Page images
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]



or Self-Recording Barometer. This is a most useful instrument, and fills a long felt want. It makes an interesting record of Barometric Variations, and at the same time readily shows (by means of the Dial) the present height of the Barometer. We guarantee the reliability of the readings obtained, both past and present. The Instrument is of the very best workmanship throughout, and is conpensated for temperature. The Recording Arm and the Dial Hand, working by means of our Special Attachment off the same movement, simultaneous action is thereby assured. Price, complete in handsome solid oak, walnut, or mahogany case, with one year's supply of Charts, Ink, and Instructions, £6 15s.


Sole PASTORELLI & RAPKIN, Ltd. Manufacturers :

(Established 1750),

Contractors to H.M. Government,
Telephone No. 1981, Holborn. Telegrams—"Rapkin, London."

or Illustrated Price List Post Free.
N.B.-If any difficulty in obtaining our instruments from your Dealer,

kindly communicate with us.




Make the


[ocr errors]

Slate Dial. Figures, Lines, &c., incised and gilt in. Bright
Gun-metal Gnomon and Holdfasts for fixing to wall.

Sıze, 3' 0" X 2'6" x 3".
PRICE • £12 12 O
KNOWLEDGE says: "Their workmanship, pattern,

and design are alike unexceptionable."
Ir Illustrated Descriptive List, covering various patterns,

post free. NEWTON & CO., Opticians to H.M. The King, H.R H. The Prince of Wales, and the boot

129. net.


THURSDAY, JUNE 21, 1906.

chapter on “ The Conservancy of Rivers in England and Wales since the Eighteenth Century brings

the history of English rivers down to the present BRITISH INLAND. NAVIGATION.

time; whilst another chapter, on “Rivers and Canals Our Waterways. A History of Inland Navigation in Ireland and Scotland," where the development of

considered as a Branch of Water Conservancy. By inland waterways was only commenced in the l'rquhart A. Forbes and W. H. R. Ashford. eighteenth century, completes the sketch of river and Pp. XV + 336. (London : John Murray, 1906.) Price canal navigations in the United Kingdom. In

chapter xi. the decline of inland navigation in the I was originally intended to deal in this volume IT

face of railway competition, and by the purchase of with the whole subject of water conservancy,

important links by the railway companies, is referred which has been defined as “ the scientific treatment to, and statistics as to the total length of canals in and regulation of all the water received in these the United Kingdom, their traffic and revenues islands, from its first arrival in the form of dew or given; whilst the various causes which have conrain till its final disappearance in the ocean,” tracing tributed to the very depressed condition of the great the evolution and subsequent history of the various majority of the canal companies are explained. branches of water conservancy, which, in addition Though the book contains, as indicated by the 10 inland navigation, comprise fisheries, water-supply, preceding summary, a considerable amount of inthe mitigation of floods, and the prevention of river formation as to the rise, progress, and present conpoilution. Owing, however, to the greatly increased dition of the inland waterways of the United Kinginterest displayed in the improvement and utilisation dom, as well as the legislative enactments controlling of our inland waterways, this subject has been given them, which Mr. Forbes, as a barrister, is specially precedence of the other branches, and forms the qualified to deal with, the most interesting subject main purport of this book, though the other branches at the present time is undoubtedly the one considered are occasionally referred to.

in the last chapter, namely, “The Resuscitation The appearance of the volume is in any case very of Our Waterways,” to which the previous portion opportune, for it has approximately coincided with of the book has gradually led up. In dealing, howthe appointment of a Royal Commission to inquire ever, with this subject, it is important to draw a into the condition of the inland waterways of the very definite distinction between the inland waterL'nited Kingdom, and to investigate whether it might ways with which the authors are concerned and be possible to devise some scheme by which inland the maritime waterways of the United Kingdom, such navigation in the British Isles, so long neglected, as the tidal estuaries and rivers and the Manchester may be revived and improved, so as to serve pro- Ship Canal, which, though referred to amongst infitably for the conveyance of bulky goods, and thereby land waterways, are quite outside the scope of the reduce the cost of carriage, and thus place British book, and are in need of resuscitation. The manufacturers in a more favourable condition for flourishing sea-going trade of Great Britain is, incompeting with their foreign rivals, and especially deed, due to her maritime waterways, many of which with those for whom a paternal Government has have been greatly improved to keep pace with the provided the facilities of free and commodious inland growth of traffic and the increasing draught of large waterways.

