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ment commenced some years ago, which has given interesting results. The removal of mussels from overcrowded beds and the laying down of new grounds and the restocking of old ones has proved eminently successful, and the increased rate of growth of transplanted individuals is very marked.

From the report on the sea-fish hatching at Piel we learn that more than a million plaice larvæ and nearly twelve million flounder larvæ were liberated during the breeding season, and a similar report upon the sea-fish hatching at Port Erin shows that five million plaice larvæ were liberated off the Isle of Man, but we look in vain for any word which will show us that the liberation of these fry during several years has produced any effect upon the fisheries of the district.

An interesting paper upon trawling observations, by Mr. James Johnstone, contains a section upon the food of plaice, dabs, and other fishes, and we gather that the results so far obtained tend to show that the plaice and the dab are not competitors for food, although living upon the same ground; that whereas the former feed chiefly upon molluscs, the latter prefer Ophiurids and Crustacea, although they are less particular as to the nature of their food than are the plaice. Mr. Todd's observations as to the food of these species in the North Sea seem to bear out the omnivorous tendency of the dab, but they also seem to show that the

molluscs.

bodily pain; (5) effects of taste and smell (whether pleasant or unpleasant; (6) effects of moods (of joy and depression) artificially induced, e.g. by hearing witty stories, recalling the contents of certain poems, or the like.

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With regard to many points Prof. Martius thinks that definite conclusions are at present impossible; all that he regards as established is the presence of a series of types of general emotional or affective states, and especially the distinction of the two types of activity and rest. But the methods described are insufficient to characterise definitely for us special emotions like those of fear or sympathy. It seems established, too, that joy and sorrow do not possess definite complexes of symptoms by which they can be separated from one another, and further, bodily and mental activity produce the same appearances. Hence while the will and the intellect are not to be regarded as one, they cannot be separated, and we can never analyse the products of intellect merely into sensations and feelings. The other article follows the same lines and reaches a similarly safe conclusion, that we can read out of the experiment curves nothing but the most general characteristics of emotional states, viz. excitement or repression.

DISCOVERY OF SEVEN THOUSAND ROMAN
COINS.

COARSE earthenware jar containing upwards of seven thousand "third brass" Roman coins was recently unearthed by the ploughshare on the farm of Mrs. Wheatley, Stanley, near Wakefield. In very early times the bed of the river Calder, which has a remarkable sweep at this point, was deepened by the ancient Britons or Romans, and an embankment made with the sand; in this the jar, with its contents, was deposited 1500 years ago.

chief food of both species in that region consists ofA
Mr. Johnstone also contributes a paper on the marked
fish experiments, in which he sets out the migrations of
the plaice in the district, as shown by the re-capture of
marked specimens. He finds that the fish tend to move
along the shore lines during the winter months, and to
migrate off-shore during the summer months, which facts
appear to agree with the results so far determined as to
the migrations of this species in the North Sea.

Mr. Andrew Scott's report on the tow-nettings for the year contains a large amount of material, but the author has not drawn conclusions therefrom, so that the paper is somewhat heavy reading.

Prof. Herdman's paper upon the oligodynamic action of copper, dealing with the possibilities of purifying infected shell-fish by immersion in distilled water which has been in contact with copper-foil, is extremely interesting, but is in the nature of a preliminary statement, as he is about to investigate the whole question in conjunction with Prof. B. Moore.

The volume is illustrated, including a useful series of plates of copepods, trematodes, &c., in connection with Mr. Andrew Scott's "Faunistic Notes."

FRANK BALFOUR BROWNE.

PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MENTAL
ACTIONS.

THE most recent number of the Beiträge zur Psychologie
und Philosophie (Band i., Heft 4) contains two
articles, one by the editor, Prof. Martius, on the theory
of the influence exerted on pulse and respiration by mental
stimuli, while the other, by Mr. C. Minnemann, discusses
pulse and respiration as studied in the subjects of genuine,
first-hand emotion. Prof. Martius starts with pointing out
the contradictory opinions held by other investigators re-
garding the effect of attention, of joyful or painful
emotions on pulse and respiration. This diversity he re-
gards as partly due to the neglect of several precautions,
and he proceeds to study, amongst other points, those
fluctuations of the pulse which are in direct correspondence
with respiration periods. He then examines the plethys-
mographic method, and comes to the conclusion that
variations of volume registered by it are partly due to
movements of the limb under investigation, and that the
method cannot be used at present to secure any definite
results regarding the circulation of the blood.

