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persal of mammalian groups, and how profoundly quences of the failure of water were disastrous, and even the present discoveries have modified our con- the fire, started by the earthquake, was able to spread ceptions of the past history of the mammalia and of unchecked. the globe in general.
Apart from the loss of buildings and lives, San FranAfter a careful study of the volume before us, we cisco has lost its most important libraries and scienhave found no occasion for a single word of hostile tific collections; the Bancroft library of books and criticism. The author knows his subject from every manuscripts relating to the history of the Pacific coast possible point of view in a most thorough manner, has been saved, as have most of the type-specimens of and has treated it in a thoroughly philosophic plants in the collection of the Academy of Sciences, way from first to last, while the introduction is but that is practically all. On the other hand, the Lick written in a style that will appeal to the general Observatory and the University of California have reader as well as to the specialist. It is, perhaps, not escaped damage, and the working part of the Lelandtoo much to say that it is the most important con- Stanford University has escaped the complete detribution to mammalian palæontology that has ever struction which has been the fate of the memorial appeared within our own recollection on this side buildings of that institution. of the Atlantic, and if the twentieth century were to
The area over which the earthquake did serious no other work on mammals—either recent damage was confined to a narrow strip of country exfossil-it would still have a vast achievement to its tending from the town of Ukiah, on the Russian credit.
R. L. river, to the town of Salinas, near Monterey Bay.
Beyond these limits the country sparsely settled and
may have been vigorously shaken without the fact THE CALIFORNIAN EARTHQUAKE OF
being reported, but the limits indicated lie about 203 APRIL 18.
miles apart, or 125 miles north and 80 miles south
of San Francisco; within this strip the damage was THE accounts which are reaching this country very capriciously distributed, and died out rapidly to
enable us to form a better idea of the character of the east and westwards; at Berkeley town many buildthe Californian earthquake of April 18 last than could ings were ruined, but the University of California
escaped; San Jose
partly ruined, and most of the buildings of the Stanford University, at Palo Alta, were destroyed, but the Lick Observatory, about fifteen miles to the eastward, was uninjured, nor is any serious injury reported from the towns on the coast. These peculi. arities in the distribution of the earthquake damage are explained in an article on the probable cause of the San Francisco earthquake by Mr. Frederick Leslie Ransome, published in the May number of the National Geographic Magazine. The article is illustrated by a very clear structural map of the San Francisco peninsula, and an equally clear description of the structural conditions of the region. Probably nowhere in the world have greater displacements taken place in geologically recent times than this dis
trict has witnessed ; strata of Fig. 1.-The Burning of the Business District of San Francisco after the earthquake on April 18. Quaternary age have here been From the Scientific American.
compressed, contorted, and lifted
from 1500 to 2000 feet, and right be done from the telegraphic reports of the daily through the peninsula run three nearly parallel papers, and one of the most striking facts which stand faults, two of which, the Pilarcitos and San Andreas out is the wonderfully small amount of damage done faults, are marked by lines of pools and lakes, in San Francisco by the earthquake proper. This does proving the recent date of the disturbance to which not seem to have exceeded the sixth or seventh degree they owe their origin. The third fault, known as of the Rossi-Forel scale, and the damage to buildings the San Bruno fault, is the most important of the was practically confined to the overthrow of chimneys three; it has a throw of more than 7000 feet near and of buildings which were either old and badly San Francisco, and has been traced, with more or constructed, or of a design which rendered them less certainty, from Point Arenas, 100 miles to the especially liable to earthquake damage. The Scien- north-west, through Southern California, where it tifi: American of May 12 contains a view of the busi- is known as the " earthquake crack," almost to the ness part of the city, taken after the earthquake, but Gulf of California. A movement along this fault
; before the spread of the fire, in which the buildings and others parallel to it, appear to have been the show little signs of damage, beyond the overthrow of cause of the earthquake, or at any rate of the curious some of the chimney stacks. Where the city was built localisation of damage noticed above. The San on made ground settlements and disturbances of Bruno fault passes close to the Stanford Univerground level led to fractures of the water-mains, but sity and to the city of San Jose, and crosses the it is not clear from the accounts which have reached main line of water-supply from the Crystal Springs us whether there was not also an interruption of the reservoir to the city of San Francisco; it is, presummain conduit at some point between the city and the ably, along this fault that the displacement reported source of supply. Whatever the cause, the conse- in the newspapers took place. There are indications,
too, of another fault running along the eastern margin successful ever held. The local fund now reaches of the bay through Santa Rosa and north-westwards more than 3000l., and the greater part having been along the valley of the Russian river past Ukiah, which already paid up, the fund has been closed. The
1 may have been concerned in the violence of the earth- various committees are meeting regularly, secure quake at those places.
