Page images

physical cor.ditions are the same. The measurements given made by Messrs. Ambronn and Schur at Göttingen during in the paper show that between the limits 1 = 483 u and the period 1890 to 1902, and found from them a confirm1 = 547 u this is very approximately true.

ation of his previous conclusions.

The validity of the conclusions thus obtained is now We have received from Messrs. W. and A. K. Johnston, questioned by Dr. Ambronn in No. 4, vol. xxiii., of the Ltd., a convenient pad of sectional paper ruled in inches Astrophysical Journal. He points out that the variation, and tenths. The size of the sheets is 8 inches by 10 inches,

if it exists, cannot, according to the heliometer measures, and the price of the pad is. 6d. net.

exceed o".1 by any appreciable amount, and suggests that

the measurement of the earlier photographic plates could MR. JOHN MURRAY has published a fourth edition of Mr. not produce results accurate to this figure. Further, the W. C. Clinton's “ Electric Wiring." The first issue of

measurements for 1894 furnish, for the more recent photo

graphs, a proof that the oscillations adduced by Dr. Poor the primer was reviewed in Nature for October 23, 1902

are not present. (vol. lxvi., p. 629). Of the present edition it will suffice

After several other explanations Dr. Ambronn states that to say that in its revision an effort has been made to bring the most thorough investigation of the large amount of it up to date without increasing its size unduly.

data collected at Göttingen has convinced him that this

furnishes no justification for the suggested periodicity. The current issue of The Central—the magazine of the Old Students' Association of the Central Technical College

Discovery of ALGOL VARIABLES.---Circular No. 117 from

the Harvard College Observatory announces the discovery - commences the third year of publication of what has

that the star H1236 (-30°.10169 C.DM.) is an Algol become an enterprising periodical. Some impressions of variable having a range of about one magnitude and a South Africa, by Prof. O. Henrici, F.R.S.; with the period slightly exceeding two days. British Association in South Africa, by Dr. E. F. Arm

This variable was discovered by Mrs. Fleming on a plate strong ; Mr. Freeman's account of the Witwatersrand, and

taken in accordance with the multiple-image method de

scribed in a previous Circular, and by which it is hoped Mr. Ashcroft's description of a lecture-table testing machine

to discover all the short-period variables of magnitude 10-0 are all interesting contributions; and there are numerous and brighter. In this method a dozen or more exposures, first-rate illustrations.

cach of thirty minutes' duration, are made on the same

plate moved by a small amount between each exposure. A SECOND edition of Dr. W. D’Este Emery's “ Hand

Plates covering nearly the whole of the sky have now book of Bacteriological Diagnosis for Practitioners ” has been obtained under these conditions, but only a few have been published by Mr. H. K. Lewis under the new title so far been examined; nevertheless, this is the second “ Clinical Bacteriology and Hæmatology for Practitioners.

Algol variable thus discovered by Mrs. Fleming. Though the general scope of the book remains unaltered, AN Interesting Minor PLANET.-A recently-discovered several additions have been made. The additions to the minor planet (T.G.) proves to be of exceptional interest bacteriological portion are mostly concerned with the ex- owing to its great mean distance. amination of materials from special parts of the body.

Elliptical elements recently deduced by Dr. Berberich The hæmatological portion is almost all new, and provides greater than that of Jupiter, whilst its aphelion distance

indicate that the mean distance of this asteroid is slightly a practical guide to blood examinations, especially their

is nearly one unit beyond Jupiter's orbit. This discovery application to the diagnosis of disease. The price of the extends the limits of the asteroids so that thes new edition is 7s. 6d. net.

include a distance of 1:1, the perihelion distance of Eros, and one of 6.0 units, the aphelion distance of the newly

discovered T.G. (the Observatory, No. 371). OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.


tinuation of his record of the observations of Jupiter made July 2. 7h. 55m. to Sh. 52m. Moon occulis q Libra

during the years 1898–1902 inclusive, which was published (mag. 4'1).

in vol. Ixiii. of the Monthly Notices, Mr. Denning now 12h. Neptune in conjunction with the Sun.

publishes (in vol. Ixvi., No. 7) his results for the opposi5. 15h. 15m. to 16h. 15m. Moon occults & Sagittarii

tions of 1903 and 1905-6. (mag. 3:5).

