aphelenchus fragariae, J. R. Bos, observed in netic field, the formula take a simple form.--Bifilar county Wicklow.--A possible connection between the recent galvanometer free from zero creep: A. Campbell. For disturbances at Vesuvius and San Francisco: Rev. H. 1 measuring direct currents and voltages of ordinary range This paper contained an account of some experi. moving-coil galvanometers convenient. The usual ments with rotating bodies, and an application of the prininstruments are affected by gradual displacement of zero ciples involved to certain seismic phenomena. A holloa when a deflection is maintained for some time. This difti. tee-totum weighted at one point will not spin about its culty is got over by replacing the torsional suspension by axis of symmetry, but if it contain matter capable of shifta bifilar system with two wires so far apart that the gravity ling its position, it will automatically tend to steady itself control swamps that due to the torsion of the wirrs. The owing to the summetrical distribution of the inovable wires are more than I cm, apart, and the sensitivity with matter round its circumference. For esample, is threr

1,(mr) () (s m2).
K,(Mr) (%) (sin, cos or

)
J,(-1) = - J.(-), K,(x) = (5,1 x)

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steel balls of equal size be dropped into a smooth, hollow urethane, B-anthracene hexahydride, y-anthracene tetratee-totum they will take up equidistant positions round the hvdride and its dibromo-derivative. The rapidity of edge. These results suggest the possibility of seismic dis-absorption of odours by milk : F. Bordas and M. Toutturbances being related in some such way. The above plain. In an atmosphere containing only 1/100,000 of principles were applied to the disturbances which character- formaldehyde a few minutes' exposure is sufficient for the ised the month of April-- Vesuvius. April 8; Formosa, milk to show clearly the reaction of the aldehyde. The April 14 : San Francisco, April 18. The possibility of this fresher the milk the more rapidly the absorption appears explanation being correct is supported by observed facts in take place. A qualitative reaction of phosphorus : connection with displacement of the poles associated with M. Mauricheau-Beaupré. The reaction is based on the great rarthquakes, and also by the positions of the locali- depolishing of glass by the action of a fame containing ties referred to.

small amounts of phosphorous compounds.-A new method Paris.

for the microscopical analysis of flour and the determinAcademy of Sciences, May 28.-M. H. Poincaré in the ation of rice starch in wheat flour : G. Gastine. The chair.-Remarks on work recently carried out

at the

flour is treated with certain colouring materials in soluObservatory of Besançon : M. Læwy.—Centres of gravity tion, the whole slowly dried on the slide, and mounted in of spiraloid systems : Haton de la Goupillière.-An ex- Canada balsam. The differential staining of the hilum pedition in an aërostat, projected for the exploration of is the basis of the method.-Oxydising catalysers and the the North Pole : J. Janssen. An account of an expedition generalisation of flameless combustion : C. Matignon and projected by Mr. Walter Wellman, and supported by the R. Trannoy.--Autocatalysis and the decomposition of a Geographical Society of Washington.-Addition to the note photochemical system: Béla Szilard. Details are given on the use of low temperatures in chemical analyses : MM. of the action of light on a solution of triiodomethane in d'Arsonval and Bordas. In the majority of cases the chloroform.—The study of heterogeneous equilibria under racuum obtainable by an ordinary pump is sufficient. In varying pressures : E. Briner. The increased pressures certain cases, however, the authors have found it advan- are obtained by the use of a cylinder of compressed carbon tageous to use either a mercury pump, or charcoal and dioxide, whilst the constancy of temperature during the liquid air, according to Dewar's method.- Magnetic observ- reaction is ensured by a vapour jacket. A diagram of the ations at Tananarivo: Éd. Él. Colin. Three tables are apparatus used is given.—The nearly total transformation given showing the results of the absolute measurements of of the dextrins arising from the saccharification of starch the declination, inclination, and the horizontal component into maltose : A. Fernbach and J. Wolft. The rate of at the Observatory of Tananarivo, taken weekly from May, production of maltose from the dextrins is much slower 1005, to April, 1906.-.M. Charles Trépied was elected a than the conversion of the starch into the dextrins, so aurrespondant in the section of astronomy in the place of that it is incorrect to assume that the reaction is finished M. Perrotin.- The properties which correspond to