good attendance, and the greatest interest and enTwo other articles in the same magazine deal with thusiasm prevails. One of the local secretaries, M the times at which the disturbance was recorded by Dale, having died, Mr. Henry Craven, who has seismographs. From them we gather that the shock succeeded him in the office of town clerk, has been was recorded on a self-registering seismograph in the appointed his successor. Cniversity of California at 5h. 12m. 385. a.m. Pacific
The following is an epitome of the general attractime, equivalent to th. 12m. 38s. p.m. Greenwich tions included in the programme : time. The seismograph of the United States Weather Bureau at Washington, 2435 miles distant from San Wednesday, August 1.—The Lady Mayoress (Mrs. R. H. Francisco, recorded the commencement at Sh. 19m. 205.
Vernon Wragge) will be “At Home 's at the Mansion eastern time, corresponding to ih. 19m. 2os. Greenwich
House from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. to receive foreign visitors, time, and the seismographs of the United States Coast
members, associates, and lady ticket-holders. President's and Geodetic Survey at Sitka, Alaska, and Chelten
address in the exhibition buildings at 8.30 p.m.
Thursday, August 2.—The Sheriff of York and Mrs. Bentley will give a garden-party at their residence, Fulford Grange, to all ticket-holders, from 3 p.m. to 6. p.m. Conversazione in the exhibition buildings, by invitation of the executive committee, at 8 p.m. Music will be provided in the museum gardens, which communicate with the building and will be illuminated.
Friday, August 3.—Messrs. Rowntree and Co. will give a garden-party at their works, Haxby Road, to all ticketholders, from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. The works will also be open.
Discourse on volcanoes, by Dr. Tempest Anderson, in the exhibition buildings at 8.30 p.m.
Saturday, August 4.—The Archbishop of York and Mrs. MacLagan will give a garden-party at the Palace, Bishopthorpe. Evening lecture to the operative classes by Prof. Silvanus Thompson, F.R.S., on the manufacture of light. The president, Prof. Ray Lankester, will take the chair.
Sunday, August 5.-Special service in the Minster.
Monday, August 6.—The council of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society will give a garden-party in the museum grounds, to all ticket-holders, from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. They have also intimated that the museum and grounds will be open daily to all members and ticket-holders who wish for a quiet resting-place. The president of the society, Dr. Tempest Anderson, will entertain to tea those who attend each afternoon. Discourse on the electrical signs of life, and their abolition by chloroform, by Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S., in the exhibition buildings, at 8.30 p.m.
Tuesday, August 7.—The Dean of York and the Canon in Residence will give a garden-party, to all members and ticket-holders, in the Deanery and residentiary grounds, from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. Conversazione in the exhibition buildings, by invitation of the executive committee, at 8 p.m. Music will be provided in the museum gardens, which will be illuminated.
Wednesday, August 8.—Meeting of general committee to receive the report of the committee of recommendations, I p.m. Concluding general meeting, in the Guildhall, at 2.30 p.m.
