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of a


comfortable and steady steamer. The permanent staff on A very similar note of alarm is sounded in the April board should consist at least of the director, doctor, photo. | issue of the Victorian Naturalist in the course of an account grapher, two stenographers, who should also be typists,

recent excursion by the members of the Field and, if possible, an artist. Accommodation should be Naturalists' Club to the reserve for wild animals at Wilson's provided for a number of investigators, but these would Promontory. Here the chief destruction is caused by halinot necessarily form part of the permanent staff. They wild dogs, which are not true dingoes, but the produce would be conveyed to the district which they were to study of a cross between the latter and dogs escaped from the and be removed therefrom when it was time to leave. fishermen of the district. If these pests are not soon exThe director would arrange with each investigator when terminated there will be little hope of preserving art the vessel would return, and the investigator would be left indigenous terrestrial animals in the reserve. With regard with all the apparatus, food, and trade that he required. to the reserve itself, it is mentioned as a subject for

The general routine should be as follows :—an anthropo- regret that the whole area is cut off from the sea by a logical investigator would be expected to work on the narrow strip of land which ought certainly to be added 10 general lines laid down by the director. When the vessel the protected zone. If this were done, and certain neithreturned, all those on board would be required to help the bouring sawmills abolished, the reserve would probas investigator according to their several abilities; the ex- flourish, provided it were separated from the mainland * pedition photographer would be placed at his disposal, and dog-and-rabbit-proof fence, and certain indigenous dances and ceremonies would also be kinematographed. animals turned in from the adjacent districts. We wisho The investigator would orally amplify his rough notes and every success to the movement. dictate them to the stenographers, and, so far as possible, all notes should be typed in duplicate before the departure of the investigator, and a revision made of them before

ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY QUATER. finally leaving the spot. The foregoing remarks apply to anthropological investi

CENTENARY CELEBRATIONS. gators, but suitable arrangements could be made for geo: ACTIVE preparations are being made in connection with , ;

the quatercentenary celebrations of the University of equal facilities should be given to American and foreign Aberdeen, and the new buildings at Marischal Collegr, students ; investigators should be of either sex.

which His Majesty the King is to open in the last werk It is only by an expedition of this kind that the anthro

of September, are approaching completion. The hanupology of Melanesia can be studied as a whole and in

some new block-"a dream in granite "--which complete detail. It would be an expensive undertaking, but the the quadrangle includes new class-rooms and laboratories results obtained would amply justify the expenditure of for physiology, geology, and agriculture; new rooms for time, labour, and money, and the data so obtained would

education, medicine, modern languages, &c.; a new library constitute a mine of information for the present and future for scientific literature, and new offices. generations of students of man.

Among the distinguished guests who have accrpret In the discussion which followed, Sir George Goldie,

the University's invitation are :-Lord Avebury, Sir Robert the president of the society, Dr. Herbertson, Mr. Chis. Stawell Ball, Prof. A. H. Becquerel, Prof. Behring holm, Dr. Seligmann, Mr. J. L. Myres, Mr. S. H. Ray, Sir William Broadbent, Sir Jas. Crichton Browne. Mr Mr. N. W. Thomas, Captain Wilson Barker, Major Thomas Bryant, Lord Balfour of Burleigh, Mr. W. Darwin, Colonel Church, and the chairman, Sir Thomas Bruce, of the Scotia, Mr. James Bryce, M.P., Sir Williain Holdich, gave their cordial support to the proposed scheme. Crookes, Dr. Casimir De Candolle, Prof. Watson Cheyne. Several practical difficulties were pointed out, but none Prof. Yves Delage, Dr. Anton Dohrn, Sir Michael Foster, of them was insuperable. Some useful suggestions were Sir Joseph Fayrer, the Duke of Fife, Sir Edward Fry, Di. also made. More than one speaker recognised that an R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Giard, Mr. Jonathan Hutchir. expedition of this kind would serve as a valuable oppor- Prof. Stanley Hall, Prof. Harald Höffding, Mr. R. B. tunity for increasing geographical, oceanographical, and Haldane, M.P., Prof. F. Hueppe, Prof. Jensen, Prof. meteorological knowledge.

Joseph Larmor, Sir Norman Lockyer, Prof. Lombroso, Sir
Alfred Lyall, Dr. Donald Macalister, Major P. A

MacMahon, Signor Marconi, Prof. Mendeleeft, Prot. DESTRUCTION OF ANIMALS IN AUSTRALIA. Menschutkin, Prof. Alexander Macalister, Prof. A. B

Macallum, Sir Alexander C. Mackenzie, Prof. Hugo IN the course of his address to the annual meeting of the Münsterberg, Sir John MacFadyean, Prof. Middleton, Prof.

