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SEPTEMBER MATRICULATION.

Day and Evening Classes for the September Matriculation of London University may be taken up at any time, as the Classes at

UNIVERSITY TUTORIAL COLLEGE work continuously through the Summer vacation. Fifty-two successes at January Matriculation.

Classes in PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY, PHYSICS, BIOLOGY AND GEOLOGY are held during August.

NORTHERN POLYTECHNIC

INSTITUTE,

HOLLOWAY, LONDON, N. (Close to Holloway Stn., G.N.R., and Highbury Sun., N.L.R.) LONDON UNIVERSITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

DEGREES.
Day and Evening Courses in the above under recognised teachers ia-
MATHEMATICS,

PHYSICS,
CHEMISTRY,

ENGINEERINQ. Separate Laboratories for Elementary, Advanced and Honours students, exceptionally large and well equipped.

RESEARCH. Special arrangements for students undertaking research during vacations Full particulars at the Institute or sent on receipt of postcard.

REG. S. CLAY, D.Sc., Principal.

Prospectus may be had, post free, from the Vice-PRINCIPAL, University Tutorial College, Red Lion Square, Holborn.

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SOUTH-WESTERN POLYTECHNIC,

MANRESA ROAD, CHELSEA, S.W. The Day College Courses consist of 30 hours per week, and are in prepar; ation for London University degrees of B.Sc. in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, in Chemistry, Physics and Natural Science. Session Fee, 615.

The Evening Classes consist of similar courses at much reduced rates.

The Technical Day Courses are arranged to extend over 3 years and pre. pare for Engineering, Electrical, Chemical and Metallurgical professions.

*S. SKINNER, M.A. Mathematics and Physics

* W. H. Eccles, D.Sc.

J. LISTER, A.R.C.S
* L. Lownds, B.Sc., Ph. D.
J. B. COLEMAN, A R.C.S.

J. C. CROCKER, M.A.
Chemistry and Metallurgy F. H. Lowe, B.Sc.

C. W. HALE.
W. E. OAKDEN.

* H. B. LACEY.
Botany

* T. G. Hill, A.R.C.S. Geology

A. J. MASLEN, F.L.S.

* W. W. F. PULLEN, Wh.Sc. Mechanical Engineering

*A. MACKLOW SMITH.

H. AUGHTIE.

1 * A. J. MAKOWER, B.A. Electrical Engineering ...

U. A. OSCHWALD, B.A.

• B. H. MORPHY. * Recognised Teacher of the University of London. Full prospectus from the SECRETARY, post free, 4d.; at the office, price id.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NORTH

WALES (BANGOR). SESSION 1906-7 will open on OCTOBER 2. DEPARTMENTS of MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY,

and BIOLOGY. MATHEMATICS { Prof. G. H. Bryan, Sc.D., F.R.S.

Assistant Lecturer, H. HILTON, M.A.

Prof. E. Taylor Jones, D.Sc. PHYSICS

Assistant Lecturers and Demonstrators, D. FARRAR,

M.Sc., and A. H. FERGUSON, B.Sc.

Prof. K. J. P. ORTON, M.A., Ph.D.
CHEMISTRY ... Assistant Lecturers and Demonstrators, Miss A. E.

SMITH, B.Sc., and J. O. HUGHES, B.Sc.
Botany-Prof. R. W. PHILLIPS, M.A., D.Sc.

Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator, J. BIOLOGY

LLOYD WILLIAMS.
Zoology and Physiology-Prof. Philip J. White,

M.B., F.R.S.E. The Classes and Laboratory Courses of this College are arranged to suit the requirements of Students of Practical Science, as well as of Students preparing for University and other Examinations. The Lectures in Chem. istry, Physics, Botany, and Zoology are recognised for the first year of medical study:

The extensive Laboratories (Physical, Chemical, and Biological) are fully equipped for Study and Research.