It is understood that a large number of important
papers has been already promised, and it will be Fig. 2.--Map of the San Francisco Peninsula. From the model by Prof. A. C. Lawson. The principal faults are indicated by beavý parties and receptions has been provided.
noticed that an unusually attractive series of gardenblack lines. From the National Geographic Magasine.
the number offered has been so large that several ham, Maryland, also recorded the shock, commencing very eligible offers of hospitality have had to be at th. 10m. 56s. and ih. I9m. 24. respectively, the reluctantly declined. Practically all the principal distances from San Francisco being 1455 and 2450 residents in York and the neighbourhood have invited miles. The magnetographs at these two places and members of the association for the time of the meetat Baldwin, Kansas, were also affected by the passageing, besides a large number of private friends, who of the earthquake waves, the times corresponding will swell the lists of members and associates attendapproximately with those of the arrival of the principal, ing. or third, phase of the disturbance.
The proposed excursion to Norway at the close of
the meeting has fallen through, as little interest or THE FORTHCOMING MEETING OF
support seemed forthcoming. The excursions will
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION AT YORK.
therefore be confined to Saturday, August 4, and the
following have been definitely fixed :THE arrangements for this meeting, which will be held from August i to August 8, are very
Scarborough and Whitby, stopping at Castle Howard.well in hand, being at least a month in advance" At Home" to a limited number of those taking part in
The Mayor of Scarborough has intimated that he will be of what they were twenty-five years ago, on the the excursion. Permission has been granted to view the occasion of the jubilee meeting one of the most Marine Drive, and the members and associates will be
adınitted to the Spa on the production of their tickets. which we look for an official record of the manifold and It has also been arranged that the train shall stop at Castle most important work done at Kew. Howard to enable any members to pay a visit, but it is Catalogue of Portraits of Botanists Exhibited understood that only a portion of the house and gardens in the Museums of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew," will be available. Harrogate, Brimham Rocks, and Pateley Bridge ;
by Mr. James D. Milner, clerk and acting assistantductor, Mr. W. Ingham.
keeper and secretary to the National Portrait Gallery. Ripon, Studley Park, and Fountains Abbey:—The
has also just been published. The catalogue is introMarquess of Ripon has kindly promised to entertain a
duced with a preface by the late director of the Royal party of about 100 to luncheon, and the Mayor of Ripon
Gardens. To botanists it forms a very interesting. will entertain the same party to tea.
but, must add, a very incomplete list. Kew
a Ilkley and Bolton Abbey.
probably possesses a niuch larger number of portraits Coxwold, Byland Abbey, Helmsley, Duncombe Park, and than are here mentioned, so that it is difficult to Rievaulx Abbey.-It is expected that the party will be understand on what principle the selection has been entertained at Duncombe Park by the Earl of Feversham ; made. The words " exhibited in the museuins " do conductor, the Rev. C. N. Gray.
indeed imply that there are other portraits not thus Wensleydale ; conductor, Mr. W. Horne.
displayed, ' but unless we are mistaken, or unless Mount Grace, Guisborough, and Whorlton Castle.Admiral Challoner has kindly invited the party to dinner,
some re-arrangement has taken place recently, there and it is expected that the Lord-Lieutenant of the North
are not a few hanging on the walls of the museums Riding will provide luncheon ; conductor, Mr. F. J. Munby,
which are not included in the list. At any rate, we Driffield, Kirkburn, Wetwang, &c.; conductor, the Rev.
look in vain for any mention of the Balfours, father E. Maule Cole.
and son, of John Ball, of Broome, Babington, B. C. Aldborough and Boroughbridge.-Three steam launches Clarke, Casimir de Candolle, W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, have been engaged to convey the party ; conductor, Mr.
Eichler Engler, A. Dickson, Farmer, Gardiner, 1. S. Lawson, who will provide luncheon and tea.