Mahaffy, Sir John Murray, Prof. Wilhelm Ostwald, St March 28, Mr. T. Steel, the president, alluded to a proposed William Ramsay, Sir Henry Roscoe, Major Ronald Ross, method of destroying rabbits by means of an infectious Field-Marshal Earl Roberts, Sir James A. Russell, De disease, the precise nature of which is not yet disclosed. D. H. Scott, Dr. J. Hutchison Stirling, Dr. William The idea, it appears, originated in Paris, and since the

Somerville, Prof. W. R. Sorley, Prof. Stirling, Mr. Thomas necessary funds have been subscribed by stock-owners

Shaw, M.P., Lord Mount-Stephen, Prof. J. J. Thomson, and agriculturists, it is proposed to commence the experi- Dr. Thomas E. Thorpe, Prof. W. A. Tilden, Prof. G. D. ment on a small island selected for the purpose. After Thane, Prof. Henry Turner, Prof. Giuseppe Veronese, Dr. discussing the arguments for and against the proposal, the J. A. Voelcker, Prof. Paul Vinogradoff, Prof. J. W. Wijlr, president considered it highly undesirable that any such Prof. Weichselbaum, and Sir John Williams. disease should be wilfully communicated to any species of

The following among other universities, colleges, and animal, by means of which it might be disseminated learned societies are to be represented by delegates throughout the country. As to the extermination of the University College, Bristol, Principal C. Lloyd Morgan, rabbit, that is considered an impossible contingency; but University of Cambridge, Dr. Henry Jackson, Dr. Jam-means ought, and can, be found to keep the species in Adam, and Mr. W. L. Mollison; University College check without recourse to infectious diseases, which may be Cardiff, Dr. E. H. Griffiths ; Trinity College, Dublin a danger to the community.

Dr. Anthony Traill; Royal Society of Edinburgh, Lord In the course of the same address Mr. Steel alluded to

MacLaren ; Universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Si. the necessity of special efforts is the native Australian fauna Andrews; University of Leeds, Dr. Bodington ; Royal and flora are to be saved from destruction. Poison spread Society of London, Sir Archibald Geikie ; British Academs, for rabbits is responsible for the destruction of a large Dr. J. A. H. Murray; Royal College of Physicians, Sr number of indigenous mammals and birds, while, sad to

R. D. Powell ; Royal College of Surgeons, Mr. Edmund relate, there are Europeans who will deliberately shoot Owen; L'niversity of Manchester, Dr. A. Hopkinson down such harmless and peaceful creatures as the koala, or University of Oxford, Dr. W. M. Merry, Prof. Herr native bear, for the sake of so-called sport. Shooting Goudy, and Prof. Arthur Thomson ; University of Wales domesticated sheep, it is remarked, would be equally Principal H. R. Reichel; R. Accademia dei Lincei, Roare, worthy of such sportsmen.

Prof. Lanciani.


UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL industrial and manual training school in St. Louis. Mr.

Clarence H. Mackay and his mother have together given CAMBRIDGE.-The Harkness scholarship in geology has

10,000l. for the immediate erection of a building for the bern gained by B. Smith, of Sidney, and the Wiltshire

College of Mines in connection with the University of

Nevada. This building is to house the department of prize in palæontology by W. A. R. Wilks, of Gonville and Caius.

mining and metallurgy and that of geology and mineralogy.

A recent State appropriation for the metallurgical laborThe Cavendish professor announces a course of demonstrations in physics at the laboratory during the long atory has provided the University with a new ore-treating Vacation, beginning on July 4.

equipment which will be suitable for installing in the new

quarters. The building will also contain a geological The Victoria medal of honour has been awarded by the

museum. Furthermore, Mr. F. M. Smith has arranged to Royal Horticultural Society to Mr. R. I. Lynch, curator

provide an income of 200l. a year to be used for the supof the Botanic Garden. A thousand willow-cuttings have been supplied from the

port and encouragement of students in the mining school.

This will in general be divided into five annual scholargarden to the Midlands Re-afforesting Association for the

ships of 401, each to be known as the F. M. Smith planting of waste-heaps in the “Black Country.' In the Natural Sciences Tripos, part i., thirty-eight scholarships open to deserving students irrespective of

citizenship or residence. men and no women obtain a first class ; in part ii., twelve men and three women are in the first class, six being It is satisfactory to know that the attempt made at the distinguished in physics and four in physiology.

meeting of the Liverpool City Council to reduce the grant

of 10,000l. to the University of Liverpool met with scant Mr. H. O. Wills, of Kelston Knoll, near Bristol, has support. The grant was renewed by an overwhelming promised a contribution of 10,000l. towards the foundation majority. We should like to agree with Sir Charles Petrie, ol a university at Bristol.