Inclusive Tuition Fee, tuis. Laboratory Fees (per Term) on the scale of £r is. for six hours a week, in each Department. A considerable

number of Scholarships and Exhibitions are open for com. petition at the beginning of each Session, and several are awarded at the close of each Session on the result of the year's work.

For full information as to Courses, apply for Prospectus to the Secretary and Registrar,

J. E. LLOYD, M.A.

UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER

AND MANCHESTER ROYAL INFIRMARY.

ENTRANCE MEDICAL SCHOLARSHIPS. TWO SCHOLARSHIPS are offered, one for proficiency in Arts, an one for proficiency in Science. Each Scholarship is of the value of one and the successful candidates will be required to enter for the full medica curriculum in the University and the Infrinary

The Scholarships will be awarded to candidates who give evidence of a high standard of proficiency in Arts or Science respectively.

Applications should be sent on or before July 1 io the REGISTRAR, (roo whom further particulars may be obtained.

UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER. . A PLATT BIOLOGICAL SCHOLARSHIP of the value of ris offered for award. The Scholarship is open to persons who bave sluchu Zoology or. Botany in any University for College Laboratory, and the successful candidate will be required to devote himself to research in the Zoological or Botanical Laboratory of the University during the tenure of the Scholarship.

Applications should be sent on or before July 7 to the REGISTRAR, from whom further particulars may be obtained. TECHNICAL COLLEGE OF

SUNDERLAND.

CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT. The Governors invite applications for the post of ASSISTANT LECTURER and DEMONSTRATOR in CHEMISTRY. The appointment will date from September 16, 1906 ; the salary will be at the rate of 61:0 per annum, rising by yearly increments of £10 10 £150.

Further particulars may be obtained from the SECRETARY, to whom applications for the appointment should be sent not later than August 6.

T. W, BRYERS, Secretary. Education Offices, Sunderland. BIRKBECK COLLEGE-GEOLOGY.

There will be a vacancy in September for a LECTURER in GEOLOGY and MINERALOGY. He must be well qualified for recognition by the University. Duties two afternoons and two evenings per week Field-work on six Saturdays. Salary proposed, £150. Apply, stating age, experience, academic and other qualifications, with not more than three testimonials, to THE PRINCIPAL, Birkbeck College, Breams

Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C.
BIRKBECK COLLEGE PRACTICAL

GEOMETRY.-A TEACHER will be required for this subject in
September; must be equal to Honours work. Apply, staring age.
qualifications and experience, to PRINCIPAL, Birkbeck College, Breans
Buildings, E.C.
For other Scholastic Advertisements, see page lxxv, and

LECTURES on VESUVIUS, illustrated by

a unique series of slides taken during many years' residence, including many of the recent eruption, can be given during the autumn by Dr. JOHNSTON-LAVIS, late Prof. of Vulcanology in the R. Univ. of

BIOLOGY,

a

INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY

THE
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC

INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER.
An EXAMINATION in BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY will be held

Edited by WALTER E. COLLINGE, M.Sc.,
at tbe Laboratories of the Institute, commencing on TUESDAY,

The University, Birmingham,
OCTOBER 23, 1906

With the co-operation of
The Examination will be open to Fellows and Associates of the Institute,

Prof. A. H. REGINALD BULLER, D.Sc., Ph.D.,
and to Candidates who are eligible for admission to the Final (A.I.C.)

Prof. GEO. H. CARPENTER, B.Sc., M.R.I.A.,
Examination.
The Syllabus will include Biological Chemistry with special reference to

ROBT. NEWSTEAD, A.L.S., F.E.S., and
Fermentation, Enzyme Action, the Chemistry and Bacieriology of Food.

A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S.
statt. Water Supply, and Sewage Disposal, and to the application of
Biological Chemistry to Industries and Manufactures. The List of Can-

CONTENTS of PART III. (VOL. 1.).
didates will be closed on Tuesday, September 11, 1906.