Munro, Miers, Prain, Reichenbach, Seemann, William A small guide-book will be prepared for each of
son, and many others whom it would be tedious to the above excursions. It is understood that there
enumerate. No doubt many of these are “ kept in will be also the usual semi-private excursions arranged
portfolios, " and can be inspected on application, but in connection with several of the sections.
the absence in the catalogue before us of even the The exhibition of South African photographs taken
names of these more or less distinguished botanists by the members last year promises to be of much gives an impression of serious incompleteness which interest. There is ample accommodation for it at
is probably not justified by the facts. This is the more the reception room, and an active committee has the unfortunate as the collection is stated to be “probably matter in hand.
unique.” If so, the catalogue is very inadequate, as may be seen, not only by the few illustrations we have cited, but also by comparison with Dr. Wittrock's much
fuller “ Catalogus Stockholmiensis.” The text, too. KEW PUBLICATIONS.
requires revision. In one place we are told of a bust THE“ miscellaneous information ” supplied from wearing spectacles, and of another bust" in a ruff and the Royal Gardens at Kew has ever been
On another page we are told of a welcome to botanists and to those concerned in the
botanist who graduated eighteen years before he was utilisation of vegetable products. The earlier publi
born! cations of Sir William Hooker and of his son and
There are other indications of imperfect proof. successor, Sir Joseph Hooker, are full of interesting reading, to which we direct attention in the hope that matter with which the botanical and horticulturai
the defects may be remedied in a subsequent edition. Press of the day was, owing to limitations of space,
The catalogue, even in its present condition, is of hardly able to cope.
such great interest that we cannot doubt that no of late years such was the pressure of adminis- long time will elapse before a second edition is called trative duties that the publication of the Bulletin
for, and one which can readily be made more rebecame very erratic. So much was this the case that presentative of the progress of botany, especially in we had almost given up the hope of seeing anything
our own country. but“ appendices to volumes that seemed never destined to appear.
mistaken. Within the last month or two we have received for notice the Kew Bulletin for the vears 1900, 1901, 1902,
BARON C. R. VON DER OSTEN SACKEN. 1903, 1904, and 1905.'
YSTEMATIC entomology has sustained a great Some of these volumes are of exiguous proportions,
loss by the death of Baron Osten Sacken, as but there they are, and the troubles of librarians and
announced in NATURE of May 31. bibliographers are, in so far, set at rest. Much of the Baron Osten Sacken was born at St. Petersburg information is, of course, far from being up to date, on August 21, 1828, and at the age of eleven his and in some cases the gentlemen mentioned as having interest in entomology was aroused by his meeting, been appointed to fill certain positions have paid the at Baden-Baden, a young Russian entomologist, Mr. debt of Nature before their nomination has thus been Shatiloff, who gave him his first instructions in made public.
collecting Coleoptera. Between 1849 and 1856 he held In spite of these circumstances we can but rejoice an appointment in the Imperial Foreign Office, and that the publication has been resumed, and that the published papers the re-classification of the sequence of the volumes is no longer interrupted. Tipulidæ, as well as a list of the insects of the St. The contents are so “ miscellaneous" that they do
that they do Petersburg district excluding Lepidoptera. His apnot lend themselves to anything like systematic re- pointment, in 1856, as secretary of the Russian Lega. view. We can only put the books on our reference tion at Washington opened up the second period of shelves and welcome the fact, not only that the old his entomological career in the United States. In gaps are, to some extent, filled up, but that there is now 1862 he was appointed Russian Consul-General at every prospect of the regular issue of that Bulletin to New York, a post which he resigned in 1871, re.
1 "Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information." Royal Botanic Gardens, maining, however, in America until 1877. Kew. (H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-05.)
