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now existing at Monaco, including its laboratories, collec- been hitherto possible. As a rule, the galleries are absotions, aquaria, &c. The Prince has set apart 4,000,000 lutely crowded with members of the illiterate class throughfrancs (160,000l.) for the maintenance of the institute. It out the time when they are open to the general public. It will be established on grounds recently bought by the is proposed greatly to enlarge the museum, at an estimated C'niversity of Paris with the assistance of the Prince in cost of 2 lakhs of rupees-a sum apparently already at the rue Saint-Jacques and the rue d'Ulm. The scientific the disposal of the trustees. direction of the institute is vested in an international committee of specialists in oceanography. The French Govern

MR. F. A. Lucas, curator of The Museum, Brooklyn ment has expressed its formal thanks for this really princely

Institute of Arts and Sciences, Brooklyn, N.Y., desires to direct attention to a photograph of Laysan Island, issued

several years ago, showing on the beach a large turtle, The first of a series of four lectures on atmospheric circu- and, what is more important, a large seal, which appeared larion and its relation to weather was delivered by Dr. to be of the genus Monachus. He points out that if this W. N. Shaw at the University of London on Tuesday, seal really belongs to the genus Monachus, the fact is of Max !. Dr. Shaw referred to the valuable contributions great scientific interest, as it would make the seal circumto meteorology in the last fifty years by Dr. Buchan, tropical. Mr. Lucas would be glad to know if anything Abercromby, and Clement Ley, and he pointed out that, has been published regarding this seal, specimens of which w far as the forecasting of the weather is concerned, no

he believes were taken to Europe. grat advance has been made in recent years, and that it is arressary to take into consideration the atmosphere in

A PAMPHLET has reached us containing an address dethe upper regions and to deal with the general circulation

livered by Dr. Paul Kronthal before the Berlin Psychods a whole. Great advance has been made recently in that | logical Society in October of last year on the idea of the * by the use of kites and balloons, and the direction of

soul (Jena : Gustav Fischer). The lecturer, continuing the air currents in the higher regions can be determined

the investigation of which notice has already been from the records of the barometer, thermometer, and hygro

taken in these columns, elaborates his account of the soul neter obtained in those ascents. Some very interesting

as the sum of reflexes. This definition, he claims, does diagrams were thrown on the screen, showing the circu- justice to all the facts, e.g. of inheritance of physical lation at a height of 4000 metres, from charts constructed

characteristics, of mental disease, of memory, and the like. nx 11. Teisserenc de Bort, and also showing the results

He occupies several pages with a discussion of the freedom of international upper-cloud observations as deduced by Dr.

of the will, a conception which, it appears, is abandoned Hik-brandsson for various parts of the globe.

by all consistent theologians, men of science, historians,

and jurists. But it appears also from the later half of THE contents of Irish Fisheries Scientific Investigations, the lecture that to define the soul as the sum of reflexes 1444, No. 6 (1905), includes a paper on “plankton satisfies only natural science; from the standpoint of metacollected at light-stations, by Dr. L. H. Gough, and hydro- physics we must speak of the soul as sensation. Appargraphical observations made at the same. In connection ently, too, the metaphysical view

leads directly with the plankton, it is noticeable that when this com- solipsism, and the metaphysical world consists of abstracprises a large number of copepod crustaceans, the vegetable tions like love, hate, joy, sorrow, good, bad. The world organisms are much less numerous than usual, and vice of the scientific man, on the other hand, is made up of zerid.

five entities, which at first sight appear very real as com

pared with these abstractions, but which are ultimately The jour articles in the April issue of the Zoologist are admitted to be five metaphysical ideas--time, space, matter, Rualls divided between birds and fishes. In recording the

energy, number. It is further admitted that the fundarare birds seen in Norfolk during 1905, Mr. John Gurney

mental law of causality is for natural science undemonagain notices the occurrence of quite a number of avocets

strable. Dr. Kronthal concludes his somewhat paradoxical in Breydon Flats. The birds of Derbyshire, as observed

lecture with two dicta—that the honourable metaphysician in 1994-5. form the subject of an article by the Rev. Mr.

must grant that the conceptions of natural science are the jourdain. Mr. L. E. Adams describes his own observ

more justifiable, and that no thoughtful man of science can ations on the mode of Aight of flying-fishes, while Prof.