who said at the meeting he could not think the mover and THF annual garden-party will be held at Guy's Hospital

seconder of the amendment were serious, but there is still on Wednesday, July 4, when Sir W. Cameron Gull, Bart.,

in this country a widespread want of appreciation of the will distribute the medals and prizes to the successful

national value of university teaching and research, and no students.

effort must be spared to bring home to local authorities

the duty devolving upon them to assist every grade of A GEORGE COmbe lectureship in general and experi- education to the fullest extent possible. As Chancellor of mental psychology has been established in connection with the University of Liverpool, Lord Derby has formally the philosophical department of the University of Edin- accepted from Miss Isabella Gregson, formerly of Liverburgh. The funds for the lecturer's salary will be pro- pool, the gift of the Gregson Memorial Institute and vided mainly by the Combe trustees, who have also con- Museum. The gift is to be utilised for university extension tributed zool. towards the equipment of a laboratory.

purposes, and represents in money value, with an endowThe Senate of the University of Dublin has decided to

ment of 5oool. added by the founder, about 300,000l. It conser, at the summer commencements on July 31, the

was erected some years ago by Miss Gregson at her honorary degree of Sc.D. on Colonel David Bruce, C.B. ; mother's request for purposes of scientific recreation in Prof. J. H. Poincaré, professor of mathematics and astro- memory of her father, mother, brother, and sister. nomy at the Sorbonne; Mr. E T. Whittaker, F.R.S.,

In the foundation oration in connection with the Union Follow of Trinity College, Cambridge, Astronomer Royal Society, delivered at University College, London, of Ireland ; and Dr. A. E. Wright, F.R.S.

June 13, Sir Arthur Rücker, F.R.S., took for his subject The Daily Chronicle (June 20) announces that Sir the forthcoming incorporation of the college in the L'niWilliam Macdonald has presented an agricultural college rersi of London. He emphasised the fact that University and an endowment of two million dollars (400,000l.) to the College is undenominational, and is to be united to an McGill L'niversity, Montreal. Sir William founded this undenominational university. University College was the agricultural college some time ago, in order to provide the first great step towards bringing university teaching into youth of Canada with facilities for a thorough scientific

the centre of the great masses of population. It may be education in agriculture,

said that the University of Cambridge owes indirectly its AT L'niversity College (University of London) on July 3

great physiological school to the college, for it was one of the dean of the faculty of arts will read a report on the

its students who developed there the idea. The college work of the session ; the result of the University, scholar

with its large resources has offered itself to the new uniship and class examinations will be announced, and prizes of about a quarter of a million has been raised with this

versity, and has made possible an absolute fusion. A sum and medals will be distributed by Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. (emeritus professor of physics, and formerly prin- continued, that the University is in full negotiation with

object in view. It is an open secret, Sir Arthur Rücker cipal of the college). Lord Reay, president of the college, wito will preside, will receive for the college from Prof. college of the University. The University does not intend

King's College with the view of that also becoming a E T. Trouton, acting on behalf of the subscribers, the portrait of Dr. G. Carey Foster, painted by Mr. Augustus

to injure or destroy University College in any way what

ever ; the college has a name and a reputation with which Jonn, and will present a replica thereof to Mrs. Carey

none but a madman would attempt to interfere. If the Foster

principal educational institutions in London. are drawn A VURSE of demonstrations and practical work in field together, it is hoped that the University will obtain the and laboratory, on the applications of science to rural life recognition, appreciation, and loyalty which are required for and outdoor industries, will be held at the South-Eastern

In conclusion, the principal of London University Agricultural College, Wye, about the last week in July expressed the hope that the members of University College or the first week in August. The course will be designed will support all movements for drawing the students of to meet the needs of science masters in rural secondary

the University more closely together. All wanted to create schools who have to teach various branches of science to a great university, and this would be the very greatest country children. The work will be mainly practical importance to the whole of London. investigation into the bearing of science on outdoor life, and lectures will be given to indicate the lines on which

The Duke of Devonshire, as president of the National

Association for the Promotion of Technical and Secondary science teaching in rural secondary schools could be developed usefully. The cost of the fortnight's course will

Education, took the chair at the annual meeting held on Bir gl., including board and residence in the college. Full

June 15. During his opening speech the president said, in particulars may be obtained from the principal, Mr.

consequence of the exertions of the association in past V. R. Dunstan, at the college.

years the position of technical and secondary education

has been completely changed, the Government and the FLUTHER generous gifts to education by Anterican men local authorities having taken up the question. The work of wealth are announced by Science. Mr. David Rankin, for which the association was established to carry on has of St. Louis, has decided to give 400.000l. to found an been to a great extent accomplished. The association is