Elaborate details and analyses are next given of his experiments on five human subjects; they are classed thus (1) effects on the pulse of artificial alterations in respiration (e.g. deepening, acceleration, retardation of breathing); (2) effects of bodily activity on pulse and respiration; (3) effects of mental activity; (4) effects of

The coins all belong to the Constantinian group; to Constantine the Great, to his mother Helena, his stepmother Theodora, his four sons, Crispus, Constantine, Constantius, and Constans, Licinius his brother-in-law, with his wife Constantina and their son Licinius, and to Delmatius. The reverses are chiefly of the "Gloria Exercitus " type.

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One-half, of nearly five thousand coins, which I have carefully examined is, in about equal quantities, of the "Urbs Roma" type, with wolf and twins on the reverse, and, Constantinopolis, with a Victory on the reverse with spear and shield, standing on the prow of a vessel; these latter were struck to commemorate the founding of Constantinople A.D. 330. There are twelve represented of the twenty-four mints of issue known to us, among which are Carthage, Alexandria, Antioch, Rome; but most are from Treves in Germany, the residence of the governor of the west, Lyons, and Constantina, now Arles in France.

Very few of them, if any, have ever been in circulation. They are most likely a portion of a military chest concealed during a threatened raid or invasion. It is remarkable that ten or twelve years ago a find of seventeen thousand was made in the Forest of Dean, covering the same period, of exactly the same types, with a similar redundancy of certain coins and a scarcity of others. A series of the Stanley coins has been presented to the museum of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, and are now on exhibition. AQUILA DODGSON.

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branches of technical instruction as building, for example, there has been an increase of, say, 200 per cent. in ten years in the output of the technical colleges, whereas in such subjects as medicine and theology there has been a considerable falling off in the number of students. As the writer of the note points out, "The consequence of this over-production in technical a constantly diminishing rate of wages."

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THE Government of India has decided, says the Pioneer Mail, to make to the Punjab University for the next four years an annual grant of 20,000 rupees. The main purpose of the grant is to assist in the improvement and efficiency of the constituent colleges in those respects in which an inspection by the University showed them to be defective. The Government of India has decided that no part of the grant shall be devoted to the improvement of the Government colleges. In addition to this grant, another of 10,000 rupees a year for four years has been assigned to the Punjab University by the Government of India. This sum is to be regarded as a consolidated grant to be applied primarily to the inspection of colleges and to strengthening the administration of the University. The Government of India has made a further grant of 30,000 rupees a year for four years for building purposes and for the equipment of the new Senate hall and the University library.

new

SPEAKING on Saturday last at the opening of a grammar school at Farnham, the Archbishop of Canterbury remarked that secondary education in England has not made progress during the last fifty years commensurate with that made by those forms of education that are both above and below it. He believes that the explanation lies in a certain unwillingness to bring this kind of education under central government and organisation. He does not believe that either the German or French people are more anxious as a whole for higher education than we are in England, but they will consent to what English people will not consent to, viz. a kind of drilling on the subject which will bring about a uniformity that can better promote progress than the more lax, scattered, and independent efforts which the people of this country in their national nature prefer to the more hide-bound and redtape systems. The Education Bill recently introduced in Parliament, if it passes into law, will give English people an opportunity which they have never had before of taxing Νο themselves ten times as much for secondary education. one will be forced to do it, but everyone will be able to do it, and those who have been pining to be able to give more largely to the cause of secondary education will, if the Bill becomes law, have an opportunity of doing so.

H. W. Normanton, of Batley Grammar School, has leen elected to a natural science postmastership at Merton College. A. H. Simpson, of Rugby School, has been elected to a natural science scholarship at Corpus Christi College.

CAMBRIDGE.-The striking success of the Appointments Board in procuring appointments for young graduates at Cambridge is shown by the following figures:in 1902 the number of appointments obtained was 67; in 1903, 93; in 1004, 102; in 1905, 134. These appointments fall mainly into the following classes :-appointments under various public authorities at home and abroad, industrial and echnical appointments, administrative appointments on railwats, appointments for scientific work of various kinds, and lectureships in university colleges.

Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., R.E., late head of the Topographical Department of the War Office, will deliver a public lecture on the geography of international frontiers, at the Sedgwick Museum, on Saturday, May 5.

The governing body of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, proposes in the summer, if suitable candidates apply, to make an election to the Wollaston research studentship in physics. The value of the studentship will e 120. a year. It will be tenable in the first instance for ne tear, but may be prolonged for a second year. Candicates for the studentship must be more than twenty-one and under twenty-five years of age on the first day of Oktober, 1906, The studentship is open to students of all British colonial, and American universities. Applications should be made before July 21 to the Master (the Rev. = S. Roberts).

The Gilbey lecturer on the history and economics of agriculture gives notice that he will lecture on "The Relations of Rent, Profits and Wages in Agriculture, and the tearing on Rural Depopulation,' on Tuesday, May 15, and the three following days.

Br the bequest of Dr. E. H. Perowne, the late Master of Corpus, a fine collection of specimens of amber has been acquired by the Sedgwick Museum.

O Commemoration Day, Wednesday, May 9, after the resentation of graduates at the University of London, here will be a reception at Bedford College for Women from four to seven o'clock.

Pans. T. W. RICHARDS, professor of chemistry at Harvard University, has been designated by the German Government as Harvard visiting professor at the University of Berlin for the academic year 1900-7.

THE fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the Uniersity of Melbourne was celebrated last week. Congratustory addresses were presented by representatives of British and other universities.

It is proposed to form an association of past students of the Tehnical College, Finsbury. With this end in view a meeting of old students will be held at the college on May 8. Sir Owen Roberts will preside. Any old student who has

received a notice of this meeting is requested to communicate with Mr. J. W. G. Brooker, Durlstone, Brockley Park, Forest Hill, S.E.

PROF WALTER NERNST, director of the chemical physics Petiture Berlin, is to deliver a course of lectures on experimental and theoretical applications of thermodynamics

Ya University, Connecticut. He will also give the Miuman lectures, founded in memory of Benjamin Silliman tather and son, the former of whom was connected with Yale so far back as 1805, and is best known to Euran people as the founder of Silliman's American Journal of Science and Arts.

Technical

UNDER the doubtfully appropriate title of " Overtraining in Germany,' attention is directed in the Journal of the Society of Arts for March 30 to what is undoubtedly a real danger. It is not a question of overtraining in the sense that the courses of the technical colleges are of too high a scientific standard, but the canger les in the great increase in the number of techorally trained students, an increase which makes the apply greatly in excess of the demand. A survey of the figures given, which are largely based on the report of the American Consul at Mannheim, shows that in such

THE paramount importance of secondary education in any national system designed to educate the children of all social grades becomes more recognised every year by those in authority. The presence of the President of the Board of Education at the opening of the new county school at Acton on April 28, and of Sir William Anson, late Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education, at Sutton Coldfield on April 27, on a similar occasion, are indications of this recognition. Speaking at Acton, Mr. Birrell said the only difference of a philosophical character between elementary and secondary education turns upon the lengths of time available for each. There is naturally a distinction between children who remain at school only to the age of fourteen and those who stay until sixteen or seventeen. years of age. The great thing for the nation to accomplish is the wise selection of those children who are fitted to benefit from a prolonged educational course, and to see that they get it, irrespective of their rank or position in life. Sir William Anson, dealing with the question of the curriculum in secondary schools, said he does not think it is possible ever to revert to the old type of classical school. He went on to say that the claims of science are nowadays never likely to be disregarded, but the study of languages should not be neglected. He remarked, in conclusion, that the overloading of the curriculum of secondary schools with subjects which might be postponed to a later stage is a

mistake.