deny that the conceptions of natural science are in the SL Intosh discusses certain Japanese food-fishes.

last resort only matters of faith. Sis new fishes from Japan, described by Messrs. Jordan A CATALOGU'E of microscopical objects and accessories has and Saie, form the subject of No. 1445 of the Proceedings been received from Mr. R. G. Mason; a special feature of the C.S. National Museum : while the succeeding is made of geological and stained botanical sections that rumies of the same journal (No. 1446) is devoted to de- can be mounted by purchasers. A section of limestone STT Diions of new American Palæozoic ostracod crustaceans, sent as a sample of the mounted objects shows a variety By Messrs. Clrich and Bassler. In No. 1447 of the Pro. of Foraminifera, and is otherwise a desirable specimen, carlingo Mr. J. W. Gidley describes the skull of a ruminant also a double-stained section of pine stem is a thoroughly

to the musk-ox from Pleistocene strata in New satisfactory preparation. Slusire. The new generic name Liops is proposed for this Tuminant, which is of special interest on account of its

The second number of the Journal of Economic Biology wutiera habitat.

contains papers on the effects of metazoan parasites on

their hosts, by Messrs. Shipley and Fearnsides ; on the The trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, according bionomics of grain weevils, by Mr. F. J. Cole; on the 4: tre report for the past financial year, have decided to deposition of eggs and larvæ in Estrus ovis, by Mr. herge an admission-fee of 8 annas on Sundays between W. E. Collinge; and on the ox-warble flies, by Mr. A. D. Or burs al 3 p.mn, and 5 p.m., in order to give the educated Imms. The reviews and current literature, with notes, Masses an opportunity of studying the contents of the which complete the number are a valuable feature of the fülleting under more favourable opportunities than has journal.

to

A SERIES of identifications of Philippine plants is pub- The Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift (vol. v., lished in Publication No. 35 of the Bureau of Government No. 8) contains a long paper by Dr. W. R. Eckardt on Laboratories, Manila. Mr. H. N. Ridley has worked out the climatic conditions of past geological times. The the Scitamineæ, describing three new species of Amomum ; author deals specially with the climate of the Carboniferous Mr. C. B. Clarke has named the Acanthaceæ ; Dr. E. and Tertiary periods, and concludes that the explanation Häckel has identified a collection of grasses; and Mr. of all changes of climate is to be sought in variations in E. D. Merrill contributes some notes on Cuming's Philip- the distribution of land and sea. pine plants, as well as the fourth series of diagnoses of new or noteworthy plants. Among the latter are two new

We have received a copy of the tide tables for Charlottespecies of Rhizophoraceæ, a Gynotrochea growing in forest

town, Picton, and St. Paul Island, C.B., for the year at an altitude of 4000 feet, and a Pellacalyx, also new

1906, issued by the Department of Marine and Fisheries

of the Dominion of Canada. The tables are based on species of Eugenia and of Saurauia.

direct observations made at eleven localities in the southThe original habitat of the coconut palm has often been western portion of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and in Cabot the subject of speculation. In a paper read before the Strait. It has been ascertained that the tides can best Ceylon branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Mr. J. be deduced from St. Paul Island, for which continuous Ferguson, tracing the early history of the cultivation of records extending over four years are available. the coconut palm in Ceylon, accepts the general dictum that the plant is not indigenous, and attributes its origin Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau (vol. xxi., No. 12) on

Dr. WALTHER VON KNEBEL contributes a paper to the to nuts washed up by the sea. It is recorded that, at the instigation of a Singhalese king, a plantation was formed

the hot-spring areas of Iceland. A careful comparison of on the south coast as early as the middle of the first

the conditions occurring in the regions of geysers and of century, and subsequently King Prákrama Báhu the Great

solfataras leads the author to the conclusion that only a also interested himself in extending its cultivation.

small part of the water ejected by the geysers is

“ juvenile, " the bulk of it coming from the ordinary ground In the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society (vol. water. Geysers occur, in effect, where ground water is xxix., part iv.) Mr. E. S. Salmon describes a white mildew abundant and volcanic action relatively feeble, and solfadisease that has been prevalent on shrubs of Euonymus taras where volcanic action is more vigorous and the japonicus in the south of England. From the mycelium amount of ground water deficient. on the surface of the leaf, hyphäe are produced that pierce the cuticle of the epidermis and form haustoria in the