The Biology of Polyporus squamosus, Huds., Timber
Forms of Application and further particulars can be obtained on applica- destroying Fungus. (Pls. V.-IX., and Figs. A-F.) By Prof. A. H.
tion to the REGISTRAR, 30 Bloomsbury Square, London, W.C.

REGINALD BULLER, D.Sc., Ph.D.--Reviews and Current Liter.

ature.
EGYPTIAN GOVERNMENT.

Annual Subscription (four parte), 16s.
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION.
Tbe following post at the School of Medicine, Cairo, is vacant:

LONDON: DULAU & CO., 37 SoHo SQUARE, W.
ASSISTANT TO THE PROFESOR OF CHEMISTRY.

TO LIBRARIANS OF UNIVERSITIES AND
The appointment is for two years, and may be renewe at the end of that

TECHNICAL INSTITUTES.
tine. Applicants should forward copies of testimonials and such other
particulars as are mentioned below.

EARLY LITERATURE of MAGNETISM
The ray of the post is £E. 320 per annum, the Egyptian Pound being
worth 6d. more than the Pound Sterling.

AND ELECTRICITY.
Private Practice is not allowed.

It is to be distinctly understood that the appointment gives no claim to The following rare works, duplicates from the Library of Pro-
pension of indemnity

fessor Silvanus P. Thompson, are offered for sale. The Collection
The Government reserves to itself the right to dismiss the assistant for

is offered en bloc; but, if not disposed of before September,
misconduct or incapacity.

offers for individual books will be entertained. For full descriptive
lo the Government Schools, as in all State Administrations in Egypt,

Ilst apply to Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, Technical College,
Suoday is a working day. The Schools are closed on Fridays.

Finsbury, Leonard Street, London, E.C.
Leave will be granted on the same terms as to other Government Officials. Barlowe, Navigators' Supply, 1597 ; Barlowe, Magneticall Advertise-
The possibility of taking leave, and the period of the year at which it is ments, 1616; Barlowe, A Breife Discovery, 1618; Bartoli, Del Modo di
graried, depend upon the exigencies of the service

Misurare, 1546; Brugmans, Verwandtschaften des Magnets, 1781 ; Catens,
Pay commences from date of arrival in Cairo. On taking up his duties in Philosophia Magnetica, 1629 ; Galileo, de Systemate Mundi, 1635; Garcia
Cairo, tbe Assistant will receive one month's pay in lieu of passage money. ab Horto, Aromatum, 1574 ; Geuns, Sur les Aimans, Venlo, 1768 ; Gilbert,

A1: applicants should attach a certificate from a legally qualified medical De Magnete, 1600 (first folio edition); Gillert, De Mundo Nostro, 1651;
man, saling that in his opinion the candidate would pass as a first-class Gyraldus, De ke Nautica, 1540 ; Klaproth, Lettre sur l'Invention de la
life for insu' ance purpo.es.

Boussole, 1834 ; Kircher, Magnes sive de Arte Magnetica, 1643 ; Norman,
All applicants should state :

Newe Attractive, 1596 ; Ridley, Magneticall Bodies and Morions, 1613 ;
Their training and qualifications in Analytical Chemistry,

Taisnier, De Natura Magnetis, 1562 ; Theophrastus, History of Stones,
Their age,

1746.
What foreign languages they know, and

Price of the Collection, £80 nett.
If they can be in Cairo by October 1.
The latest mail by which applications may be posted will leave London THE BIO-CHEMICAL JOURNAL,
on Friday, August 31. Applications to be addressed :-THE DIRECTOR,
Government School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt.

Vol. I.
NOW READY.

Nos. 1 to 7.
COUNTY COUNCIL OF THE

The journal is devoted to bio-chemistry, including botanical,
WEST RIDING OF YORKSHIRE.

zoological, pathological, clinical and pharmacological divisions

of the subject.
EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.