During 1903, 1388 transits were observed, and of these 6. 12h. 2m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei).

1188 were utilised in determining the rotation periods of 15. 3h. Mercury at greatest elongation (26° 39' E.).

the different zones as given in the present paper. The 8h. Mars in conjunction with the Sun.

periods determined vary from gh. 55m. 54:35. for the N. 13h. 34m. to 14h. 31m. Moon occults

temperate markings to gh. 50m. 27.98. for the equatorial ;

Tauri only the latter, however, gives value less than (mag. 4•3). Venus. Illuminated portion of disc =0*760; of

gh. 55m. 60s. In the 1905-6 apparition the mean period Mars= 1'000.

of rotation of the equatorial spots had increased 16. 7h. Ceres in conjunction with Moon. Ceres

gh. 5om. 32.75., a value which is a few seconds in excess 0° 38' S.

of that exhibited during the previous eight years. Mr. 14h. Tom. to 15h. 2m. Moon occults

Denning also gives a number of notes on the apparition

Tauri (mag. 3'9).

of 1905-6, dealing with the appearance and the variations 17. Moon approaches near to a Tauri (mag.

of the different markings in detail. He also states that II).

the best time for examining details on Jupiter is near the 18. 14h. Om.

time of sunset.
Jupiter in conjunction with Moon.
Jupiter 3° 21' X.

The results of a number of micrometer measures of 19. 146. om. to 16h. 4om.

Transit of Jupiter's Satellite Jupiter's diameter and of the various belts, made at the III. (Ganymede).

Copenhagen Observatory during the recent opposition, are Partial eclipse of the Sun invisible at

published in No. 4098 of the Astronomische Nachrichin Greenwich.

by Dr. H. E. Lau. 24. 7h. Venus in conjunction with Moon. Venus


In No. 4098 of the Astronomische Vachrichten Dr. P. 29. 1oh. 33m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei).

Guthnick publishes the results of a series of photometric

observations of Saturn's six brightest satellites. The THE FIGURE OF THE SUN.--In his discussion concerning observations were made during the summer and autumn the variable figure of the sun, which was referred to in of 1905 at the Bothkamp Observatory, and the results for these co lumns on January 18, Dr. Poor included the helio-Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, and Japetus are set out in meter ni easures of the polar and equatorial diameters tabular form so as to show the anomaly of the satellite



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and the corresponding apparent magnitude at the time of still be in French. This change concedes practically little ; observation.

for while it may be easy to prepare and read a paper in a New DOUBLE STARs.-Forty-two newly-discovered double

foreign language, it is extremely difficult to express on the stars are described by the Rev. T. E. Espin in a catalogue

spur of the moment, in a language with which one is not which appears in No. 7, vol. Ixvi., of the Monthly Notices

very familiar, exactly what one wishes to convey. The (R.A.S.).

chief privilege of members is the right to express their The stars are all situated between 30° and 40° N.

views on questions before the congress, but this rule pracdeclination, and the author gives in the catalogue the

tically disfranchises all those unable to speak French. position (for 1900), the separation, the position-angle, and

Considerable dissatisfaction was felt at the severity with

which the magnitudes for each pair.

the regulation

enforced. Indeed, many foreigners thus compelled to speak in French were less

intelligible even to those acquainted with that language THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF

than if they had been permitted to use their own tongue! ANTHROPOLOGY AND PREHISTORIC

It is sincerely to be hoped that at the next session, which

has been fixed to meet in Dublin in 1909, this harsh byeARCHÆOLOGY.

law will be entirely abrogated, and that members of all THE International Congress of Anthropology and Pre- countries may be allowed, equally with their French col

historic Archæology held its thirteenth session at leagues, to address the congress in their own language. Monaco, on the generous invitation of H.S.H. Prince The dominant subject of the second seance

was the Albert,“ Protecteur" of the congress, on April 16–21. The genuineness of the implements known as “eoliths." A place of meeting was the Grande Salle of the beautiful series of mill-modelled flint nodules was exhibited, among and now nearly completed Museum of Oceanography in which there was certainly a number closely resembling course of erection by this Royal savant.