vessels; whilst the Manchester Ship Canal, though After a short introductory chapter on “ The Objects proceeding inland, and having unfavourably affected of Water Conservancy,” the rainfall, drainage areas, schemes for the development of inland waterways and principal rivers of the British Isles are referred by its unsatisfactory financial results, is essentially tu in a chapter on The Water System of the United a maritime waterway, and has proved of great kingdom," and certain important changes noted; value to the sea-going trade of the district by conwhilst in the next chapter the legal aspects of water verting the inland city of Manchester into a seaport, konservancy are dealt with. The authors trace three independent of Liverpool and the railways. di zince periods in the history of the navigation of Whereas, however, the United Kingdom, with its our waterways, namely, the first period, dating from very extensive coast-line and numerous important farly times up to near the close of the sixteenth tidal rivers, is exceptionally well fitted by nature for century, when the rivers were used for navigation maritime trade, its restricted area and small riverin their natural condition, as described in a chapter basins, resulting in small rivers above their tidal in the Natural Waterways " of England; a second limit, separated by high water-partings in proportion period, from the close of the sixteenth century to the to the moderate distance between them requiring to commencement of the Bri vater Canal in 1759, in- be surmounted by a canal, place this country at a augurating the canal system in England, during serious disadvantage in regard to inland navigation which time inland navigation on the rivers was im- as compared with the continent of Europe, with porosed and extended by deepening their channels, of its very extensive river-basins draining into large hich some account is given in chapter v.; and, rivers flowing for long distances over comparatively feuils, the canal era, dating from the construction level plains, and capable in some cases of being joined of the Bridgewater Canal, which, after a chapter across their water-parting by a canal of requisite on ancient and early British canals, is dealt with in size, without having to rise to a considerable elevato chapters in regard to England and Wales. A tion, and at a reasonable cost. In spite, nevertheless,


[ocr errors]


of these manifest disadvantages, there is no doubt raised by a loan with this object, which the authors that the inland waterways of England have been un- consider is the best method, and one which would duly allowed to fall into decay, owing to a surrender speedily repay the cost “ by doubling our means of in several cases to the railways, the absence of con- communication ” and “by the immense incentive certed effort to procure uniformity of dimensions given to commercial enterprise." Infortunately, in through routes and to effect amalgamations, and this is a very optimistic view of the results of the the neglect of improvements. Those inland water- purchase and improvement of our inland waterways ways which are under a single control, which possess by the Government, and not at all likely to be the requisite traffic in bulky goods, and have been realised, for their total length in England and Wales enlarged and improved to provide for the growth of is only about a fifth of the length of the railways; traffic, such as the Aire and Calder Navigation with and only a few of these waterways could be improved its coal trade, and the Weaver Navigation with its with any prospect of a remunerative expenditure. salt trade, have been able to maintain a very successful Considering that many of the French canals have a competition with the railways; and where waterways traffic which could hardly pay the working expenses, connect large centres of commerce and there is a as is the case with the Caledonian Canal, which large trade in bulky goods, the old, inadequate belongs to the Government, it is evident that the waterways have been able to retain a considerable purchase and improvement of the English canals traffic, as exemplified by the Leeds and Liverpool as a whole would be a financial mistake; but the Canal, and the canals clustering round Birmingham connection of Birmingham with a seaport by an and from the Potteries. A careful study of the adequate waterway, the improvement of some of the statistics of Continental waterways proves that, not- | antiquated canals in its neighbourhood, and the withstanding the natural advantages they possess, development of some through routes might be effected and the uniformity in size and improvements which with good prospects of satisfactory commercial and have been provided, only those waterways obtain a financial results. large traffic which deal with bulky goods and traverse long distances with merely moderate alterations in

RECENT BOTANICAL BOOKS. level. The value of inland waterways in offering an

(1) Alien Flora of Britain. By S. T. Dunn. Pp. xvi + alternative route to railways for bulky goods, and

208. (London: West, Newman and Co., 1905.) thus tending to reduce railway rates, as well as