Price 15 shillings per volume.
SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

Further information and sample copies may be obtained from
The West Riding Education Committee will require in September the The Editors, Bio-Chemical Journal, The University, Liverpool.
Services of :-
ONE ASSISTANT MASTER to teach English Subjects, French and

READY IN A FEW DAYS.
Geography. Salary, 6140 per annum.

ONE ASSISTANT MISTRESS to teach English Subjects, Singing,
Neetlen ork and Drill. Salary: £100 per annum.

JOHN
ONE ASSISTANT MISTRESS to teach Mathematics and Latin.

(No. 35) of
Salary, brzo per annum.
ONE ASSISTANT MISTRESS to teach English Composition, His.

SECOND-HAND BOOKS AND PAPERS ON
tory and Physical Exercises or Class Singing. Salary, £100 per annum.

ONE ASSISTANT MISTRESS to teach Junior and Kindergarten
Sobiects. Salary, £100 per annum.
OS# ASSISTANT MISTRESS to teach English, Class Singing and

Post Free on application,
Drawing Salary, 6100 per annum.

Applications fis these posts must be made on forms to be obtained from
the Education Department (Secondary), County Hall, Wakefield, where
they must be returned not later than Monday, July 16, 1906. Copies of
bor more than three recent testimonials must be sent with the application.

DESICNS.
Canvassing will be a disqualification.

W. P. THOMPSON & CO.,
COUNTY COUNCIL OF THE WEST

Chartered Patent Agents,
RIDING OF YORKSHIRE.

322 HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, and at LIVERPOOL.
EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.
HIGHER EDUCATION.

DE SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS.
The West Riding Education Committee require the services of an Manual and Forms Post Free. Trade Marks and Designs Registered.
ORGANISING MASTER, qualified in Science and Mathematics, for the
perpare of taking Courses of Instruction for groups of Elementary Teachers TYPE-WRITING UNDERTAKEN BY
(l'arricated and Supplementary), and of undertaking some teaching in
Secondary Schools. Salary, 4200 per annum.

HIGHLY EDUCATED WOMEN ACCUSTOMED TO SCIEN.
Aspirates must be made on Forms to be obtained from the Education TIFIC MSS. (Classical Tripos, Intermediate Arts, Cambridge Higber
Department (Secondary). County Hall, Wakefield, where they must be Local, thorough acquaintance with Modern Languages). Research,
***6ed out later than July 18, 1906. Copies of not more than three recent Revision, Translation. Scale of charges on application. The Cam:
textien oials must be sent with the application.

bridge Type-writing Agency, 10 Duke Street, Adelphi, W.C.
Canvasurg will be a disqualification.

For Sale, Jour. Chem. Soc., 1902, 1904, 1905. in
For other Scholastic Advertisements, see page Ixxiv, and

excellent condition, with Trans and Indexes.-F. SCHAUB, 8 Blenheim

WHELDON & CO.'S CATALOGUE

MICROSCOPICAL SCIENCE.
38 GREAT QUEEN STREET, KINGSWAY, LONDON.
TRADE MARKS. PATENTS.

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS. CARL ZEISS, JENA.

KNUTH'S FLOWER POLLINATION.

Authorized English Translation
By J. R. AINSWORTH DAYIS.

Vol. 1., royal 8vo, cloth, 18s. net; leather back, 21s. net.

BRANCHES :-
LONDON—29 Margaret Street, Regent Street, W.

Berlin. Frankfort o/M. Hamburg. Vienna. St. Petersburg.

Palmos Cameras

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LECTURES ON THE METHOD OF SCIENCE,
Edited by the Very Rev. T. B. STRONG,
Dean of Christ Church, Oxford.

8vo, cloth, 78. Ed. net.