We have received a copy of the meteorological records epidermal cells, thus enabling the fungus to maintain its

for 1905, published in the second annual report of the parasitic life. The mycelium persists on the leaves through Agricultural Department of the British East Africa Prothe winter, so that perithecial resting spores are not re

tectorate, which extends, roughly speaking, from 5° N. to quired and are not formed. The disease can be checked / 5° S. latitude, the sea coast north of the equator forming by collecting and burning in the winter all leaves that part of the Italian Somaliland. The report contains rainbear the white patches of hibernating mycelium; also

fall observations at a large number of stations, and general treatment with sulphur or other fungicides is recommended.

observations at eight stations, several of which exceed

6000 feet in altitude. The work is a valuable contribution The paper on ramie read by Mrs. E. Hart before the to meteorological knowledge, and will be found most useful Society of Arts, and printed in the Journal of the Society when arrangements can be made for dealing with the (April 6), is interesting, not only as it indicates some of meteorology of all our colonies according to some regular the difficulties that had to be overcome in spinning and and properly organised plan. A good beginning was made weaving, but also because it bears out the opinion that, in this direction by the Meteorological Council in a work given cooperation between producer and manufacturer, the entitled Climatological Observations at Colonial and cultivation, preparation, and weaving of ramie can be Foreign Stations, I., Tropical Africa,” published in 1904, profitably undertaken. In the matter of decortication, from tables prepared by Mr. E. G. Ravenstein. This Mrs. Hart advocates hand-stripping in preference work contained results from several of the stations included machines wherever cheap labour can be obtained, and in the report of the Nairobi Agricultural Department. recommends that the degumming process should be carried out under expert supervision in the mills. The fabrics

In his last report as secretary of the Smithsonian Instithat have been woven of pure ramie, warp and weft, vary

tution of Washington, the late Dr. S. P. Langley dealt from the lightest gossamer to a heavy cloth.

with the work of the Astrophysical Observatory for the

year ending June 30, 1905. The evidence of solar variability In Hawaii, root disease of the sugar-cane produced by is not in the report considered as conclusive. However, a species of the basidiomycetous fungus Marasmius-not two lines of investigation have become very prominent in improbably Marasmius sacchari-is so prevalent that a the work of the observatory, and these will almost certainly Bulletin (No. 2 of the Division of Pathology and Physi- lead to a conclusion regarding this important question. ology) has been issued to provide information on the sub- The first of these is the almost daily bolometric examinject. The writer, Mr. L. Lewton-Brain, traces the con- ation of the large solar image formed by the great horinection between the fungus that attacks primarily the zontal telescope, for the purpose of detecting changes in growing point of the root and the symptoms, similar to the transparency of the solar absorbing envelope. This those caused by drought, of rolled-up leaves, matted leaf- | work depends so little on the transparency of the earth's sheaths, and undeveloped roots; also he indicates how the atmosphere that it can be done almost as well in Washingplant can be strengthened by judicious irrigation and by ton as at a station more favoured as regards atmospheric liming the soil. A variety possessed of a certain power of transparency. The year's work did not give evidence of resistance to the disease has been found in the Yellow very marked variations either in the transparency of the Caledonia, but a variety that is perfectly immune has yet sun's envelope or in the supposedly dependent mean temto be discovered.

perature of the earth, but, on the contrary, the results of

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the observations continued most of the time near the mean in both respects. The second line of investigation is the determination of the total solar radiation outside our atmosphere, by observations with the bolometer and pyrheliometer at a station situated in a relatively clear and cloudless region and at a considerable altitude. This work is being done on Mount Wilson, in southern California, and it seems that the estimates it is hoped to obtain there will be so elose an approximation to the truth that if a notable variation of solar radiation outside our atmosphere occurs the results will show it.

The much-debated n-rays form the subject of a short note by Dr. P. Stefanelli in the Rendiconto of the Naples Icademy, xi., 12. Referring to Meyer's experiments on the decrease of phosphorescence in sulphide of lime when placed in the glass receiver of an air pump, Dr. Stefanelli considers the effects to be attributable to the fall of temperature produced by the expansion of the air, and not to depend on the existence of n-rays for their explanation.