NO. 1912, vol. 74]






no longer necessary for stimulating interest in the Chemical Suciety, June 7.-Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., question of technical education or for promoting legis- president, in the chair.-Ammonium selenate and the queslation. But, in the course of its existence, the association tion of isodimorphism in the alkali series : A. E. H. has done more than this; it has become the centre to Tutton. Normal ammonium selenate crystallises diferwhich local authorities engaged in the work have been ently from the

rhombic normal sulphates and accustomed to look for advice, for information, and, to a selenates of the alkalis already investigated, namely, in certain extent, for guidance. Much of the work of the monoclinic prisms or tables. Rhombic mixed crystals of association is capable of being performed by the Govern- ammonium selenate and sulphate have been obtained, and ment department. But from some communications which it is concluded that ammonium selenate is dimorphous, and he had with the Board of Education a year or two ago, that the whole series of sulphates and selenates is probably the Duke of Devonshire found that the department did isodimorphous.—The vapour pressures of binary mixtures, not consider itself then in a position to undertake the part i., the possible types of vapour-pressure curves : whole of what is done by the association. It is, perhaps, Marshall. By differentiating the equation of Duhem and possible that the present Treasury may take a different Margules, xd log Pi +(1-x)dlog P.=o, it has been iound view, and that the Board of Education may be permitted possible to classify the total pressure curves into twelve by the Treasury to undertake a part of the work which types, all of which are known to occur. The vapour has hitherto been exclusively carried on by the association. pressures of the following pairs of liquids have been inHe therefore suggested that during the next year, in which vestigated experimentally :-nitroglycerol

and acerone, provision is made for the continuance of the efficient work diethylamine and acetone, ethyl alcohol and methyl ethyl of the association, the executive committee should ascer- ketone, water and methyl ethyl ketone, water and methyl tain, by communication with the Government, how far the acetate, water and ether, water and amyl alcohol.-The Board of Education is in a position to take up any part

behaviour of acetylene with electrical discharges of high of the functions which the association has hitherto frequency: H. Jackson and D. N. Laurie. A semiassumed; and if it should be found that those functions solid brown substance is formed when acetylene is subjected can be more usefully discharged in the future by a private to discharges from an ordinary high-frequency apparatus, association than by a department of the Government, prac- which sets to a hard and very insoluble solid on exposure tical consideration must be given to the manner in which to air. It is apparently a polymeride of acetylene. 10 it may be possible to secure a larger amount of assistance absorbs oxygen readily up to about 8 per cent. The from the public. Lord Avebury and Sir Henry Roscoe behaviour of the vapours of methyl alcohol and acri. also addressed the meeting.

aldehyde with electrical discharges of high frequency: H. Jackson and D. N. Laurie. Working with discharge

of very short duration, the first change in the vapour of SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

methyl alcohol is the formation of carbon monoxide and LONDON.

hydrogen ; in the case of acetaldehyde the grrater part ui Royal Society, May 3.—"The Action of Pituitary the vapour breaks up into methane and carbon monoxide, Extracts upon the Kidney. By Prof. E. A. Schäfer,

but acetylene and water are also produced in smaller F.R.S., and P. T. Herring.

quantities.-Note 4-bromo-2-nitro-ta-naphthylamine :

Ř. Meldola and H. G. Dale.--Dinitroanisidines and their Intravenous injections of saline extract of the infundi

products of diazotisation (second communication): R bular part of the pituitary body produce dilatation of kidney vessels accompanied by increased flow of urine ;

Meldola and F. G. C. Stephens.—The action of sulphur

dioxide and aluminium chloride on aromatic compounds i.e. the extract has a diuretic action. With the first injection this result is accompanied by

S. Smiles and R. Le Rossignol. The authors have rise of blood-pressure and contraction of systemic arteries.

previously shown that thionyl chloride reacts with pleneWith subsequent injections the diuresis is usually attended,

tole in the presence of aluminium chloride, giving rise not by a rise of blood-pressure, but by a fall. This

successively to a sulphoxide and a sulphonium base; it has

since been found that this reaction may be brought alout furnishes evidence that the diuresis is independent of the effects upon blood-pressure, and leads one to suppose that it

by sulphur dioxide with the aid of the same condensing is produced by a special constituent of the extract.

agent.-Action of sodium on aa-dichloropropylene : Visa This conjecture is confirmed by the result of treating

I. Smedley.--Resolution of lactic acid by morphine

J. C. Irvine. the extract with certain reagents which tend to abolish

Fermentation lactic acid may be readily

resolved into its active components by the crystallisation the rise of blood-pressure which is produced by a first injection, but leave the diuretic effect of the extract un

of the morphine salts.-Brazilin and hæmatoxylin, pirt altered.

viii. : W. H. Perkin, jun., and R. Robinson.-A study The diuretic as well as the pressor and depressor con

of the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and potassium stituents of the extract not destroyed by boiling.

persulphate : J. A. N. Friend. It is shown that solutions They dialyse through parchment paper. They are insoluble

of hydrogen peroxide and potassium persulphate interact in absolute alcohol and ether.

according to the equation H,0,+K,S, 0.= 2 KHSO, +O) Intravenous injections of extracts from the anterior or

The reaction, however, is monomolecular, due to the form

ation of an intermediate and highly unstable compound. epithelial lobe of the pituitary body do not produce diuresis ; these extracts exhibit no physiological activity.