More than 400

many Prestwichian types, but conspicuous by their absence members, of whom upwards of thirty were British,

the decidedly purposeful and rationally usable assembled under the distinguished presidency of Prof. Kentian forms. A small collection exhibited by Prof. Hamy, of the Institute of France. To the sincere regret Girod, obtained near Aurilliac, affirmed to be out of a bed of all the members, the Prince was prevented by illness of Tortonian (Miocene) gravels containing Hipparion, underfrom opening the proceedings as he had intended, and, lying a massive stratum of basalt, contained at least one indeed, from being present at any of its meetings. He

"eolith "

unquestionably of human manufacture. The was, however, represented by his son, the Crown Prince, occurrence was vouched for, by M. Rutot, of implements who, accompanied by the high officers of the Principality, of a particular silex identical' in form with those from attended at the opening seance and read the address which Kent in pre-Glacial beds in Belgium in which no other his father was unable to deliver, and from which we quote silex pebbles of the same character and composition were the following sentences :—Je me félicite de ce que mes present, and the manufacture and introduction of which efforts pour le développement de l'anthropologie m'aient could be due only to man. Prof. Ray Lankester submitted permis de réunir, sur ce point de l'Europe où les vestiges that he had recently placed on exhibition in the British de l'Humanité remplissent la terre, une assemblée comme Museum a considerable series of specimens selected from la votre choisie entre les savants de plusieurs pays avancés. Prestwich's collection, all borer-like in form, too identical Je suis certain, d'ailleurs, que votre Congrès laissera au in shape and so obviously of rational utility for any possidumaine scientifique, des notions importantes sur l'histoire bility of their being the result of fortuitous natural de notre espèce, car les travaux tout récents de MM. Boule, collisions. The congress was, however, divided in opinion Verneau, de Cartailhac, de Villeneuve suffisent à lui con- on the subject. At a later meeting a telegram from Prof. stituer un monument. ...

C'est dans le Palais de la mer Schweinfurth, in Egypt, was read announcing full conque l'Anthropologie trouve accueil aujourd'hui ; et l’union firmatory evidence of the occurrence of eoliths in the Nile de toutes les sciences alliées contre l'ignorance . que

Valley. The most important part of the day's programme l'Océanographie peut déjà relier certaines conquêtes de was the visit paid to the Grimaldi caves at the Red Rocks, la Science. Car l'étude des lois physiques et chimiques between Mentone and Ventimiglia, the inspection commende la mer conduit a l'explication des remaniements géo- cing with the most easterly—the Grotte du Prince. This logiques de notre planète et des luttes successives entre les cave has been most systematically and scientifically explored continents et les mers. Les progrès de la Biologie et de by a trio of distinguished archæologists, Prof. Marcellin la Zoologie marines permettent d'utiliser les révélations de Boule, the Abbé de Villeneuve (director of the Archæola Paléontologie pour constituer l'échelle des transform- logical Museum of Monaco), and Prof. Verneau. With ations infiniment nombreuses par lesquelles une force que

much trouble and no little risk to limb, the grotto-walls nous appellons la vie a fait passer la matière organique. had been marked by labels and lines of paint to indicate the Et la Météorologie, si intimement liée avec l'Océanographie limits of the various horizons in correspondence with those par des rapports incessants, nous aide à comprendre les on a diagram of a longitudinal section of the cave disfluctuations, les migrations, et la distribution géographique tributed to members. From an elevated crag the Abbé de des êtres, y compris celle de l'homme. Parmi les Congrès Villeneuve gave an account of the method of excavation and précédemment réunis ici même, il en est un, celui de la of the discoveries made at the various levels, while Prof. Paix, dont j'évoquerai le souvenir aujourd'hui, parce Boule detailed the sequence of events from the geological que la Science et la Paix sont inséparables et que l'Anthro- and palæontological point of view. So lucid were both pulogie, comme tous les Sciences, doit contribuer au bien

these demonstrations that no one could fail to carry away étre des hommes..

The congress

formally a perfectly clear comprehension of the original contents of welcomed also by H.E. M. Ritt, the Governor-General of the cave, and form their own opinion on the evidence for the Principality, in a most courteous speech, which was man's antiquity in this region afforded by its exploration. acknowledged by representatives of the foreign delegates, No human osseous remains were met with in this grotto, Sir John Evans replving on behalf of Great Britain. The but worked implements occurred in abundance from the inaugural address of the president on the objects of the lowest to the highest lavers. Those from the lowest beds, congress, the importance of its work, and the present

which were roughly worked and chiefly Mousterian in type, position of prehistoric archæology concluded the first day's occurred in association with bones of Rhinoceros merckii, prrapedings.