Price 5s, net. relieving railways from being overburdened by the (2) The Aconites of India. Annals of the Royal least remunerative portion of their traffic, is obvious;

Botanic Garden, Calcutta, vol. X., part ii. By Dr. but the points requiring solution are, from what

Otto Stapf. Pp. ii + 115-197; with 25 plates. (Calsource the funds can be provided for putting the

cutta : Bengal Secretarial Press, 1905.) Price principal waterways in a position to compete with the railways for the conveyance of bulky goods, and (3) An Enumeration of the Vascular Plants from what waterways afford a good prospect of a reason

Surinam. By Dr. A. Pulle. Pp. 555. (Leyden: able return on the capital expended in their requisite

E. J. Brill, Ltd., 1906.) Price 155. improvement. The authors, in their final chapter on (4) Die europäischen Laubmoose. By Georg Roth. “ The Resuscitation of Our Waterways," after direct

Pp. xxviii + 1331.

2 vols. (Leipzig: W. Engeling attention to the interest aroused in recent years

mann, 1903-1905.) in inland navigation, the steps which have been (1) IT has been pertinently remarked that the British taken for amalgamating some of the canal companies,

cannot altogether escape the designation of the lesser cost of transport and maintenance in the aliens in view of the continual influx of foreigners, case of canals than with railways, and the possibility whether peacefully or formerly as invaders, but in such of discharging goods at any places on the banks the descendants are eventually regarded as of a canal, indicate three methods by which the natives. Plants cannot, at any rate within historic times necessary improvements, unification of dimensions, according to the author of this book, pass from the amalgamation, and control of inland waterways,

class of aliens to the class of natives. This is an might be effected.

exclusive view, but from a scientific aspect logical The first method is the conferring of additional and correct. It is a difficult matter to establish powers on the Board of Trade to supervise the im- a test for the validity of native species, especially provement and development of those waterways which in an insular country that has been extensively cultihave opportunities of trade in bulky goods, the neces- vated and the inhabitants of which have been the foresary funds being lent them by Parliament or by local most voyagers in the world. The criteria adopted by the authorities. The second method is “the establish- author depend mainly upon a consideration of the ment of a canal trust to acquire, develop, extend, distribution of each species in Great Britain and and administer, in the public interest, canals and adjacent countries. This applies especially to plants navigations in England and Wales,” which would that are generally recorded as weeds from artificial be empowered to raise the requisite funds by the habitats, but which may nevertheless be truly inissue of guaranteed canal stock. The third method digenous; the author distinguishes a considerable is “the nationalisation of waterways” by the pur- number of these that are readily noted, since chase of the canals by the Government with funds their descriptions are placed within brackets.

il. is.



noticeable genus is Ribes, for which the author been visited by a large number of plant-collectors, of favours the inclusion amongst natives of the species whom the most important, all about the middle of alpinum, grossularia, nigrum, and rubrum. The the last century, were Hostmann, Kappler, Focke, compilation of this group has demanded much | Splitberger, and Kegel, and quite recently Went and thought, and whether one agrees or disagrees with the author. A considerable number of the plants sent the discrimination, it is an extremely valuable to Europe by the earlier collectors had been previously expression of opinion, and affords the opportunity worked out, and a list of some fifty papers dealing to those interested to place on record any appar- with the classification of selected portions from ently natural localities for these species. Less in different collections is given under the literature; but teresting, but forming an integral part of the subject, this is the first attempt to prepare a complete list of are the more obvious aliens, including introductions, the vascular plants. The author has discovered twelve. casuals, and what may be termed drifts. The book new species, including two in Podostemaceæ, two fully bears out the expectations that were formed of in Melastomaceæ, one in Loranthaceæ, and a Vanilla.. its original and critical character, and to the author's Looking through the orders, the Leguminosæ are wife due credit must be given for enabling the book the most abundant, then the Orchidaceæ, Gramineæ, to take shape when the pressure of official duties and Melastomaceæ in descending order. The Malseemed likely to delay its publication.