In SATURE of January 11 (vol. Ixxiii., p. 246) Mr. C. E. Benham pointed out that Swedenborg in his Principia," published in 1733, constantly regarded both heat and light as pthereal undulations. Mr. I. H. H. Gosset, of St. Jubyns, Hove, now informs us that, as a matter of fact, in the year 1719, fourteen years before he published his * Principia,” Swedenborg wrote a treatise “ On Tremulation," in which he advanced the theory of ethereal undulations as applicable to our vital forces, light, heat, sound, &c.

1x the Philosophical Magazine for April, Prof. Alfred W'. Porter discusses the inversion points of the Joule-Kelvin effect for a fluid passing through a porous plug. The paper is a simple and straightforward deduction from the laws of thermodynamics. The condition that infinitesimal difference of pressure on the two sides of the plug should give rise to no cooling" or heating effectsis given by the equation Tdv/dT –v=o, and when the pressure-volume-temperature equation is given, this condition determines a curve in the P.T or 0,T diagram formed by the inversion points. Prof. Porter's paper is mainly taken up with examining the form of this curve corresponding to various assumed equations of state, such as that of van der Waals or Dieterici. From the form of the curves it is shown that in general two inversion temperatures exist for the same pressure, between certain limits of pressure ; in the case of van der Waals's equation, the maximum limit is nine times the critical pressure. Finally, the author points out that the experimental study of these inversion curves affords a very valuable method of testing the relative validity of different equations of Theoretically also a knowledge of the inversion curve and the equation of state referred to any given thermometric ale afford sufficient data to determine the relation between that sale and the absolute temperature.

*WAORDING to the annual report of the Badische AnilinUTM Soda-Fabrik, the price of artificial indigo is now oneinird less than that of the natural product, the yield of which was last year so small that the requirements of the rastain markets could not be satisfied.

Ix the Far Eastern Review (vol. ii., No. 9), a monthly engineering journal published at Manila, Shanghai, and Yokohama, Mr. A. C. Hobble gives some excellent illustrations of the largest hydroelectric installation in southern Asia, at the Cauvery River Falls, in Mysore. There is a full of 400 feet. Power is transmitted at a pressure of 35.00 volts over duplicate 3-phase lines a distance of ya mjies to the Kolar gold mines.

In the Chemiker Zeitung we read of a serious laboratory accident to Dr. Franz Wartensberger, a German chemist, who is credited with having discovered a new explosive considerably more violent than dynamite, and to whom it is said that the American Government offered to pay one million dollars for the explosive, provided its discoverer were able to suggest a suitable method of firing it electrically instead of using a fuse. As Dr. Wartensberger was experimenting with this idea in mind an unexpected explosion is supposed to have taken place, and he was so badly hurt that it is doubtful whether he will recover.

The ash of the Vesuvius eruption contained, according to Prof. Zinno's analysis, various quantities of silica, alumina, lime, magnesia, iron, and manganese ; traces of ammonium chloride were frequently found, but these may possibly have been formed after the ash had fallen. No indications of either free sulphur or of free acid were detectable. The deposit of the ash is held to have been beneficial to vegetation rather than the reverse, especially in the growth of vines, grass, and vegetables, a fact that has been observed on other occasions.

In an interesting note to the Chemiker Zeitung for April 21, Dr. M. C. Schuyten, of Antwerp, directs attention to the aifferences of temperature which are observable in chemical drying cupboards. Dr. Schuyten was led to consider the question experimentally from the fact that mercury phenyldimethylpyrazolone bromide was found to melt in a drying cupboard when the thermometer did not register a temperature so high as its melting point. The temperature of the air in the cupboard was observed in the great majority of cases to be very much less than that of the walls and shelves; a volatile liquid placed in a vessel in direct communication with the case evaporated much more quickly than when suspended by threads. From the numerical data given variations of 20° C. and more noticeable.

We learn from the Chemist and Druggist that the Committee on Ways and Means, which sat at Washington on March 30, authorised a favourable report on the Free Alcohol Bill, which removes the internal revenue duty from denaturised alcohol for use in the arts and sciences. The Bill has the approval of Commissioner Yerkes, and it is estimated that the annual loss in revenue will not exceed 100,oool., and may not be more than 60,000l. It is held that the Bill will be of great benefit to manufacturers, and will afford an enlarged market for farm products from which alcohol is made. The sale of denaturised alcohol as a beverage or for liquid medicinal purposes forbidden by the measure.