Elephas antiquus and hippopotamus, and with specimens of By an ordinance of the congress, French is the only Cassis rufa, an Indian Ocean mollusc which may perhaps language permitted in verbal or written communications, have been acquired by barter. The contents of this cave a restrictive regulation, we believe, enforced at no other have been transported to the Archæological Museum in international convention. A proposition was, however, Monaco, and arranged with such care by the Abbé de VilleFarly submitted to the council at Monaco that other lan- neuve in the order of succession of the various strata, and guages should be admissible, but it met with favour only so accurately labelled, that it is impossible to overestimate $0 far as regards written communications, which, it was the importance to anthropological science of this compeeplied, may now be presented also in English, Italian, paratively small collection. of German. All verbal communications, however, must The Barma (= Grotte) Grande next claimed attention




under the special guidance of Prof. Verneau, by whom the occasions, the Prince of Monaco being again represented greater part of its exploration had been carried out. As is by his son, who, at the palace previous to the meeting. well known, this cave yielded several human skeletons, all had, on his father's behalf, conferred the decoration of St. of the Cro-Magnon type, the most deeply interred lying in Charles on the presidents, the secretaries, and several of association with bones of the reindeer. Several of these its more distinguished members, of whom Sir John Evans have been left in situ preserved under glass; while in a received the cross and ribbon of the Order. small museum erected, close by the mouth of the grotto, at Several social entertainments were given during the the expense of Sir Thomas Hanbury, are arranged the week "en l'honneur des congressistes," including, beside bones and other objects discovered in it. After a hasty visit a reception at the palace, an evening performance of to the Grotte du Cavillon the congressionists proceeded to Méphistofèles and a malinée concert, both in the beautiful inspect the famous Grotte des Enfants under the same Casino Theatre. excellent guidance. The two celebrated skeletons from the For those—and they proved a goodly company--who lowest foyer of this cave, the types of Verneau's could spare the time, a whole-day excursion, under the negroid Race Grimaldi, are safely preserved in the Monaco able leadership of M. Paul Goby, to the prehistoric monuMuseum. These discourses sub divo were necessarily ments-dolmens, tumuli, and entrenchments in the neighsuccinct, but they were supplemented by fuller addresses bourhood of Grasse was arranged by the excellent comof extreme interest during the following forenoon by the mittee of organisation as a pleasant termination to a very Abbé de Villeneuve, Profs. Boule and Verneau, and M. successful and profitable session of the congress. Cartailhac, under whose joint authorship a beautifully illustrated volume on the results of their exploration of these caves will shortly be published by the generous pro- | SUMMER TEMPERATURES OF THE NORTH vision of the Prince of Monaco.

SEA. The next day's programme was reserved specially for papers on the engravings and frescoes on the walls of pre- THE" Bulletin Trimestriel" of the International Council The Abbé Breuil presented a communi

for the Exploration of the Sea, for the period July cation on the process of the evolution of art during the

to September, 1905, has just been issued. As the observ. Reindeer age, a résumé of a large work on which he is

ations are for the summer months, they are naturally more engaged, resulting from his laborious copying of the wall

numerous than in other seasons of the year, and an pictures of many caverns in collaboration with his col

immense amount of material is dealt with. The increase leagues Cartailhac, Capitan, Peyrony, and Bourrinet. The | in the number of surface observations, and the extension most important as well as most attractive item, however,

of the area from which they have been obtained, are was the exhibition by Dr. Capitan of a long series of specially noteworthy ; a plate of nine charts showing the lantern-slides of mural, engraved, and polychrome pictures, variations of mean temperature in the North Sea for tenthe latter in colour-most carefully copied by himself, the day periods, from July 1 to September 30, 1905, is added Abbé Breuil, and their associates named above, under the

to the usual quarterly maps. These charts have been premost trying and difficult conditions in the grottoes-more

pared by dividing the area into squares of 1°, and so close frequently than not far in their dark, damp, and cramped

to the coast, and the results checked by mean values from recesses-of Mas-d'Azil, Combarelles, Marsoulas, Bernifal,