During this period of twenty-one years the main
part of Baron Osten Sacken's entomological work who cultivates some branch of science for its own consisted in working up the Diptera of North sake, and who is not debarred by pressure of pro.Imerica, in close collaboration with Dr. H. Loew. fessional duties from making the study his life-work. This work had for its main object the compilation For such workers, biological rather than physical of a catalogue of North American Diptera of which subjects in many cases offer the most promising field. a first edition was published as early as 1838 by
G. H. Bryan. the Smithsonian Institution. It was superseded by a far more complete second catalogue published twenty years later. A great deal of further time was
NOTES. taken up with the self-imposed and, at times, some- Prof. G. von NeumAYER, who celebrates his eightieth what tedious task of editing and translating Loew's birthday to-day, will receive the congratulations of many monographs, and, in addition, important papers were meteorologists and other scientific workers. Nearly a published on the Tipulidæ, Tabanidæ, Cecidomyidæ, year ago the first part of a third revised edition of instrucand Cynipidæ. Between 1871 and 1873 some time was
tions and notes on scientific observations for travellers, spent in Europe, and in 1876 an expedition was made 10 California, the results of which were published edited by him under the title " Anleitung zu wissenschaftunder the title “ Western Diptera” in the Bulletin lichen Beobachtungen auf Reisen," was published, and the of the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey.
last part appeared very opportunely a few days ago. The Eleven new genera and 137 new species were de
work has been brought up to date, and is of such a comscribed.
prehensive nature that justice cannot be done to it in a In 1877 Baron Osten Sacken came to Europe, and hurried notice, but we hope to deal with this important took up his abode at Heidelberg The present writer contribution to scientific literature in a future issue. first met him there in the summer of 1877, and, being
MR. W. de FONVIELLE informs us that Mr. W. Wellman greatly interested in entomology as a hobby, a close and his balloon—the United States—have left Paris for friendship sprang up, which soon became a friendship Spitsbergen by way of Antwerp, where the balloon was for life. In the years which followed and which consatuled the third period of his entomological career,
shipped to Tromsö, and from there to Magdalena Bay, lat. Baron Osten Sacken published numerous critical | 79° 40' N. (Danes Island). The last part of the voyage papers on Diptera, and increased the number of his will be executed on board the Fritjof, a steamer put at published writings from 53 to 179. In 1881 he pub- the disposal of the explorer by the American Government. lished " An Essay on Comparative Chæototaxy,” Mr. Wellman hopes to be in Tromsö before June 25, and in which it was shown for the first time that the at Danes Island on July 1. There he will find everyarrangement of the bristles on the bodies of Diptera thing ready for the inflation of his large balloon, measuring afforded a valuable aid to their classification. In 1892 6300 cubic metres, and having a gross listing power of he published one of his most important papers, on the characteristics of the three divisions of Diptera, by Major Hearsey, of the l'.s. Weather Bureau, who left
7000 kilograms. The necessary preparation will be made Vemurera vera, Nemocera anomala, and Eremochæta, in which two important innovations were introduced,
Paris a month ago in order to erect at Danes Island a one referring to the preservation of the distinction be- shelter where the balloon may be housed during the preturen the Brachycera and Nemocera, the other to the ' liminary experiments, which are expected to occupy the grouping of the families of Diptera into larger groups, whole of July. It is only in August that the departure for which he subsequently adopted Comstock's name for the Pole is to take place, if the experiments have of "Superfamilies.
proved satisfactory and have been concluded. Mr. WellThe “ Bugonia superstition of the ancients re
man is travelling with Mr. Collardeau, a French chemist, garding the production of bees from the carcases of
and Mr. Hervieux, a French aëronaut, who is to be the dead animals found a ready explanation at Baron Osten Sacken's hands in the close resemblance to
pilot of the polar balloon. In addition to Mr. Wellman, a bee of the common drone-fly, Eristalis tenax, the
the balloon will have on board Major Hearsey, Mr. larvæ of which live in putrescent matter. In the Hervieux, and two Norwegian sailors who assisted him paper, first published in commemoration of the in his two previous explorations. A wireless telegraphy twenty-fifth anniversary of the Italian Entomological system
will be established between the two stations Society in 1893, and afterwards amplified and printed of Tromsö and Danes Island. A meteorological station at Heidelberg. Baron Osten Sacken traces in detail will also be established at the same places, supplied with the history of the Bugonia in different ages and nations.