The following particulars of two prizes offered by the French Government may prove of interest to industrial chemists :-(i.) The methylation of alcohol (prize of 20,000 francs). (1) The smell and taste of the proposed methylating addition must be such as to preclude the use of methylated alcohol as a drink; (2) the smell of the methylating addition must, however, not be so objectionable and strong as to prove harmful to those engaged in the manufacture of or in industries using methylated spirits, that is to say, the use of such bodies as acetylene, asafetida, garlic, &c., is not permitted ; (3) the method of methylating adopted may not leave any deposit on the wick or on any part of the lamp, if likely to interfere with the process of burning, as, for example, sea salt, sodium sulphate, alum, tincture of aloes, &c.; (4) the methylating additive may not be separable by fractional distillation ; (5) it may not contain any substance which will attack the metallic parts of

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lamps or motors, e.g. ammonia, nitrobenzene, sulphuric | May 11, 15h. Venus in conjunction with Jupiter. (Venus acid, carbon bisulphide, &c. ; (6) nor may it be poisonous ;

1° 11' N.). (7) further, its cost must not be so high as to prejudice

15. Venus.
Illuminated portion of disc =0.921.

OF

Mars = 0.990. the use of methylated spirits for industrial purposes or

18. oh. Mars in conjunction with Jupiter. (Mars household use ; (8) its presence in methylated alcohol must

1° 6' N.). be easily detectable ; (9) it must possess advantages over 20. 23h. Ceres in conjunction with Moon. (Ceres that now in use in France, and not permit of any swindling

1° 6' S.). of the Excise. It might be remarked that the discovery of

24. 5h. Mars in conjunction with Moon. (Mars a methylating additive which shall fulfil all the foregoing

4° 57' N.).

ih. 46m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei). conditions is a matter of great difficulty ; indeed, four years 25. 3h. Venus in conjunction with Moon. (Venus ago the Russian Government offered a prize of about

4° 51' N.). 50,000 marks for a similar purpose, without, however, as 27. Sh. 35m. Minimum of Algol (8 Persei). yet having had a satisfactory entry. (ii.) The use of COMETS 19064 AND 19060.-The results of a number of alcohol for illuminating purposes (prize of 50,000 francs). observations of comets 1900a and 1906c, made at the Royal In this the competitors are allowed full scope as to the

Observatory at Arcetri during February and March, are proposed system to be followed in order that alcohol may

recorded in No. 4083 of the Astronomische Nachrichten by

Prof. Abetti. be used for illuminating purposes under the same conditions

The same journal also contains the following set of as petroleum. Suggestions, together with the necessary elements, and an ephemeris extending to May 8, for comet apparatus and methods of using, are to be sent to the Chef 1906c, computed by Herr E. Strömgren from places deterdu Service des Laboratoirs du Ministère des Finances, mined on March 19 (Nizza), 22 (Glasgow, Mo.), and 29 11 rue de la Douane, Paris.

(Arcetri).

Elements.
It was pointed out recently by a correspondent of the
Times that though in the manufacture of pig-iron before

T = 1906 Feb. 20-7555 M.T. Berlin.

00=274° 46':4 1880 England was preeminent, and the product was 50 per

71° 47':7 1906'o cent. more than that of the United States and Germany

i = 84° 36':8) combined, yet ten years later the former country produced

log 9 = 9.84916 more than England, and the United States and Germany The Total Solar Eclipse OF JANUARY, 1908.-- For the together twice as much. In 1903 Germany produced more

information of those astronomers who intend to observe than England, while the United States alone produced

next January's eclipse, Dr. Downing has prepared twice as much as England. In 1880 England produced 45

number of astronomical details for the observations at

islands in the Pacific which are favourably placed. per cent. of the world's make, Germany 15 per cent., the These two stations are Hull Island (long. = 172° 13' W., United States 14 per cent. In 1903 the United States pro- lat. = 4° 30' S.) and Flint Island (long. = 151° 48'

W., duced 39 per cent., Germany 20 per cent., and England lat. = 11° 26' S.), now the properties of Lever's Pacific only 19 per cent. With steel the case is even

Plantations Company, Port Sunlight, Cheshire, with whom Since 1880 steel has replaced wrought iron in nearly all intending observers should communicate. manufactures, and in 1880 the United States and Germany