Dutch observations, worked up by a different method. Les Eyzes, de Freye (Dordogne), la Mouthe, Altamira,

The sections drawn from the observations of the special Font de Gaume, de Teyjat, La Greze, and others. The

sent out by the different countries are very number and variety of subjects depicted indicates powers

numerous in the narrower seas, forming a close network of accurate observation and a mastery of hand in the arts

in the Baltic and the North Sea. A line north-eastward of sculpture and drawing at that early age which are really

from Scotland defines the conditions across the northern astonishing, and it is evident that this wonderful capacity

entrance to the North Sea, but it is unfortunate that, for art was the common heritage of Palæolithic man in all except for some very useful lines running seaward from parts of Europe. Rhinoceros merckii and some dozen other the coast of Ireland, and one section from Iceland to extinct quadrupeds appear to have been his favourite studies. Färöe, information from the western section of the area Bison priscus, however, was the species most frequently is somewhat deficient, notably in the Färöe-Shetland and most characteristically represented, being perhaps the

Channel. It would be a great matter if observations in commonest or the most dreaded member of his fauna. the depth could be carried further seaward to the southThe human figure was less frequently, and always rudely, west of the British Isles with the view of ascertaining the portrayed, and usually with monstrous or grotesque faces, precise limit to which waters of Mediterranean origin suggesting that actors in some ceremonial were intended to penetrate northward, and in this connection an increase be depicted in masks, recalling the dance-masks of the in the number of gas samples analysed would be of value. Chiriqui and Arizona Indians. Further papers on the same theme occupied also a great part of the following morning's sitting, at which the most interesting exhibition was UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL a series of burins and scrapers of flint from the Grotto of

INTELLIGENCE. Eyzes, exquisitely manufactured of every degree of fineness--some of them worked at both ends-to serve the

OXFORD.— The following is the text of the speech manifold purposes of the artist. They were unquestionably delivered by Prof. Love in presenting Prof. J. Milne for the very tools by which the wall pictures beside them had

the degree of D.Sc. honoris causa at the Encaenia on been executed. With the exception of a short note by Dr.

June 20 :Arthur Evans (who on rising was very warmly greeted by In terrae motibus cognoscendis nemini profecto cedi: the congress), on the Ægean, Minoan, and Mycenaan loannes Milne. Hic ille est qui nova eademque plurima epochs, the remainder of the communications on the day's quaerendi instrumenta commentatus, quibus vim terrae programme dealt with the Bronze and Iron age in Europe. motuum longinquis in locis redundantem emetiretur,

The sitting of the forenoon of Saturday, April 21, was ostendit tribus quibusdam momentis rem agi: duobus enim given up chiefly to the archäology of northern Africa. The tremoribus medium terrae globum concutientibus succedere most important communication was M. Flammaud's, on tertium latius patentem ct in summo volitantem, sicut his discovery in the Sahara of megalithic monuments of undam mare supereminentem. His repertis illud etiam new shapes and of peculiar sculpture, and on the numerous consecutus est ut interioris terrae naturam et compagem evidences he had obtained of contact between the interior certius cognosceret. Nullas profecto regiones non peraof Lybia and Egypt in the Neolithic age. The afternoon gravit vir acerrimus, dum telluris superficiei studet. was spent on an excursion through beautiful scenery viâ praecipuam vero laudem adeptus est quod rei publicae the well-known Tropaea Augusti at La Turbie to the saponicae viginti annos inservit, Geologiae doctor insignis, mysterious prehistoric entrenchments occupying the summit fodinarum publicarum curator peritissimus. Ibi etiam of Mont Bastide, as that of many of the other foot-hills of sexcentas stationes disposuit omnia quae ad terrae motus the Maritime Alps. The congress assembled on Sunday | pertinent et observantium et litteris mandantium. His afternoon for the formal closing ceremonies usual on such etiam diebus patriae redditus in insula Vecti tale labor




atorium constituit vir strenuus, eorum antesignanus qui received the full value of the grant owing to the cordial hanc sectam secuti id agunt ut omnibus in terris eandem cooperation and good work of the different county councils. ipsi diligentiam praestent. Tantis tot strenuorum virorum He suggested that some inquiry should be held into the laboribus nonne id aliquando fieri potest ut de caecis horum system of agricultural education. There has been motuum causis paullo certiores fiamus?