a captive balloon for obtaining records of the temperature, His last important task was to publish a Record
humidity, direction and force of the wind in the free of My Life-work in Entomology,” which he com
atmosphere. So for the first time since telegraphy (wire) ciuded in 1904, to quote his own words, “at the age of seventy-six in good health, and with unimpaired meteorologists will have at their disposal observations of
utilised in meteorology, American and European evesight. Baron Osten Sacken took great delight in every
the weather in the neighbourhood of the North Pole as thing connected with mathematics, especially his- well as from tropical stations. torical points, and the present writer has an early The second of the two annual conversaziones of the recollection of a question he proposed relating to
Royal Society was held as we went to press last night. The conchoid of Nicomedes. In his later years he made a collection of photographs of paintings of the
Mr. W. R. Cooper has accepted the position of editor great masters, and it gave him pleasure to arrange
of the Electrician in succession to Mr. F. C. Raphael, and classify them with the same systematic attention
who will retire on June 30. to minute detail that he had so successfully brought to bear on the classification of the Diptera. In his
It is stated by the British Medical Journal that the manner of living he was equally methodical, and institute for the experimental investigation of cancer at this spirit is shown in the publication of his “ Record.” | Heidelberg is now complete. Prof. Czerny is the director ; His interest in the work of others won for him many Dr. von Dungern has been appointed head of the scientific friends. who will greatly miss him. He has given us department, and Dr. von Wasielewski head of the depart. an excellent example of what can be done by a man ment of parasitological research.
We learn from Science that Mr. George Eastman, of Philosophy of the Unconscious,' the work on which his Rochester, N.Y., has subscribed 200l, annually for the next reputation chiefly rests. A very voluminous writer-his three years to enable the continuance of research work in works contain upwards of 12,000 pages—he published, photography at the Yerkes Observatory of the University among other writings, Phenomenology of Ethical Conof Chicago. The investigations will be carried on by Mr. sciousness” in 1879, “ The Religious Consciousness of R. James Wallace, photophysicist at the observatory. Mankind in the Stages of its Development" in 1881, and
The Religion of the Spirit ” in 1882. About three or Tue death is announced, in his eightieth year, of M. four years ago there appeared “Die Weltanschuung der Edouard Piette, the distinguished archæologist. M. Piette modernen Physik," one of the most important of his later was well known for his discoveries of prehistoric remains, works. His system an amalgamation of Schopenamong which may be mentioned those in the caverns of hauer's doctrine of will with the metaphysic of Hegel, and Mas d'Azil (Ariège) and of Brassempouy (Landes). Before the “ Unconscious which formed his first principle was his death M. Piette presented his invaluable collections to but another name of the absolute of the German metathe Museum of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
physicians. According to von Hartmann," writes one
authority, “ the Unconscious is the absolute principle active H.M. THE QUEEN has extended her patronage to the in all things, the force which is operative in the inorganic,
Country in Town” Exhibition which will be opened by organic and mental alike, yet not revealed in consciousH.R.H. Princess Christian in the Whitechapel Art Gallery It is the unity of unconscious presentation and will, on July 5. The exhibition will be open until July 19, and
of the logical (idea) and the alogical (will). The Unas admission will be free, contributions are invited towards
conscious exists independently of space, time and individual the necessary expenses. All communications should be
existence, timeless before the being of the world. For us made to the honorary secretary, Mr. Wilfred Mark Webb,
it is unconscious, in itself it is super-conscious." The at Toynbee Hall, Whitechapel, E.