Ir appears from an article by the special correspondent of the Times at Palo Alto, published in Tuesday's issue, that the Leland Stanford Junior University at Palo Alto

suffered great damage by the earthquake on April 18. A massive gateway of stone at the main entrance to the University grounds is now a ruin, and the great dragons which surmounted it lie broken to pieces on the ground. An immense memorial arch has been wrecked, and a fine marble memorial to Henry Lathrop, Mrs. Stanford's brother, has been demolished. The museum has been seriously damaged, the whole roof of the art gallery having fallen in, and part of the roof of the other wing. The entire centre of the building devoted to the department of chemistry is a wreck. The gymnasium, just completed and never used, is an absolute ruin, and another large new building, the library, also just completed and about to be dedicated, is in the same condition. The building devoted to zoology and physiology is not much damaged. The president of the University, Dr. D. S. Jordan, who was at home at the time of the earthquake, believes that the shock of April 18 was not only one of the severest, but also one of the longest duration on record. The Times correspondent learns also that the narrow-gauge railway to Santa Cruz has been so badly damaged that it will be months before trains can again be run. There are many tunnels on this line, and in various instances these tunnels, which formerly were straight lines, are now corkscrewshaped. At San Jose a flower garden was turned into a lake of mud from which a dozen geysers burst into activity after the earthquake.

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THE current number of the University Review contains an inspiring article on O Science and the Public " by Major Ronald Ross, F.R.S., professor of tropical medicine in the University of Liverpool. Insistence is laid on the fact that science is almost exclusively the work of individuals, and that, though willing enough to benefit by the discoveries and inventions of men of science, the public is in no sense imbued with the scientific spirit. Instead of cultivating the absolutely impartial judgment demanded by science, the public encourages the habit of mind eulogised by Tennyson, believing where we cannot prove, " and forgets there is nothing meritorious in such conduct, but much that is the reverse. The essay proceeds to show that to this willingness to ignore science and scientific methods may be traced the credulity of the public which leads it to subsidise quack medicine, to ignore beneficent discoveries like that of Jenner, to hamper scientific research by unintelligent anti-vivisection societies, and generally to proclaim its adherence to the policy of "muddling through." An instance is given by Major Ross from his own experience which shows how slightly as yet the mass of mankind has been influenced by scientific methods. More than seven years ago it was demonstrated that malaria is conveyed from man to man by a group of gnats, and several obvious and practicable modes of prevention were suggested in consequence of the discovery. But when these measures were urged upon the public and governments of our tropical colonies, the so-called educated white people scoffed at the whole discovery, without troubling to ascertain the facts, and the governments, with the exception of a few, took no action which could for a moment be called adequate. The magnitude of the offence may be gathered when it is remembered that half the people in the tropics suffer from the disease every year; but in view of recent events it is easy to see that the world will be dominated eventually more and more by the disciplined and scientific peoples, and those nations which reject science will be set aside.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
LONDON.

Royal Society, January 25.—“ "An Electrical Measuring Machine." By Dr. P. E. Shaw. Communicated by Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S.

The principle of the measuring machines in general use is that one face of the gauge rests against one jaw, fixed, of the machine, whilst the other jaw is moved forward by a screw until it touches the other face. These machines may be called mechanical-touch machines in contradistinction to the new machine called the electric-touch machine. This depends on the same general principle as the electric micrometer used by the author in several researches.

Objections to the mechanical-touch methods are:

(1) they involve strain in the machine of a much larger order than in the electric method; (2) they are less sensitive; (3) it is impossible to measure between point and point. To measure between points or rounded points is essential in accurate metrology, especially for gauges with flat ends; for when each jaw has a flat face and each end of the gauge has also a flat face, each of these four faces having errors in planeness and parallelism, the resulting measurements must be erroneous. If, however. measurement be taken between small spheres on the screw ends, no assumptions as to planeness and parallelism are made, and such errors vanish from the results.

The electric measuring machine consists of (a) two headstocks containing micrometer screws; (b) a table to carry the gauge; (c) a massive slide bed, on which run the headstocks and table. The gauge to be measured is clamped on the table, and is set true with respect to the micrometer screws by two rotations and two translations provided in the table. This adjustment is made by special electric-touch methods devised for the purpose. To make a measurement of the gauge the left screw is brought into electric contact (indicated by a telephone) with the gauge; then the right screw is brought into electric touch with it, and when current passes through from one measuring point to the other the two divided heads on the micrometer screws are read. To turn the graduated head the screw system is not actually touched by the hand, but is worked by an outside hand-pulley and string.

Special care is taken in the design of the machine to avoid periodical screw error and backlash.

A careful calibration by wave-lengths of several millimetres of the screws shows where they are specially uniform, and therefore fit for use.