inquiry since 1888—nearly twenty years ago. If it should CAMBRIDGE.—The Quick professorship of biology is

appear that there is good ground for an increase of grant,

those who advocated such an increase would find their vacant. The professor is to devote himself to the study of

hands strengthened very considerably. the Protozoa, especially such as cause disease. The stipend is 1000l. a year. The election will take place on July 26. A MEETING of university extension students and others Candidates are to send their names and references to the is to be held at Cambridge on August 2-28. The principal Vice-Chancellor by July 19.

subject of study will be the eighteenth century, especially Vr. R. J. Herman and Mr. H. W'. Richmond have been the period 1714-1789. Among the lectures arranged, the appointed university lecturers in mathematics.

following, dealing with subjects of science, may The Raymond Horton-Smith prize, for an M.D. thesis

mentioned :-Cloud problems in astronomy, by Mr. A. W. On Changes in Sensation Associated with Gross Lesions

Clayden ; a total eclipse of the sun, by the Rev. T. E. R. of the Spinal Cord,” has been awarded to Mr. H. Theodore Phillips; great astronomers of the eighteenth century, by Thompson, of Christ's.

Mr. Arthur Berry; the Milky Way and the clouds of The Gordon-Wigan prize of gol. for

research in Magellan, by Mr. A. R. Hinks; the dawn and progress chemistry has been awarded to F. E. E. Lamplough,

of modern geology, by Dr. R. D. Roberts; great botanists Trinity.

of the eighteenth century, by Prof. W. B. Bottomley ; great zoologists of the eighteenth century, by Mr. L. A.

Borradaile; and the beginnings of the steam engine, by EARL CARRINGTON, President of the Board of Agriculture,

Mr. E. K. Hanson. Besides these purely scientific lectures, will open the new buildings at the South-Eastern Agri- others of interest to students of the methods of science cultural College, Wye, and distribute the diplomas and

occur in the programme, such as those by Mr. H. Yule prizes, on Wednesday, July 18, at 3.15.

Oldham on the teaching of geography, and by Mr. E. A. The Court of the University of Manchester has decided Parkin on hygiene in schools. Practical courses in chemto confer the following honorary degrees :-D.Sc. on Prof. istry and botany, primarily for teachers, will also be held. Emil Fischer, professor of organic chemistry in the Uni- Forms of entry and further information will be supplied versity of Berlin, and on Prof. Adolf von Baeyer, pro- | by the Rev. D. H. S. Cranage, Syndicate Buildings, fessor of organic chemistry in the University of Munich : Cambridge. M.Sc.Tech. on Mr. Ivan Levinstein, and M.Sc. on Mr. James Grier, lecturer in pharmacognosis.

IN the May issue of the Transactions of the Oxford

University Junior Scientific Club is a thoughtful paper by Prof. A. MELVILLE Scott, late 1851 Exhibition scholar Mr. M. H. Godby on the place of natural science in from the University of Toronto, has resigned his position education. The spirit of the paper provides an encouraging as professor of physics and electrical engineering at the sign of appreciation of the value of scientific studies, and l'niversity of New Brunswick to accept the office of super- serves to show that a generous recognition of the importintendent of schools for the city of Calgary, Alberta. His ance of a training in the methods of science is producing successor will be Prof. W. H. Salmon, a graduate of Cam- a beneficial effect upon the present generation of Oxford bridge, now of King's College, Windsor, N.S.

students. Mr. Godby first indicates the influence on British New science buildings, built and equipped at a cost of

education exerted by Bacon in directing the attention of 70001., were opened at Repton School on the occasion of speculative thinkers to the importance of founding theories the speech day, June 21, by Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S.

on knowledge gained from the senses, and subsequently The buildings are largely the result of the munificence of

refers approvingly to Herbert Spencer's insistence upon the Lord Burton, until recently the chairman of the governing education. As indicative of modern tendencies at Oxford

necessity of training the body and the value of a scientific body. In the course of his address, Sir Oliver Lodge spoke of the importance of the study of science, and par

one or two of the writer's remarks may be cited :-" The ticularly of astronomy, in order that a better conception

man of science perhaps alone of all men understands and of the universe, of its magnitude, and man's place in it

appreciates the value of working hypotheses, even when might be obtained.