pighiaceæ, Sapindaceæ, and Guttiferæ are propor(2) The early attempts to classily the Indian aconites tionately well represented, and among the ferns Polywere prompted by the desire to trace the source of podiaceæ and Hymenophyllaceæ. Some of the more the poisonous root known as Nepal aconite or Bikh. important genera are Miconia, Ipomea, Piper, In 1802, when the East India Company decided to Peperomia, Inga, Schizæa, Vanilla, and the tropical send a mission to Nepal, Dr. F. Hamilton was de- American genus Dichæa. A tabulated comparison is puted to join the expedition in a scientific capacity, made with the floras of British Guiana, French and he endeavoured without success to identify Bikh. Guiana, and the Amazon district, showing that about After him Wallich took up the collection of Nepal 60 per cent. of the plants of Surinam occur in each atonites, but, unfortunately, his plants assigned to

of these regions, and that about 14 per cent. are: Tinnitum ferox were not the source of Bikh, although i endemic. such was assumed. The confusion so originated was In the phytogeographical survey reference is made increased when, later on, the same scientific name to a typical mangrove vegetation found in the river was applied to different plants from Kumaon and estuaries that gives place to a littoral alluvial belt. Garwhal, and these and other misnomers have con

The vegetation of the river banks is extremely rich, tinued to the present day. To Sir George Watt much mention being made of the araceous Montrichardia credit is due for attempting to clear up the nomen

arborescens, Pachira aquatica, and Cacoucia coccinea.. clature. In touring through the localities mentioned he

Further inland there are plains on higher ground spared no pains to collect plants and to ascertain their

called savannahs, but differing from the vernacular names with any general information, and

savannahs or from the campos of Brazil, where this has materially helped Dr. Stapf in preparing the sedges, grasses, species of Schizæa, Eriocaulaceæ, present monograph. Most of the species fall into and Melastomacea are abundant. In the primitive two sections-Lycoctonum, containing perennials, forest Selaginellas and hymenophyllaceous ferns find and Napellus, containing biennials. The latter is the a suitable habitat, while Tecoma leucoxylon, Mimuimportant group including Aconitum spicatum, the sops Balata, Eriodendron anfractuosum, and certain true Bikh, and the allied Nepal species, Aconitum Lecythidaceæ are amongst the important trees. laciniatum, termed Bikhoma, also Aconitum hetero- In addition, a list of vernacular names is given, and phyllum, which contains a bitter but non-poisonous a few illustrations of typical plant formations that substance, atisine, and a similar species, Aconitum ' are excellent; also figures of the new species are palmatum. Dr. Stapf decides against the occurrence of provided and a map of the country. As Dr. Pulle has Aconitum rapellus in India, the nearest congener been at considerable pains to consult the principal being the poisonous species Aconitum soongaricum, collections in Holland and elsewhere, the enumeration of which the properties are unknown. In addition is complete, and the volume forms a valuable conto the task of discriminating between the names tribution to the botany of tropical South America. ascribed to herbarium specimens and establishing the (4) To bryologists in this country Lindberg's system, identity of vernacular designations, Dr. Stapf works in which the cleistocarpous mosses are incorporated out a classification based upon the anatomical struc- with stegocarpous forms, is the most familiar, as fure of the roots. For the biennial species he dis- Braithwaite and Dixon have both followed this artinguishes three types of root, the first, normal, show- rangement. On the Continent, Brotherus has also ing one continuous ring of cambium; in the second adopted Lindberg's system in his classification of the cambium is separated into several portions, and the mosses in the “ Naturliche Pflanzenfamilien.” the bundles appear as star-shaped masses embedded Mr. Roth has preferred to conform more closely in uniform tissue; the third is characterised by cam-to Schimper's grouping, and in this respect and bium bands having a circular or horseshoe-shaped others his classification is very similar to that of CROSS-section.

Limpricht in "Rabenhorst's Kryptogamenflora."