Results are obtained for all kinds of gauges. For bar gauges with flat ends, measurements taken at many places reveal considerable variation in thickness, so that irregular contour curves, roughly centred in the centre of the gauge faces, can be drawn showing that the ends are far from being plane or parallel. These errors in bar gauges have not been previously pointed out or measured. The author contends that all bar gauges should be measured by this method and the errors registered, so that, even if the errors are not corrected, by re-scraping or otherwise, they will be known and allowed for.

Cylindrical and spherical gauges are also tested; these are shown to be much more nearly perfect than bar gauges. A further use of the machine is in the measurement of non-conducting bodies, such as glass plates, the thickness of which can be measured with great accuracy.

Readings are taken with ease and certainty to 1/250,000th of an inch, and one-quarter of this can be obtained if specially desired.

March 1. An Experimental Inquiry into the Factors which determine the Growth and Activity of the Mammary Glands. By Miss J. E. Lane-Claypon, D.Sc., and Prof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S.

So far as the authors' experiments go, they show that the growth of the mammary glands during pregnancy is due to the action of a specific chemical stimulus produced in the fertilised ovum. The amount of this substance increases with the growth of the foetus, and is therefore largest during the latter half of pregnancy. Lactation is due to the removal of this substance, which must therefore be regarded as exerting an inhibitory influence on the gland cells, hindering their secretory activity and furthering their growth. It is probable that the specific substance is diffusible, and will withstand the boiling temperature.

The authors do not, however, claim that these conclusions are firmly established. A final decision can only be given by a research carried on under more favourable conditions. In fact, a farm is required where the authors could have at their disposal 500 rabbits, and could arrange for a plentiful supply each day of rabbits about the middle of pregnancy.

Zoological Society, April 10.-Mr. H. Druce, vicepresident, in the chair.-The fresh-water fishes of the island of Trinidad: C. Tate Regan. The author's remarks were chiefly based on a collection made by Mr. Lechmere Guppy, jun., and presented by him to the British Museum.

The collection was accompanied by natural history notes and by a series of beautifully executed water-colour drawings. Forty species of fresh-water fishes were now known from the island; these were enumerated in the paper, and four of them described as new to science.-The collection of Alcyonarians made by Mr. Cyril Crossland at Zanzibar in 1001-2: Prof. J. A. Thomson and W. D. Henderson. Specimens of sixty-five species or varieties were contained m the collection, of which twenty-seven were described as new.-Cyclopia in osseous fishes, as observed in several advanced trout embryos: Dr. J. F. Gemmill. A detailed account of the anatomy of the specimens was given, and ⚫ comparison made with Cyclopia in mammals. The author's views were also put forward regarding the mode origin of this condition in fishes.-Cases of supernumerary eyes, and local deficiency and re-duplication of the notochord, in trout embryos: Dr. Gemmill.-Descriptions of three new varieties of butterflies of the genus Heliconius: P. I. Lathy.

Faraday Society, April 10.-Prof. A. K. Huntington in the chair.-Electrothermics of iron and steel: C. A. Keller. The author deals with the present position of his processes, he describes the electrical steel plant which Messrs. J. Holtzer and Co. have just installed in their works at Unieux (Loire). This is a 1500 h.p. plant, and will utilise in a single furnace the current from a 20,000ampere Westinghouse alternator. The furnace, which rests in a steel cradle and can be tilted, weighs about 50,000 kilos.; the various mechanical and electrical controls are btained by hydraulic motors. The steel obtained from a Siemens-Martin furnace will be run into the electric Furnace immediately after the oxidising melt, and for the remaining operations of deoxidising and refining the urrent exclusively will be used.-Note on the rotating ectric steel furnace in the Artillery Construction Works, Turin: Ernesto Stassano. The furnace described and Castrated in the paper is being installed by the Forni Termoelettrici Stassano Company for the Italian War Othee. It is of the author's well-known arc type, and