-The action of magnesium methyl iodide on destr

limonene nitrosochlorides: W. A. Tilden and F. G. It is concluded that the infundibular part of the gland produces an internal secretion which passes into the blood,

Shepheard. The same compound is formed from the and which, both indirectly owing to its general action

and B-nitrosochlorides. It is insoluble in aquetaus upon the vascular system and directly by its special action

alkalis and in acids, though easily soluble in the usual on the renal vessels and renal epithelium, assists in pro

organic solvents, and has the formula C ,H,ON,CI, moting and regulating the secretion of urine; in other

Electrolysis of potassium ethyl dipropyl malonate: D. (* words, the internal secretion of the gland is ancillary to

Crichton. A concentrated aqueous solution of potassium the renal functions.

ethyldipropylmalonate yields on electrolysis the ethyl esters

of a-propyl-B-ethylacrylic acid, dipropylglycollic acid, tetraMay 10.-“A Variety of Thorianite from Galle, Ceylon." propylsuccinic acid, and probably dipropylacetic acid.--4 By Wyndham R. Dunstan, F.R.S., and B. Mouat Jones. new method for the measurement of hydrolysis in aqueous

Specimens of thorianite from the Galle district of Cevlon solution based upon the consideration of the motion of were found to contain from 58.84 per cent. to 63 36 per ions : R. B. Denison and B. D. Steele.--The oxidation of cent. of thoria associated with from 32.7 per cent. to hydrocarbons by ozone at low temperatures : J. Drugman 27.9 per cent. of oxide of uranium. Ordinary thorianite Ozone acts slowly on saturated hydrocarbons, and the from the Balangoda district contains 78-98 per cent. of process is one of gradual hydroxylation. The reaction thoria and 13:40 per cent. of oxide of uranium. The | with an unsaturated hydrocarbon, such as ethylene, is in. authors direct attention to the inter-replacement of stantaneous, even at temperaturns far below oo. and a thorium and uranium in the mineral, and conclude that very explosive addition compound is first formed.-Reactions the oxides of the two elements are present in isomorphous involving the addition of hvdrogen cyanide to carbon commixture, and are not chemically combined.


pounds, part V., cyanodihydrocarrone : A. Lapworth.



Thucarbamide as a solvent for gold : J. Moir. Two new from palladium 3460-4 and 3258.7 when compared with the complex gold salts have been obtained by dissolving gold quadruplets from rhodium 3502-7 and 3474.7: In the in an acid solution of thiocarbamide. Their formulæ are triplets there are also lines which may be classified in the C.HSS,Au.(SO) and C,H,,N6S, Au,Ci, respectively:- same way. (3) The displacements of the constituents of An improved Beckmann apparatus for molecular weight some of the divided lines are simple multiples of one determinations : J. McConnell Sanders.

another.-Experiments on the band spectrum of nitrogen

in a magnetic field of 41.000 units : J. E. Purvis. The Linnean Society, June 7.- Prof. W. A. Herdman

bands in the red, orange, and yellow become very weak, F.R.S., president, in the chair.--Exhibit: --Tubes showing whilst those in the green, blue, and violet are brighter stages in the metamorphosis of a young flat-fish (Pleuro

and stronger. But there was no shift of the bands, nor nectis platessa), the plaice, leading from the symmetrical did there appear to be any widening or division of the lines larva to the asymmetrical young flat-fish : the President. forming the bands.—The ionisation of gases exposed simulThese fish were hatched and reared in the Port Erin

taneously to Röntgen rays and the radiation from radioBiological Station. Reference was also made to the oper- active substances : T. Noda. ations conducted this year in hatching and liberating some millions of young plaice.-Two new species of Populus