when the liquid no longer gives the jodide of starch regenrity for functions of a hypercomplex variable : Léon action. It is proved experimentally that if there exists a Autonne.-A particular class of R-functions: Henry dextrin not transformable into maltose, it can represent Bourget.--The resistance of electrolytes for high-frequency only a minute fraction of the original starch.—The princurrents : André Broca and S. Turchini. The authors ciples of gutta-percha obtained from Palaquium Treubi : showed a year ago that the theory of Lord Kelvin relating E. Jungfieisch and H. Leroux. From the crude gutta to the resistance of cylindrical conductors for currents of from the leaves of this plant a new substance has been high frequency leads, in the case of metais, to results isolated, to which the provisional name of paltreubin is preventing systematic differences from those obtained ex- given. It appears to be a mixture of two isomeric alcohols perimentally In the experiments in the present paper the of the formula C, H, OH, the acetates of which were preconductor is electrolyte. The resistance

first pared.-The spores of Streptothrix : MM. Brocqmeasured for a low-frequency current (42), and this assumed Rousseu and Piettre. Under certain conditions of cultito be the same as with a continuous current. The resist vation the spores could be obtained in such abundance ance of the same solution was then measured with high- that they could be analysed. The analyses given are stated frrquency currents (190,000 to 3,000,000). For very dilute to be the first published on the spores of the lower fungi. acid or sulphate of copper solution the ratio of the two -An invasion of algæ (Colpomenia sinuosa) on the oysters risistances thus measured was unity, but for solutions of of the Vannes River : M. Fabre-Domergue.—The evoluhigher conductivity the heating is less with a high-frequency

tion of some crustacean gregarians : L. Léger and 0. currint than with a low-frequency current, contrary to the Dubosq.- Researches on the relations between emotional apsule predicted by theory:- X-ray tubes with an automatic states and infection : M. Vaschide. It is known that the regulator : G. Berlemont.-- The variations in the state of leucocytes play an important part in the pathological proamorphous carbon under the influence of temperature and cesses of infection, the state of infection being especially under the action of oscillations of temperature: ().

connected with an increase in the proportion of leucocytes Manville. Amorphous carbon, heated in a current of with polymorphic nuclei. The author has found ihat 0918an, commences at a definite temperature to give carbon certain profound emotions are followed by an increase in d'oride, and another, higher, temperature, carbon the polynuclear leucocytes. The author cites well-known monoxide, These temperatures are

function of the facts in pathology in support of his results.—Experimental temperature to which the carbon has been previously heated. infection by Trypanosoma brucei. The destruction of the -The acid phosphites of primary cvelic amines: P. parasite in the spleen : A. Rodet and G. Vallet. ExperiLemoult. The acid phosphites of aniline, o-toluidine, and ments on dogs and rats show that in infection by this

- tlidine are described, together with an advantageous trypanosome the spleen and the other lymphoid organs are method for preparing them.—The absolute atomic weight

foci for intense destruction of the parasites. The spleen of terbium : G. D. Hinrichs. If the atomic weights of is endowed with an energetic trypanolytic power, and this oxygen, sulphur, and hydrogen used in the determination organ evidently plays an important part in the defence of of the atomic weight of thorium from the analytical figures the body against infection. The pathogenic importance of be taken on the round numbers 16, 32, 1, then the atomic bronchial adenopathy: Gabriel Arthaud.—The frequency wright of thorium becomes also the round number 159, in- and the probable etiological role of l’ncinaria americana ***a1 of the 159.22 deduced by M. Urbain.-A contribution in beri-beri : F. Noc. The contradiction of glacial erosion : Its the study of pure ferrotungstens : Em. Vigouroux. Jean Brunhes.The degree of mineralisation of subterI sing the aluminothermal method, tungsten steels can be ranean waters : F. Dienert. obtainerd containing 4h.25 per cent. of tungsten; these, when

New South WALES. extracpred with dilute hydrochloric acid, vield the whole Linnean Society, April 25.- Mr. C. Hedley in the of the fror iron, leaving a substance containing 68.7 per chair.-The geology of the volcanic area of the East Moreof tungsten,

a figure corresponding to Fe,W, ton and Wide Bay districts, Queensland: H. J. Jensen. Umbinations of mercuric jodide and free methylamine :

The district investigated lies between the Pacific Ocean Maurier Francois. -Some hydro-anthracene derivatives : Mircel Godchot. A description of the mode of prepar

and Moreton Bay on the cast, and the beds of the Mary

and Stanley Rivers on the west ; and between Cooran on ation and properties of octahydro-anthranol and its phenyi- | the north and North Pine on the south. It is important

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