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orbs 140 kilowatts, yielding 2400 kilos. of steel in twenty-four hours. The current is a rotary one with 80 voits between each phase. The consumption of electrodes is les than 5 kilos. per ton of steel, and the cost of renewing the refractory covering of the furnace 10 francs per ton of metal made. The furnace is principally used for refining pig-iron and smelting scrap. The product ordinarily made is used for artillery projectiles.-Note on recent developments in the Gin electric steel furnace: Gustave Gin. The author's canal-type of furnace is now installed at the Plettenberg Works, Westphalia, of which illustrations are Cven in the paper, but it is not stated which particular type of furnace has there been experimented with. The Following types are described :-(1) furnace with canals nd chambers; (2) combination furnace; (3) induction Furnace-Notes on the cleaning of work by means of the electric current: H. S. Coleman. The work to be cleaned usualle preparatory to electro-plating) is suspended in a hot solution of equal quantities of brown Montreal potash and sodium hydrate contained in a wrought-iron tank. The work and the tank are connected to a dynamo, and the tink used as the anode for five to ten minutes, the voltage ng about 2.5. The current is then reversed for a short time, until the surface of the work is clear and bright. The operation is repeated as many times as may be

necessary.

Royal Meteorological Society, April 18.- Mr. R. Bentley, president, in the chair.-Some so-called vagaries of lightning reproduced experimentally: A. Hands. The author, in the course of an extended investigation into the dects of lightning, has come across many cases that have been called vagaries, but which on a close inspection have proved to be extraordinary only in the erroneous way in which they were described, and, had they been correctly reported, would have appeared perfectly consistent with Xeconceived ideas-in fact, could have been foretold in tery case if the conditions that led to those effects had leen known before the events occurred. The author reproduced experimentally several so-called vagaries of lightning, showing by means of rough models the conditions under which they occurred.-The value of a projected

image of the sun for meteorological study: Miss C. O. Stevens. By this method it has been ascertained that where the direction of movement of the atmosphere is tangential to the limb of the sun, the phenomenon of "boiling" displays a coursing or rippling character, and that where it is perpendicular to the limb of the sun, the character of the movements of distortion is that of springing in and out of the area of the sun's image. Both these elements of movement are continuous even in the absence of all visible cloud, and it is possible, not only to detect, but also to distinguish between overlying invisible atmospheric strata.

Mathematical Society, April 26.-Prof. A. R. Forsyth, president, and subsequently Prof. W. Burnside, vice-president, in the chair.-Perpetuants and contra-perpetuants: Prof. E. B. Elliott. It is proposed to apply a method, based on the use of symmetric functions and of certain differential operators, to the discovery of complete systems of perpetuants of given partial degrees in assigned sets of coefficients, which shall be equivalent in their aggregate to those which have been arrived at by the systematic examination of symbolic products. Contra-perpetuants are introduced in connection with Hermite's doctrine of reciprocity between degree and extent in systems of seminvariants when this doctrine is correlated with the theory of perpetuants.-A set of intervals about the rational numbers: A. R. Richardson. A definite construction is given for associating a set of intervals with the rational numbers, in such a way that all the rational numbers are included in the intervals, and certain definite sets of irrational numbers are excluded from all the intervals.Some theorems connected with Abel's theorem on the continuity of power series: G. H. Hardy. The paper deals with the generalisation, for series of which the terms are continuous functions of a variable, of certain well-known theorems relating to power series. The convergence of Zan is sufficient to secure the uniform convergence of Zanf(x) in an interval in which all the functions fn(x) are continuous, and these functions diminish in value as n increases; a similar theorem holds also if Za, diverges, but is of the type which can be summed by averages.The canonical forms of the ternary sextic and quaternary quartic Prof. A. C. Dixon. The forms are the sums of ten sixth, or fourth, powers, as the case may be. Processes are given for carrying out the reductions to these forms, and it is shown that in each case there are two solutions. The accuracy of interpolation by finite differences: W. F. Sheppard. The paper deals with the relative accuracy of the ordinary advancing-difference formula and the central-difference formulæ in regard to the two sources of error which arise (1) from omitting the remainder in the series by which the values of a function are calculated, (2) from the fact that tabulated values of a function are only approximate.-The geometrical interpretation of apolar binary forms: C. F. Russell. The paper

is concerned with geometrical constructions which may be regarded as generalisations of the construction of the fourth harmonic point of three given points in a definite order. For two apolar forms of the same order, analogous to two quadratic forms harmonically related, the construction is linear. Two cubic curves in triangular relation : Prof. F. Morley. The question of the existence of transfinite numbers: P. E. B. Jourdain.-A question in the theory of aggregates: Prof. A. C. Dixon.