EDINBURGH. trom Darjeeling: H. H. Haines. Populus ciliata, Royle, Royal Society, May 28. —Sir John Murray, K.C B., vicewas re-described, and the two new species characterised, president, in the chair.-Life in reservoirs in relation to namely, P. Gambler, which may or may not be the spec water supply in towns : James Murray. The paper was a described by Dode from imperfect material, and P. glauca, detailed discussion of the types of life met with in reserHaines.-Two reports dealing with Biscayan plankton voirs, the time needed for new reservoirs to become stocked collected during a cruise of H.M.S. Research in 1900 : with animal life, and the conditions under which such life Dr. G. H. Fowler. (1) The Cephalopoda : W. E. Hoyle.might do harm to the water. Rise of temperature was Among seventeen specimens, five genera and two species always followed by a great increase in the number of were recognised; all but one (750 fathoms to 500 fathoms) animals in the water, but so long as the loch or reservoir apparently belonged to the epiplankton; not a single speci- was large there was little chance of any serious results. men was captured at the actual surface. (2) The Medusa : The conditions under which animal life might possibly get E T. Browne. As the area investigated was oceanic, the into the mains were also discussed, and it was pointed out neritic Anthomedusa represented by only three that Nature herself supplied a preventive in the tendency speries; while the Trachomedusæ and Narcomedusa, which

of free-swimming animals to swim against the current. are essentially oceanic, were represented by seven and three-The Rotifera of the Scottish lochs : James Murray. Of species respectively, three species of Trachomedusæ furnish

the 177 species which had been discriminated, five were ing 85 per cent. of the total specimens captured. Four

new. Many new observations on the structure and habits rarities were recorded; one Narcomedusan was apparently of the various species were recorded.—The Tardigrada of new to science, and of interest as showing medusa-buds the South Orkneys : James Murray. Fourteen forms, (which were not parasitic) developing as outgrowths of the obtained from a single tuft of moss, were more or less stomach pouches.- The Conifers of China : Dr. M. T.

fragmentary. Two had been known before, but only Masters. The paper described the whole coniferous fora three could be described as new.-The temperature of now known, including the discoveries of Messrs. E. H.

fresh-water lochs of Scotland, with special reference to Wilson and B. Hayata ; eight new species are fully set out, Loch Ness : E. M. Wedderburn. The paper discussed five of these being of the genus Picea.

the temperature distribution in the loch at different times

and in different months. In addition to the usual type of Royal Astronomical Society, June 8.-Mr. W. H. Maw,

sounding thermometer, a platinum thermometer was used president, in the chair.-The ancient eclipses of the sun :

in conjunction with Callendar's self-recording apparatus. E. Nevill.—Mr. Cowell's discussion of ancient eclipses of

The record showed on certain occasions the very rapid the sun : S. Newcomb. The above papers were discussed by Mr. Cowell in reference to his corrections to the secular

change of temperature which may take place at depths

of 150 feet or 200 feet. This was traced to the slight rise acceleration. He concluded that, with the exception of the

or fall of the layer of water in which the temperature is eclipse of Archilochus, which Mr. Nevill had shown to be entirely uncertain, they agreed with the theory, which was

changing most rapidly with depth, the so-called “ Sprung

schicht. Clear evidence was also obtained of the temperaalso supported by the Chinese eclipses now brought forward by Mr. Nevill.-Errors in the tabular places of

ture seiche, first noticed by Mr. Watson. The observed Jupiter from photographs taken with the astrographic re

period was in fair agreement with that calculated from

the theoretical formula. At a depth of 5 feet very rapid fractor at the Royal Observatory : Astronomer Royal.Noves on polarisation phenomena in the solar corona, 1905

changes of temperature were sometimes observed during night time, due clearly to convection currents.

A sunAugust 30: H. F. Newall.-Photographs of the corona of 1905 August 30, taken at Sfax, Tunis : Astronomer

shine recorder could, when required, be connected with the

self-recording apparatus instead of the thermometer. At Royal.-In an oral communication Prof. II. H. Turner

a few feet depth the effect of the direct action of the sun brought forward some results of his polarisation observ

was very small. At a depth of only 2 feet it was impossible ations during rerent solar eclipses, considered in reference to the constitution of the corona. Father Cortie said that

to detect the passage of a cloud in front of the sun. An

estination of the amount of heat which entered the water we should consider the effect of explosive outbursts on the solar surface, and not regard the coronal phenomena as

of the loch during the day was made, and came out at due only to the pressure of light.-A spherical slide-rule,

about a sixth or seventh part of the whole amount of solar

heat available, according to Knott's calculation. consisting of two superposed stereographic projections of the sphere, arranged for solving various problems in

Paris. sphrrical trigonometry : W. B. Blaikie.