. (3) The colony of Surinam, or Dutch Guiana, has He retains a large number of independent genera



instead of uniting several as subgenera under one the expense of convenience. More numerous photomain genus, here again differing from English graphs taken at shorter distances would also have authorities. A good instance is afforded by a the same effect, but then the labour of collecting and comparison of the species united under Weisia by reducing the material would approach that due to Dixon with the same species that are referred by the ordinary methods. It is the object of such a book Roth to seven different genera; and two of these are as this to show that photography has distinct adquite separated from the others, as they fall under vantages peculiar to itself. But in many directions the Cleistocarpi. In his treatment of the Hypnaceæ, in which extreme accuracy is unnecessary, perspective to which family one naturally turns, Roth also differs views can be of essential service. A series of pane considerably from Schimper. Dixon collects ten of ramic pictures showing the alteration in the face of Schimper's genera under his genus Hypnum, but speci- the country due to volcanic eruptions, or the refies five of them as subgenera. Roth has twelve current changes in sand dunes caused by winds blouequivalent genera, but again four genera are placed ing from certain directions at regular intervals, seeni in a different family, and unnecessarily, although to be peculiarly suitable inquiries for photographic not without reason, the genus or subgenus Harpidium methods. Similarly, the changes in glacier formis changed to Drepanocladus. This is one of the ation and the determination of their motion, alternames which, it is hoped, will be sustained when the ations in coast-line due to erosion, or the location of nomenclature of the cryptogams is discussed at the rocks and buoys would suggest other applications for next International Botanical Congress.

the process. In wars and manœuvres, either with The points of difference between this work and or without the use of balloons, the process has a Dixon and Braithwaite's books are so numerous that large field of application. British moss-workers will refer to the “ Europäischen Since the translation of a perspective view or comLaubmoose " for contrast rather than for comparison. bination of views into maps possessing considerable As a practical handbook for naming mosses the work accuracy of detail is likely to concern many other deserves much commendation, and bears ample evid- professions than that of a surveyor, properly so called, ence that the writer has definite opinions to express.

it is most desirable to have a treatise in which is It is a great pity that analytical tables for distinguish- set out clearly the methods of construction and of ing genera are not given, but the descriptions are the principles underlying the practice of the process. good, and important characters are thrown into bolder This want Mr. Flemer's book is intended to supply. type. References to the most recent discoveries of That the author is competent to deal with the subject new localities and new varieties will be found. The practically we entertain no doubt, but whether he illustrations are very numerous, but poor in execution. has been successful in conveying his knowledge to

others it is very difficult to judge. Surveying is PHOTOGRAPHY IN SURVEYING

technical work that can hardly be learnt without OPERA

actual experiment in the field under the eye of a TIONS.

trained teacher. What amount of preliminary inAn

Elementary Treatise Phototopographic formation is a pupil supposed to have before tackling Methods and Instruments. By J. A. Flemer.

the problems the author introduces? Certainly one Pp. six +438. (New York: John Wiley and Sons; ought to be accustomed to the use of the plane table London : Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1906.) Price

and the time-honoured methods of procedure 'before

addressing himself to the study of perspective views. THE HE assistance that photography can render in The method should be regarded, not as a substitute,

the laborious work connected with topo- but as an addition, to the recognised processes. graphical surveys has been repeatedly insisted upon, Mr. Flemer's book consists practically of three parts. and recognition the fact is being displayed After a short preliminary historic review to shon in the construction of a class of instruments admirably how the principles have been welcomed in various adapted for use in the field. With the more countries, the author discusses the phototopographic venient instruments that experience will suggest, and methods that various authorities have recommended. with the shortened methods that familiarity will The fact that we have so many varieties of detail supply, the employment of photography is likely to shows that the subject has not yet taken that mebe still more general, though doubtless it will have chanical, stereotyped form which it may be expected to contend against a certain amount of prejudice in to assume when fully developed. The second part favour of older methods.

opens with a chapter on lenses, which seems hardly Mr. Flemer's book is intended to overcome these necessary to introduce the description of the many prejudices and to determine the exact field which the photogrammetric instruments now in use. This latter camera can usefully occupy in surveying operations. is a really valuable and excellent section. Finally, we The method has its limitations. The accuracy of a have the details of the photographic operations, in. map constructed from panoramic view's must evidently cluding the development of the plates and prints. depend upon the precision with which objects can be There is not much that is new that can be said here, identified and measured on a photograph or its en- and the treatment of pinhole photography which is largement. The use of telephoto-lenses or long. naturally connected with this subject is unfortunately focused cameras would increase the accuracy, but at discussed in another place.

W. E. P.





« PreviousContinue »