they are wrong.” 'A great charm, too, of science is that

one can always appeal against the decisions of tutors and It is announced in Science that the Woman's College authorities to Nature herself, and so there is produced a of Baltimore has now received gifts amounting to 116,000l. freedom from the awe of authority which must tend to Of this amount 100,000l. was needed to clear the college develop self-respect and to encourage, independence and ol drbr, and 16.000l. will be added to the endowment fund. originality: Science is more capable of arousing the Mr. Andrew Carnegie gave 10,00ol., the Massey estate interest of its students than other subjects. There is a 10.000l. ; other gifts range from small amounts to 6oool. sort of spirit of antagonism, a feeling that you are pitting We learn from the same source that Governor Higgins has yourself against Nature and trying to unravel her secrets, approved a Bill appropriating 16,000l. for a school of

and this feeling is just what will always appeal to the dericulture at St. Lawrence University, with an additional sporting instincts of English boys." It is satisfactory to 24001. for maintenance. This school, it is understood, will find that young Oxford is alive to the responsibility of the be managed in cooperation with the authorities of the University for the growth of scientific knowledge. State College of Agriculture at Cornell l'niversity. By the will of Catherine L. R. Catlin, of New York, 2000l.

REPLYING to a question in the House of Commons on is leit to New York University,

Tuesday as to the action which the President of the

Board of Education proposes to take on the report of the Is the House of Lords on Monday Lord Barnard asked

Departmental Committee on the Roval College of Science, the President of the Board of Agriculture whether he has &c.; and as to whether any reorganisation of the University been able to consider the representations made to the of London is contemplated, with a view to the association berretary of the Board, on December 5, 1905, by a deputa- with it of the proposed Technological College, Mr. Lough tion from universities, colleges, and agricultural institu- said :-The Board is at present engaged in the preparation tions, and whether there is any prospect of an increased of a scheme for the establishment of a new institution on grant to such institutions. In the course of his reply, Earl lines corresponding as closely as possible to those recom(arrington said no money could be better spent than that mended by the departmental committee. The Board agrees which is applied to helping farmers to meet the fierce with that committee in regarding it as of first importance and growing competition which they have to encounter that there should be no delay in the organisation of the from all sides. Some time ago 4500l. was voted towards institution, and with the recommendation of the committee this object, and in 1906 the vote has risen to 11.500l. that its relation to the University of London should, in The sum is small, it is true, when compared with the the first instance, be that of a “ school of the University amounts voted in other countries, but the country has --a recommendation in which the senate of the l'niversity


has informed the Board that it concurs. In considering does not, however, seem to be any regularity in these the constitution of the new institution the Board has had changes, either in the lines themselves or in the mannes under consideration the suggestion of the departmental in which they are affected, so that it has not been possible committee (No. 94, p. 27) that, without delaying the to come to any conclusion as to their real significance. commencement of the new institution's work, a Royal Additional photographs will be necessary to test whether Commission should be appointed to consider whether the changes in the spectrum bear any relation to the changes could advisedly be made in the character and con- period established by Slipher. The spectrum of a Androstitution of the University which may make it desirable medæ also shows a set of well-marked strange lines which and possible to amalgamate the two institutions. It has do not occur in any other celestial spectrum, and for also had before it the resolution of the senate of the which records of terrestrial spectra afford no satisfactory University deprecating the appointment of such a Royal clue as to origin. Commission within so short a period after the reorganis. o Aurigæ and a Canum Venaticorum show several ation of the University, and expressing the desire that strange lines nearly identical in the two specira, kui opportunity should be afforded for conference between the entirely different from the strange lines of a Andromrdx. Board and the Senate as to any changes of the kind sug- No terrestrial equivalents have been found for these stellar gested. In the course of the conference, which took place lines. on March 9, between the Board of Education and a depu- In e Ursæ Majoris, the chief deviations from the Sirian tation from the University senate upon these matters, the type are the weakening of the silicium (group ii.) lines suggestions thrown out by the University deputation seemed and the strengthening of the enhanced lines of chromium. to be contingent, practically, upon the incorporation of

Entomological Society, June 6.—Mr. F. Menifield, presithe new institution within the University. As this would

dent, in the chair.-Exhibits.--Specimens of Lomechusa necessitate a prolonged delay in the starting of the institu

strumosa, F., taken with Formica sanguinea at Woking tion, which the committee specially recommended should

on May 26 and 29: H. St. J. Donisthorpe. Only two be avoided, the Board has found it impracticable to pro

other British examples are known, one taken by Sir Hans ceed on those lines, but is hastening as much as possible

Sloane on Hampstead Heath in 1710, the other found by Dr. the preparation of a draft charter on the lines of the report

Leach, in the early part of the last century, while travelof the departmental committee.

ling in the mail-coach between Gloucester and Cheltenham.