CONTENTS :-
Scientific Method as a Mental Operation (T. Case).-
On some Aspects of the Scientific Method (F. Gotch).
- Physiology; its Scope and Method (C. S. Sherring-
ton).-Inheritance in Animals and Plants (the late
W. F. R. WELDON).-Phycho-Physical Method (W.
McDougall). — The Evolution of Double Stars (A. H.
Fison). —Anthropology: The Evolution of Currency
and Coinage (Sir R. C. Temple, Bart.).—Archaeological
Evidence (W. M. Flinders Petrie).-Scientific Method
as applied to History (the Very Rev. T. B. Strong).

PROSPECTUSES ON APPLICATION.

London: HENRY FROWDE,
Oxford University Press Warehouse, Amen Corner, E.C.

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LECTURES ON COMPASS ADJUSTMENT,
as given to the Navigating Officers of the Royal Navy.

By Capt. W. R. MARTIN, R.N.
With 3 Charts and 59 Diagrams. Tust ready. 5s. net.

THE A.B.C. OF COMPASS ADJUSTMENT,
being a thorough explanation in Simple Language of a

Complex Problem.

By E. W. OWENS, F.R.A.S.,
Examiner of Masters and Mates, London and Southampton.
With numerous Coloured Diagrams. Demy Svo, cloth. 5s. net.
PRACTICAL METHODS IN MODERN NAVIGATION.
A Handbook for the Ready Solution of Daily Problems at Sea.
By COMTE DE MIREMONT, F.R.A.S.

Demy Svo, cloth. 4s. net.
WRINKLES IN PRACTICAL NAVIGATION.

By S. T. S. LECKY,

Master Mariner, Commander R.N.R.
Royal 8vo, cloth. Fourteenth edition. With 130 illustrations.

25s. net.

POPULAR STAR MAPS.
A Rapid and Easy Method of finding the Principal Stars used

in Navigation.
By COMTE DE MIREMONT, F.R.A.S.
A series of 20 large plates (10 coloured), size 15 by 134 in.,
with explanatory text, in cloth portfolio. 10s. 6d. net.

COMPLETE LIST POST FREE.

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The WILSON
SELF-RECORDING

ELECTRICAL
RAIN GAUGE.
Records auto-
matically on a
Weekly Chart.

MAY BE OBTAINED THROUGH ANY OPTICIAN.
N.B.-If any difficulty in securing our Instruments through

your Dealer kindly communicate with the Manufacturers,

(Established 1750),

Contractors to H.M. Government,
46, HATTON GARDEN, LONDON, E.C.
Telephone No. 1981, Holborn. Telegrams-"Rapkin, London."
ACTUAL MAKERS OF ALL KINDS OF METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS.

com

Price 5s.

THURSDAY, JUNE 28, 1906.

tageous by helping to create and maintain a sturdy, independent race of Englishmen.

An interesting account is given of the

mercial aspects of milk selling. The facts related THE ORGANISATION OF AGRICULTURE.

are not new, though it may well be that they have (:) The Transition in Igriculture. By Edwin A. not attracted much attention outside the districts Pratt. Pp. x+354. London : John Murray, 1906.) | affected or on the part of persons not immediately

concerned. Farmers in the dairying districts have (2) An Introduction to the Study of Agricultural found it pay much better to sell fresh milk than to Economics. By Henry C. Taylor.

Pp. viii + 327.

turn it into butter and cheese. The sale of fresh milk (New York: The Macmillan Co.; London : Mac- and cream is, in fact, practically our only agricultural millan and Co., Ltd., 1903.) Price 5s.

monopoly, and it is not likely that foreign competition (3) The Development of Agriculture in Denmark. By will seriously threaten it. But whereas formerly the

R. J. Thompson. I paper read before the Royal milk producer was an individual unit at the mercy of Statistical Society, May 15, 1906.