PARIS.

Academy of Sciences, April 17.-M. H. Poincaré in the chair. The president announced the death of Prof. Langley, correspondant of the academy. The evaluation of the foco-facial distances of microscopic objectives: L. Malassez. A comparison of two experimental methods with the results of a formula developed by the author in previous papers.-Pure ferro-molybdenums: contribution to the study of their constituents: Em. Vigouroux. Alloys of iron and molybdenum containing varying proportions of the two constituents were submitted to treatment either with dilute hydrochloric acid or an acid solution of cuprous chloride. The insoluble residues from fourteen separate alloys were analysed, and the following four compounds of iron and molybdenum isolated in a pure state :-Fe,Mo, Fe,Mo2, FeMo, FeMo,. The physical and chemical proper

ties of each of these are given.-A characteristic reaction of ethyl glyoxylate: the action of ammonia on this ether and its derivatives: L. J. Simon and G. Chavanne. By the action of ammonia on ethyl glyoxylate a substance C,H,N,O, is formed. This is blue-black in colour, and possesses very powerful tinctorial properties, and hence may form a useful test for this ester. The composition of this substance has not yet been established.-The acid

properties of starch: E. Demoussy. Starch possesses all

the characters of a feeble acid, comparable with carbonic acid, and resembling in this respect the other carbohydrates. It forms compounds with metallic hydroxides which are dissociable by water, and can absorb small quantities of neutral salts. These properties probably play a part in the absorption of mineral matters by plants.-The state of colouring matters in crystals coloured artificially : P. Gaubert. It has been shown in previous papers that there are two cases in the artificial colouring of crystals; in the first case the crystal is only coloured when the solution from which the crystal is depositing is nearly saturated with the colouring material; in the other case the crystal is coloured, whatever the dilution of the colouring material. e present paper gives details of measurements made on crystals of the latter class, phthalic acid, with methylene blue in solution. It was found that the ratio of the concentrations of the methylene blue in the liquid and crystals was practically constant, although the absolute concentration of the methylene blue was made to vary within wide limits. Similar results were found with methylene blue and crystals of urea nitrate.-The Vesuvian origin of the dry storm observed at Paris on the morning of April 11: Stanislas Meunier. A microscopical examination of the dust deposited during this storm showed it to be identical in nature with the dust from Vesuvius in 1822.

DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

THURSDAY, MAY 3.

ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.-Election of Fellows.-At 4.30.-On a Static Method of Comparing the Densities of Gases: R. Threlfall, F. R.S.-The Stability of Submarines: Sir William H. White, K.C.B.. F. R.S.-The Action on Bacteria of Electrical Discharges of High Potential and Rapid Frequency: A. G. R. Foulerton and A. M. Kellas-The Action of Pituitary Extracts upon the Kidney: Prof. E. A. Schäfer, F.R.S., and P. T. Herring.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-The Digestive Tract in Birds and Mammals: Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-The Relation between Absorption-Spectra and Chemical Constitution, part v.: The isoNitroso-compounds: E. C. C. Raly, E. G. Marsden, and A W. Stewart.-The Action of Tribromo. propane on the Sodium Derivative of Ethyl Malonate, part ii. W. H. Perkin, jun.. and J. L. Simonsen.-Brazilin and Hæmatoxylin, part vii., Some Derivatives of Brazilein: P. Engels, and W. H. Perkin, jun.-Pipitzahoic Acid: J. M. Sanders.-The Constitution of the Hydroxides and Cyanides obtained from Acridine, Methyl-acridine and Phenanthridine Methiodides: C. K. Tinkler.-The Constitution of Aminonium Amalgam: E. M. Rich and M. W. Travers.-Action of Light on Potassium Ferrocyanide: G. W. A. Foster.

LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-Origin of Gymnosperms (Continuation of Dis cussion): Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S.

CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS' SOCIETY, at 8.-Some Observations on Bacterial Tank Operations: Dr. W. O. Travis.

FRIDAY, May 4.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-The Steam Turbine on Land and at Sea: Hon. Charles A. Parsons, C.B., F.R.S.