Academy of Sciences, June 5.-M. A. Chauveau in the

chair.-The utilisation of turf for the intensive production CAMBRIDGE.

of nitrates : A. Müntz and E. Lainé. The authors, conPhilosophical Society, May 14.—Dr. Fenton, vice-presi. tinuing their researches on the artificial production of dent, in the chair.-The influence of a very strong mag- nitrates, find that if the animal charcoal used in their firtir field on the spark spectra of palladium, rhodium, and former work is replaced by turf as the medium for the rutheniuni: J. E. Purvis. The strength of the field was growth of the nitrifying bacteria the yield is multiplied 1580 units, and the general results are :-(1) Most of the eight times. Fresh salts of ammonia can be added to the mes divide into triplets, and several become quadruplets. weak nitrate solution resulting from the first nitrification, (21 The value of dA/N? was calculated from the measure- and this again passed through the turf bed, and this murnit of the distances of the constituents, and in several process can be repeated until the percentage of nitrate qualruplets the value is the same; the general appearance present in the liquor is sufficient for its economical extracin intensities and polarisation of the separate constituents tion commercially. The possibility of the turf itself furnishis also very similar. This is well seen in the quadruplets ing the necessary ammonia compounds is discussed, and a

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method of distillation of the turf in superheated steam has

DIARY OF SOCIETIES. been worked out, by means of which the yield of ammonia

THURSDAY, JUNE 21. is greatly increased.—The dry avalanches and mud torrents Royal Society, at 4.30.—The Transition from the Liquid to the Su-3 in the recent eruption of Vesuvius : A. Lacroix.--The

State and the Foam-structure of Matter : Prof. G. Quincke, For. Mem.RS

--Experimental Evidence of Ionic Migration in the Natural Diffusos occurrence of crystals of sylvite in blocks thrown out by

Acids and Salts: R. G. Durrant.-On the Behaviour of Certain Sa> the recent eruption of Vesuvius : A. Lacroix. The crystals stances at their Critical Temperatures : Prof. M W. Travers, F.R of sylvite (potassium chloride) were remarkable for their

and F. L. Usher.-Note on the Phenomenon of Opalescence at

Critical Temperature: Prof. S. Young, F.R.S.-lonic Velocities size, forming cubical crystals of more than 2 cm. in the

Gases at Different Temperatures: P. Phillips.-The Action of Radita side. In several specimens the sylvite crystals were covered and Certain Other Salts on Gelatin : W. A. Douglas Rudge. - Baronetron with large cubical crystals of halite (sodium chloride). A Variations of Long Duration over Large Areas: Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer. description is also given of a rare mineral consisting of a

On the Electric Inductive Capacities of Dry Paper and of Solid Cello Ose

A. Campbell. chloride of sodium, potassium, and manganese. -Researches CHEMICAL Society, at 8.30.- The Cleve Memorial Lecture : Prof. T. I of the hydroxides of rubidium, cæsium, and lithium ; M. Thorpe. - The Constituents of the Essential Oil from the Fruit de Forcrand. The hydroxides of rubidium and cæsium

Pittosporum uniulatum: F. B. Power and F. Tutin.- Mobility or

Substituents in Derivatives of B-Naphthol : J. T. Hewitt and H. 1. obtainable commercially both contain one molecule of water Mitchell. of crystallisation ; the anhydrous hydroxides can be pre- LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-On the Botany of Southern Rhodesia : M pared from the commercial products by heating in a silver

L. S. Gibbs.-On the Authentic Portraits of Linnæus (lantern lide).

W. Carruthers, F.R.S.--Plantæ novæ Daweanæ in Uganda lectæ : Dr. crucible, an atmosphere of hydrogen being necessary in the

Otto Stapf.--On the Genitalia of Diptera: W. Wescbé. case of the cæsium compound to prevent the formation of

FRIDAY, JUNE 22. higher oxides of cæsium. Anhydrous lithium hydroxide is PHYSICAL Society, at 5.—The Effect of Radium in Facilitating the Viale readily prepared from the hydrate. The heats of dissolu- Electric Discharge in cacuo : A. A. Campbell Swinton.-A Compar.9

between the Peltier Effect and other Reversible Heat Effects i A. O tion of the three hydroxides were measured.--A theorem Allen. -- The Effect of the Electric Spark on the Actinity of Meras* on plane algebraic curves of order n : G. B. Guccia.- T. A. Vaughton. ---Dielectric Strength of Thin Liquid Films: Dr. P. F An azimuth circle with reading microscopes for technical

Shaw. - The Effect of Electrical Oscillations on Iron in a Magnetic Fisid.