As the errors of the moon's tabular places now amount

sensible and apparently increasing quantities, Dr. manufactured about 30 per cent. less than England. In

Downing warns observers that the calculated times of the 1888 the United States equalled England. In 1893 several phases may differ sensibly from the observed times. Germany nearly equalled, and the l’nited States largely To obviate the possible inconvenience arising from this exceeded England. About 1898 Germany's manufacture

source, he gives the number of seconds before the comwas much greater than that of England, and America's

mencement of totality that the cusps will subtend specified

angles (Monthly Notices R.A.S., vol. Ixvi., No. 5). manufacture three times as great. These figures show that during the last twenty-five years England has receded from

RADIANT POINT OF A Bright Meteor.-In No. 4083 of a position of great preeminence to the lowest place among

the Astronomische Nachrichten Dr. Jiří Kaván publishes

account of a bright meteor observed at Prague at the three great steel-producing countries. On the other

oh. 21m. (M.E.T.) on October 1, 1905. hand, between 1900 and 1905, the importation of iron and From observations of the altitude and azimuth, Dr. steel into England increased very largely, the importation Kaván has deduced the following

positions for the ia 1905 being 1,435,000 tons, as against 741,402 tons in beginning and end points of the meteor's path : 1900.

Beginning

a=293°: 1

8=- 20.6 End ...

a=273°-4 Messrs. E. DENT AND Co. have lately introduced a new

8=-11° 1 astronomical clock which should find its way into many

The duration of the meteor's flight was 2 to 2.5 seconds,

and the colour of the object was green. observatories where an accurate instrument is required at a moderate cost. For the sum of 2il. they supply a clock

LUMINOUS PARTICLES IN THE CHROMOSPHERE.-The details with a 10-inch dial, dead-beat escapement, and wooden

of the equipment employed by Dr. Deslandres, in his ex

periments to determine whether the chromosphere contains rod seconds pendulum in a solid mahogany case ; and after luminous liquid or solid particles, are described in No. 14 examining the instrument we have no hesitation in pro- (April 2) of the Comptes rendus. The results of the exnouncing it a marvel of cheapness.

periments were briefly described in these columns

April 19 (vol. Ixxiii., p. 592).
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

New CATALOGUE OF DOUBLE STARs.-In No. 93 of the

Lick Observatory Bulletins, Prof. R. G. Aitken publishes ASTRONOMICAL OCCURRENCES IN MAY :

the detailed measures of 350 new double stars, A 901 May 1-6. Epoch of Aquarid meteoric shower (Radian A 1250 inclusive. The stars contained in the present cata338° – 2o).

logue are similar in character to those published in Prof. 17h. Mercury at greatest elongation, 26° 46' W. Aitken's previous lists; 267 of them, or 76 per cent. of the Minimum of Algol (B Persei).

entire number, have apparent distances less than 2", 31 of 5. 13h. 33m. to 14h. 3m. Moon occults y Virginis them less than 0"-25, while only 9 approach the limit of 5'. (mag. 3'0).

Some of the pairs consist of closer components to Struve 6. 2h. Venus in conjunction with Mars. (Venus and Herschel stars, and most of them were observed with 0° 5' S).

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EXPLORATIONS IN THE HIMALAYAS.

been obtained by Prof. Louis Kahlenberg are now described

in the Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy (March) and THE paper read by Mrs. Bullock Workman before the the Journal of Physical Chemistry (vol. x., pp. 141-209);

Royal Geographical Society in November last is pub- these, if subsequently verified, will invalidate van 't Hoff's lished in the February number of the Geographical Journal. theory, and, what is of even greater importance, destroy an account is given of the exploring work carried out by the basis of the theory of electrolytic dissociation, developed Dr. and Mrs. Bullock Workman during 1903 in the region by Arrhenius, upon which modern physical chemistry so of the Karakoram mountains lying south-west of the largely depends. Hispar glacier, or between that glacier and the Indus. This Prof. Kahlenberg's experiments would indicate that the region is cut off from the Hispar glacier by a practically osmotic pressure developed in the case of any solution decontinuous ridge, and is crossed by glaciers moving from pends essentially on the nature of the membrane used, even north and north-west, the chief being the Chogo Lungma, when this is practically semi-permeable, as well as on the Alchori, Hoh Lumba, and Sosbon glaciers. The work of nature and concentration of the solution. Strictly speakthe expedition consisted chiefly in the examination of the ing, there is no definite osmotic pressure characterising a Hob Lumba and Sosbon glaciers, and in ascents of Mounts solution of given concentration at a definite temperature; Chogo (21,500 feet) and Lungma (22,568 feet), near the the pressure depends on the septum employed. It is rehead of the Chogo Lungma glacier.