the urban wholesale dealer or middleman, judicious (1) THIS is the work of an author whose previous combination amongst dairy-farmers has enabled them

writings on subjects of agricultural economy to protect their interests, and especially to secure a have attracted considerable attention. The present uniform and equitable price for the milk produced. volume has a three-fold purpose—to describe recent In Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Essex, and developments of subsidiary branches of agriculture, Somerset, associations have been formed with this the progress of agricultural cooperation, and the object in view, and their success has been remarkprinciples on which small holdings may have the able. In one case, Mr. Pratt states, the financial best chance of success,

gain thus secured through combination amounts to Mr. Pratt states that “it is open to consideration from 30,000l. to 40,000l. annually, or an average whether the bitter cry of the distressed British agri- annual gain per member of from 3ol. to 40l. culturist has not been persisted in with undue energy The descriptions of fruit-farming and the producof late years." It is certain, however, that the last tion of flowers, bulbs, vegetables, poultry, and eggs period of agricultural depression, which reached its will repay careful study, and they may well enculminating point about 1892, was terribly acute, and courage the further extension of similar crops in the subsequent recovery has been correspondingly districts suited to them upon the cooperative prinslow. That there has been recovery few authorities ciples that have proved successful. will deny, and we believe that the general agricultural We come finally to the author's views on small outlook is more hopeful than it has been for some holdings. This question is now under consideration time. This is certainly the impression we gain by a Departmental Committee of the Board of Agrifrom a careful perusal of Mr. Pratt's book; yet culture, and it is well known that the new President at the same time the author scarcely touches upon of the Board, Lord Carrington, is deeply interested the main features of British agriculture, and in in the subject, his own experiments in that direction this respect the title of the work is not altogether in Lincolnshire and elsewhere having met with strikjustified. Wheat-growing has declined, it is true, to ing success. Mr. Pratt discusses the question as to a very marked extent, and a great deal of arable whether ownership or tenancy is the more expedient land has been converted into pasture during the last form of tenure, and he pronounces unhesitatingly in quarter of a century. On the other hand, the decline favour of tenancy. We believe that his conclusions in the wheat acreage has been somewhat balanced on this subject are sound, and that the example oi by an increase in the acreage under oats. The countries where freehold occupancy has resulted in increases in the areas of those subsidiary branches heavy mortgages with the payment of “rent” in of agriculture, as Mr. Pratt calls them, with which its most odious form should be avoided. his book mainly deals, are relatively unimportant. (2) Dr. Henry C. Taylor, the author of the book

The breeding of live-stock, and especially the home on “ Agricultural Economics," is assistant professor and export trade in pure-bred pedigree animals, the of political economy in the Wisconsin University, fattening of cattle, sheep and pigs, grazing and and an expert in the Office of Experiment Stations dairying, all involve operations upon such a large of the United States Department of Agriculture. scale, and require individual skill of such a high His work forms part of the “ Citizen's Library of order, that we cannot conceive of any “transition Economics, Politics, and Sociology,” and is in effect in agriculture " which would seriously interfere with a studious effort to apply to practical agriculture the size of the holdings, the acreage of the crops, or the principles of political economy. As such it should the capital necessary to maintain them. But if we prove useful to young agricultural students in conexcept agriculture on the large scale as it has been nection with their ordinary course of “political arithand in all probability will continue to be carried on, metic.” Dr. Taylor himself states that one of the we admit that Mr. Pratt has done useful service in aims of his book is the setting forth of " fundamental bringing under review those important developments economic principles, which, when carefully followed, of comparatively minor industries which are not only lead the way to success in agricultural production." of benefit to agriculture, but are nationally advan- In thirteen chapters the author deals with the

acres.

Io

22.2

.