GEOLOGISTS ASSOCIATION, at 8.-The Erosion of the Batoka Gorge of the Zambesi: G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S.

MONDAY, MAY 7.

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-From the Victoria Nyanza to
Kilimanjaro Col. G. E. Smith, R.E.

S CIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.-Some Notes on the Gutzeit Test
for Arsenic J. Goode and Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin.-The Separation of
Brucine and Strychnine. Influence of Nitrous Acid in Oxidation by
Nitric Acid W. C. Reynolds and R. Sutcliffe.-Absorption of Gallic
Acid by Organic Colloids: W. P. Dreaper and A. Wilson.
VICTORIA INSTITUTE, at 4.30.-The Zodiac: its History and Biblical
References: Rev. A. B. Grimaldi.

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THURSDAY, MAY 10.

ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-Probable Papers: "Adsorption" and "Occlu sion": the Law of Distribution in the Case in which one of the Phases possesses Rigidity: Prof. M. W. Travers, F.R.S.-Cyanogenesis in Plants, part iv., Phaseolunatin in Common Flax (Linum usitatissimum); part v., The Occurrence of Phaseolunatin in Cassava (Manihot Aipi and Manihot Utilissima): Prof. W. R. Dunstan, F.R.S., Drs. T. A. Henry, and S. J. M. Auld.-A Variety of Thorianite from Galle, Ceylon: Prof. W. R. Dunstan. F.R.S., and B. Mouat Jones.-The Mechanism of Carbon Assimilation in Green Plants: the Photolytic Decomposition of Carbon Dioxide in vitro: F. L. Usher and J. H. Priestley. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Long Flame Arc Lamps: L. Andrews (Adjourned Discussion).

FRIDAY, MAY 11.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Some Astronomical Consequences of the
Pressure of Light: Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R. S.
PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-The Effect of a Rapid Discharge on the Throw
of a Galvanometer: A. Russell.-Exhibition of Lippmann Capillary
Dynamo and Electromotor: Prof. H. A. Wilson.-Exhibition of an
Apparatus for demonstrating the Movements of the Diaphragms of
Telephonic Transmitters and Receivers and the Current flowing into
and out of the Cable during Speech: W. Duddell.
ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 5.

MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Notes on the Subgenus Malluvium: E. A. Smith, I.S.O.-Notes on some Species of the Genus Mitra, with the Description of M. Brettinghami, n.sp: E. A. Smith, I.S.O.-On some Land and Fresh-water Mollusca from Sumatra, part ii.: Rev. R. Ashington Bullen.-Notes on a Collection of Nudibranchs from the Cape Verde Islands: C. Crossland and Sir Charles Eliot, K.C. M.G.-Notes on Indian and Ceylonese Species of Glessula: Col. R. H. Beddome.

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Letters to the Editor:

Osmotic Pressure.-Earl of Berkeley
The Eruption of Vesuvius.-Dr. Hj. Sjögren
Lightning Flashes. (Illustrated.)-R. T. A. I.
Diurnal Variation of Ionisation in Closed Vessels..
George G. Simpson

August Rainfall.—Alex, B. MacDowell
At the Head of Loch Fyne. (Illustrated.)
The Egyptian Heaven and Hell. (Illustrated.)
Ancient Eclipses. By P. H. Cowell.
Variations of Domestic Poultry.
W. B. Tegetmeier.
Notes.

Our Astronomical Column:-
Astronomical Occurrences in May
Comets 1906a and 1906€

(Illustrated.)

The Total Solar Eclipse of January, 1908 Radiant Point of a Bright Meteor Luminous Particles in the Chromosphere New Catalogue of Double Stars . Explorations in the Himalayas. (Illustra'ed.)

Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

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Marine Biology on the West Coast. Balfour Browne . .

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By Frank

Physiological Effects of Mental Actions

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Diary of Societies. ..

Discovery of Seven Thousand Roman Coins. By

Societies and Academies

SUPPLEMENT TO "NATURE."

Localisation of Cerebral Functions. By F. W. M.. Pioneers of Geology.

Electrochemistry. By F. M. P.

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The Vanishing East. By Archibald R. Colquhoun. vii Elementary Mathematics

Tropical Medicine. By Dr. J. W. W. Stephens Progressive Teaching in Physiology. By W. D. H.. x

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