called to mind that van 't Hoff's conception really rests The narrow Hoh ravine runs northward from the junc- on the measurements of osmotic pressure made by Pfeffer, tion with the Braldo River, and is ascended along the that these measurements were few in number and were

obtained with one membrane only, and that several recent direct measurements of osmotic pressures have given values not in accord with the gas laws. It is stated that in order to obtain a definite value for the osmotic pressure it is absolutely necessary that the solution within the osmometer should be well stirred, a precaution that has hitherto been omitted in all measurements. The measurements obtained by the author, observing this precaution, did not agree in any case with the gas laws.

The magnitude as well as the direction of the osmotic pressure are, according to Prof. Kahlenberg, determined by the power of the membrane “ inbibe " the solvent and solute, and by the mutual solubilities of the substances dealt with. Cases of abnormal dialysis are adduced in support of this theory. Thus a colloid, copper oleate, dissolved in pyridine, will diffuse through a rubber membrane, whilst a crystalloid, cane sugar, remains behind. Again, when a solution of camphor and cane sugar in pyridine is subjected to dialysis through the same membrane, the camphor diffuses through it, and the cane sugar is again left behind. In this case two crystalloids are separated

completely by dialysis. Such facts are FIG. 1.–Nangma Tapsa and the huge terminal moraine of the Hoh Lumba, forming a large hill not reconcilable with the ordinary views about 500 feet high ; ils age is indicated by the tree groweb covering its surface.

of diffusion. Some suggestive remarks

by the late Prof. Raoult, contained in a precipitous cliffs of nude mountains. It is filled by old letter to Prof. Bancroft, in criticism of van 't Hoff's theory glacial débris several hundreds of feet deep, the river are now published for the first time. cutting its way often at a great depth. Some four miles up is Pirnar Tapsa, a small grazing ground, and two miles beyond is Nangma Tapsa, a similar spot at elevation of 11,595 feet. Immediately above this is a huge

MARINE BIOLOGY ON THE WEST COAST.' terminal inoraine, of which we are able to reproduce a THE report for 1905 on the Lancashire Sea Fisheries photograph. The snout of the glacier is about a mile Laboratory at the University of Liverpool and the further up, and the total length from the snout to the Sea Fish Hatchery at Piel is a somewhat thicker volume source on the "col des Aiguilles " is twelve miles. The than was the report for 1904, and contains some interesting expedition found much evidence that the glacier has re- , papers. treated somewhat rapidly of late years.

Besides the introduction and general account of the work by Prof. Herdman, and a report upon the classes, visitors, &c., at Piel by Mr. Andrew Scott, it contains eleven

scientific papers, two of which are from Prof. Herdman's OSMOSIS AND OSMOTIC PRESSURE.

pen, while Mr. James Johnstone is responsible for five and 1o problem is of greater importance in modern physical Mr. Andrew Scott for four, one of which he contributes

cheinistry than the determination of the true nature of jointly with Mr. Thomas Baxter. The papers are upon 03 tosis and of osmotic pressure. Although for some con- the same lines of work as have been carried on in previous siderable period this problem has to most chemists appeared years, but the one upon mussel transplantation, by Messrs. solved, several recent investigations have thrown doubt Scott and Baxter, describes for the first time an experiupon the validity of van 't Hoff's hypothesis that the tismotic pressure developed in solutions is purely a kinetic I No. xiv. Report for 1905 on the Lancashire Sea Fisheries Laboratory

at tbe University of Liverpool and ibe Sea Fish Hatchery at Piel. Drawn phenomenon. The experiments of Battelli and Stephanini

up by Prof. W. Á. Herdman, F.R.S., Hon. Director of the Scientific Work. in this connection have already been referred to in NATURE assisied by Mr. Andrew Scott and Mr. James Johnstone. Illustrateri. vol. lxxii., p. 541). Some remarkable results which have (Liverpool, 1906.)

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