Schopenhauerian side of von Hartmann appealed to the
prevailing pessimism of the time, but he himself was no The Times correspondent reports that Dr. Calmette and
pessimist; full of vigorous ethical feeling, and a strong M. Guérin, of the Pasteur Institute, Lille, have com
opponent of the prophets of the Weltschmerz, he conmunicated to the Paris Academy of Sciences the results
tributed not a little to the discussion of political and social of experiments on protective inoculation against tubercu
subjects. losis. Having found that dead tubercle bacilli are carried from the digestive tract to distant parts of the body, they
The Society of German Engineers, which with its made experiments in order to ascertain the immunising world, celebrated on June 11-14 the completion of the
20,000 members is now the largest technical society in the effect of dead tubercle bacilli administered in this manner. Young animals, heifers and kids were given by the mouth
fiftieth year of its existence. The opening ceremony was two doses, with a forty-five days' interval between, of
held in the Reichstag building in Berlin, under the presi5 and 25 centigrams of dead tubercle bacilli (or even
dency of Dr. A. Slaby. Congratulatory addresses were living bacilli of feeble virulence). A subsequent lethal
delivered by the Prussian Home Secretary, the Prussian dose of virulent tubercle bacilli proved innocuous to the
Minister of Education, the Oberbürgermeister of Berlin, animals treated in this way, showing that the dead bacilli
and the rector of the Berlin Technical School, as well as had produced an immunity against the living virulent
representatives of kindred societies in bacilli. Dr. Calmette and M. Guérin conclude that young
Germany and other countries, Mr. Bennett Brough (Iron cattle can be vaccinated by intestinal absorption of bacilli
and Steel Institute) speaking for the British societies and modified by heat, and that this method of vaccination is
Prof. K. E. Hilgard (American Society of Civil Engineers) entirely without danger.
for the American. The proceedings terminated with a
lecture by Dr. W. von Oechelhaeuser on technical work The council of the Society of Arts has awarded the past and present, in which he compared the engineering society's silver medal to the following readers of papers
works of the ancients with those of modern times, and during the session just completed :--Mr. W. F. Mitchell,
endeavoured to forecast what the future of engineering The commerce and industries of Japan; Dr. William
would be. On June 12 a lecture was given by Dr. A. Arthur Aikin, Aspects of voice development; Mr. Leon
Riedler, on the development and present importance of the Gaster, Progress in electric lighting ; Mr. Walter Garstang,
steam turbine; and on June 13 papers were read by Prof. The fisheries of the North Sea ; Captain G. S. C. Swinton,
Muthmann, methods of dealing with atmospheric London traffic; Mr. Bernard B. Redwood, Motor boats ; nitrogen; and by Dr. Hoffmann, on the utilisation of Mr. J. B. Millett, Submarine signalling ; Prof. Thomas
power in mines and metallurgical works. Throughout the Oliver, Bridge building by means of caissons ; Mr. Clayton week an elaborate programme of visits, excursions, and Beadle, Watermarking ; Sir James A. Bourdillon, K.C.S.I.,
social functions was arranged for the 1231 members and The partition of Bengal; Dr. George A. Grierson, The 464 ladies who took part in the meeting. The German languages of India; Colonel Sir Arthur Henry McMahon, Emperor honoured the society by accepting the Grashof K.C.I.E., Seistan ; the Hon. Rodolphe Lemieux, K.C., gold medal, and by conferring decorations on the president French Canada ; the Hon. J. G. Jenkins, Social conditions
and other prominent members. An interesting history of in Australia ; Mr. Louis N. Parker, Historical pageants;
the society is given in Engineering of June 8. The growth Mr. H. Yates Thompson, Illuminated manu
of the society has certainly been remarkable. It was Mr. Harry Powell, Cut glass.
founded in 1856 at Alexisbad, in the Hartz, by twenty.
three young engineers. Friedrich Euler was elected the Tue death of Herr Eduard von Hartmann is announced first president, and Franz Grashof the first secretary and from Berlin. Born in 1842, he was intended for a military editor, the work of the society being carried on in the career, but retired from service in 1865 owing to a malady secretary's private study. The society now has a stately of the knee which made him a cripple for life. He re- house of its own and a staff of forty-seven officials. Its ceived the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Rostock weekly journal last year cost 26,1621. for publishing and University in 1867, and two years later published “The '64251. for postage.