Dr. W. H. Eccles. survey work : Ch. Lallemand. The circles are divided

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 27. into tenths of degrees, and are read by estimation by bent GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Interference-Phenomena in the Alps. It microscopes carrying a cross-wire. The arrangement has Maria M. Ogilvie Gordon. -The Influence of Pressure and Porosity or

the Motion of Sub-surface Water : W. R. Baldwin-Wiseman. the advantage of rapidity and simplicity, and a comparison

THURSDAY, JUNE 28. with the various types of instrument in common use showed ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-- Probable Papers: Sex-determination that it is only surpassed in accuracy by instruments Hydatina, with some Remarks on Parthenogenesis: R. C. Punnet: furnished with reading microscopes carrying a micrometer

On the Julianiaceæ, a New Natural Order of Plants: W. Bunin:

Hemsley, F.R.S. ---On Regeneration of Nerves : Dr. F. W. Molt, F.R.S. screw.-The electrical control of synchronised clocks : Jean

Prof. W. D. Halliburton, F.R.S., and A. Edmunds.-The Pharmacoli Mascart. A discussion of the possible accidents to a of Ethyl Chloride : Dr. E. H. Embley.-The Alcoholic Ferment of lees synchronised clock system, and the various means that Juice, part ii., The Coferment of Yeast Juice : Dr. A. Harden an have been adopted to inform the public that the electrical

W. J. Young; and other papers. control of one of the clocks on the system has failed.An experiment due to Hittorf and the generality of


PACE Paschen's law : E. Bouty.-The properties of surfaces for British Inland Navigation which the apparent angle of contact of water is zero : H. Recent Botanical Books

17 Ollivier.—The action of silicon chloride on nickel : Em. Photography in Surveying Operations. By W. E. P. r Vigouroux. By the action of silicon tetrachloride upon Conversations on Chemistry. By A. S. heated nickel two substances have been isolated, SiNi, Nencki's Collected Works. By W. D. H.

173 and Siniz. That the former silicide is homogeneous and Our Book Shelf:free from metallic nickel is rendered probable by the fact Bouasse : “ Essais des Matériaux" that it is not magnetic.-The decomposition of copper “The Scientific Roil and Magazine of Systematised sulphate by methyl alcohol :. V. Auger. A basic copper Notes

174 sulphate is formed, the sulphuric acid removed probably Letters to the Editor :forming methyl-sulphuric acid.—Dibromodimethyl- and Another New Vesuvian Mineral. —Dr. H. J. John. dibromodiethyl-amidobenzoylbenzoic acids and their deri


114 vatives : E. Séverin.—The variations in the size of the The Discovery of Logarithms.--Cecil Seymour. particles in colloidal hydrochloric-ferric chloride solutions :

Browne ; The Reviewer. G. Malfitano.-A new micro-organism producing acetone : Distribution of the Forms of Corvus cornix and C. L. Bréaudat. The chromogenic organism described was corone.-J. A. Harvie-Brown; The Reviewer 1,5 found in the drinking water of Saigon, Cochin-China, The Date of Easter.-Alexander D. Ross; Chas. and is capable of producing acetone from proteid material. Leigh

17: The name proposed for the new species is Bacillus violarius Geological Survey of Canada.-A. P. Low

105 acetonicus.--Contribution to the study of the soluble The Fossil Vertebrates of the Fayum. (Illustrated.) albuminoid materials of milk :

M. Lindet and L. By R. L. .. Ammann. It is shown that the casein of milk is, in part, The Californian Earthquake of April 18. (Illustrated, is dissolved by the calcium phosphate present. Experiments The Forthcoming Meeting of the British Associa. are described throwing light upon the causes of clotting of tion at York milk.-Contribution to the cytological study of bacteria : Kew Publications S. Guilliermond. The author concludes from his observ- Baron C. R. von der Osten Sacken. By Prof. G. H. ations that a true nucleus does not exist in bacteria, and Bryan, F.R.S. considers that the nuclei described by various authors are Notes. (Illustrated.) due to misinterpretation of the facts observed. --A new Our Astronomical Column:parasitic copepod of 1mphiura squammata : E. Hérouard. Discussion of Facule Observations

A new type in the family of the Virgularidæ : Ch. New Method for the Discovery of Asteroids
Gravier.—The excretion of the endogenous purins and uric Radial Velocity of a Draconis

13 acid: Pierre Fauvel. The quantity of endogenous purins Useful Tables and Formule for Astronomical Com and uric acid is constant even for a subject whose diet in putations free from purins, and this is still the case whether a milk The Leeds Astronomical Society diet, strictly vegetarian diet, or mixed milk-vegetarian diet Meteorological Observations be followed. This quantity varies little with the individual, The Theory of Frequency. Distributions. By G.U. Y. 3and averages 04 to o 5 gram of purins and o 28 to 0.35 A Plea for an Expedition to Melanesia , uric acid in twenty-four hours.--The state of the adductor Destruction of Animals in Australia muscles during life in the acephalous molluscs : F. | Aberdeen University Quatercentenary Celebrations iss Marceau.- Pulmonary tuberculosis in the tiger: P. University and Educational Intelligence Achalme.- new explanation of glacial erosion : Jean Societies and Academies Brunhes.

Diary of Societies


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