100'O

factors of production, the organisation of the farm, about 76, and in Germany about 60. Again, with rethe size of farms, the prices of agricultural products, gard to the size of farms, in the United States the the distribution of wealth, the value of land, the average is given as 146.6 acres. In England it is methods of its acquisition, and the relations between about 65 acres (or 85 acres is holdings above one acre landlord and tenant. He uses the term “capital and not above five acres be not included); in goods " to represent the live-stock and implements Germany it is 19.2 acres, and in France 21-4 essential to agricultural production, and the word This variation in the average size of hold“capital” to represent the money-value of capital- ings is, of course, significant of the different systems goods. Land, capital-goods, and labour being the of land tenure, tenant-farming prevailing in England three factors of agricultural production, he discusses and peasant-proprietorship in France and Germany. the economic properties of each. In regard to labour, | In the United States most of the land is either cultiwhich includes the work of the farmer himself, he vated by its owners or on the sharing principle. advances some interesting economic propositions, According to the census of 1900, the different classes especially as to the “ qualitative and quantitative of farmers in the United States are represented in efficiency of farmers "-qualitative efficiency relating the following proportions :to the return a man can obtain from a given piece of land with a given supply of capital-goods, and

Owners

549 per cent. Part Owners

79 quantitative efficiency to the quantity of land and

Owners and Tenanis

o'9 capital-goods which a man can operate. He shows Managers that the farmer with the highest degree of qualitative

Cash Tenants

131

Share Tenants efficiency can make not only more than a living upon land of any grade, but that he can make the largest net profit on the most productive land after outbidding all competitors for its use. Thus, “owing An interesting description is given of the American to the higher rents which the more efficient are system of “share-tenancy," which is scarcely, if at willing to pay for the better grades of land, the all, practised in this country. The principle of it is farmer can secure the largest net profit by employ- something akin to métayage, as adopted in France, ing that grade of land which corresponds to his Italy, and Spain. A share-tenant in America pays degree of qualitative efficiency."

for the use of the farm a proportion (such as oneIn discussing the principles which determine dif- third or one-half) of the crops cultivated. The share ferent methods of farming, the author points out is delivered to the owner in kind. The owner par. that whereas formerly agricultural conditions de- ticipates in the management of the farm, and, in manded that farms should produce all that was fact, directs all the more important operations. required by the cultivators, modern conditions of Under this system the landlords are usually the older increased population and improved facilities of and more experienced men, who own more land than transport have given rise to what is described as they can well cultivate, whilst the tenants are younger commercial agriculture, the system under which agri- men who prefer share tenancy to fixed rent, because cultural produce is grown in bulk, and marketed their risk of loss is less. in return for other commodities required but no (3) Denmark is a concrete example of the success longer produced by the seller.

ful development of “commercial agriculture.” Mr. In this country we pride ourselves upon the superior Thompson has made an elaborate statistical study of yield of our agricultural crops. This is, however, due the agricultural conditions prevailing in Denmark, to a system of intensive cultivation, and Dr. Taylor and his facts and figures are well worthy of careful shows that the extensive system of cultivation as pur- study on the part of economists. Most authorities sued in the United States is that which is at present agree that the prosperity of Denmark is attributable best suited to the economic conditions of the country. to three causes—the system of land tenure, education, Pressure of population in the older States of the and cooperation. Thrift, the art of wisely saving American Union is already causing a more intensive and wisely spending, is a national characteristic of cultivation than that previously followed. “In new the Danes, and this, combined with the admirable countries,” Dr. Taylor writes, “where land is re- organisation of their export trade in dairy produce, latively abundant, extensive culture is generally most has enabled them to attain to a greater relative profitable, and the average size of farms is usually degree of agricultural prosperity than perhaps any greater than in older countries where land is scarce, other country. Whilst there may be much to admire land values very high, and intensive culture most and copy in the methods of agricultural organisation profitable."

pursued in Denmark, it should be remembered that Incidentally, the book contains many statistical this little country is almost entirely dependent upon details relating to the United States that are not its exports to the free and immense markets of Great readily accessible to the general reader. For instance, Britain, and that its system of wholesale grading the land area of the United States is given as for despatch to one country could not be applied, 1,900,947,200 acres. The area of the United Kingdom without modifications, to Great Britain, which has is 77,671,319 acres. The percentage of improved little or no export trade in dairy produce, and whose land, or, as we describe it, “land under crops and local home markets are scattered and unlinked with grass,” is in the United States about 22, in England any central administration.

E. H. G.

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