-A case to illustrate a large number of the life-histories of

Coleophorids, notes on which have appeared in the society's SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

Proceedings or in the Entomological Record : H. J. LONDON.

Turner.-A few butterflies from Majorca, captured

between April 8 and April 20: H. Lupton.-a specimen Royal Society, April 5.—“On a Method of Ohtain.

of Crambus ericellus, Hb., taken at Loughton, Essex, ing Continuous Currents from a Magnetic Detector of the Self-restoring Type." By L. H. Walter.

Communicated August 8, 1899, not previously recorded from further

south than Cumberland ; two specimens of Nola confusalis. by Prof. Ewing, F.R.S.

H.S. ab. columbina, Image, taken in Epping Forest, Magnetic detectors for wireless telegraph purposes have

May 5: S. Image. The first examples of this aberration proved satisfactory for telephonic reception, but have not

were taken by the exhibitor at the same locality, May 22, hitherto been capable of furnishing continuous currents

1905, and a specimen of Peronea cristana, F., the ground suitable for use with recording instruments. The author

colour of upper-wings abnormally black, even more inhas devised a new form of magnetic detector which is capable of furnishing both continuous and alternating tensely, black than in the ab. nigrana, Clark, also taken

in Epping Forest, August 19, 1905.— The type of Spathor. currents, the former for recording purposes and the latter

rhamphus corsicus, Marshall, from Vizzavona, Corsica : for telephonic reception. The apparatus consists of a

J. H. Keys. This fine Anthribid was supposed by some form of differential dynamo, having two similar armatures on the same shaft. The armature cores are of iron or

coleopterists to have been an accidental importation into

the mountainous regions of the island, but was no doubt steel wires. The electromotive forces generated by the

endemic. Mr. G. C. Champion remarked that he had two armatures are opposed to each other and normally

taken Platyrrhinus latirostris, in numbers, at the same balance, so that no potential difference is detectable at the

locality, in the beech and pine forests (Pinus laricio) along commutator brushes. Oscillations set up in the receiver

the line of railway, above the tunnel.-Specimens of aërial as a result of signals are led through the magnetic

African Pierinæ found by Mr. C. A. Wiggins wire forming one armature core, causing it to take up a

February 2 settled on damp soil near the Ripon Falls, higher induction, and thus disturbing the balance, a continuous current being obtainable from the brushes so long single sweep of the net : Dr. F. A. Dixey. Eight species

Victoria Nyanza, and caught, to the number of 153, at a as the oscillations persist. This current is utilised for

were represented; the examples were all males, and, with actuating the recording instrument or relay. For simul

one exception, belonged to the dry-season form of their taneous reception of the signals on the telephone, the

respective species.--Notes on alternating current generated as a result of the action

Natal butterflies, received

from Mr. G. H. Burn, of Weenen, and the four individuals of oscillations is taken off, by means of slip-rings and brushes, before it is commuted into unidirectional current.

of Euralia wahlberghi, Wallgr., and E. mima, Trim..

captured by Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, near Malvern, Natal: May 17.-“ Some Stars with Peculiar Spectra." By Prof. E. B. Poulton. Prof. Poulton then exhibited Mr. Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S., and F. E. Marshall's latest demonstration of seasonal phases in South Baxandall.

African species of the genus Precis, the proof by actual This paper relates to a few stars the spectra of which breeding that P. tukuoa, Wallgr., is the dry-season phase show certain peculiarities that make them not altogether of P. ceryne, Boisd. Prof. Poulton further showed 325 conformable to any common type. The most notable of butterflies captured in one day by Mr. C. B. Roberts, bethese stars a Andromedæ, Auriga, a Canum

tween the eighth and tenth mile from the Potaro River, Venaticorum, and e Ursæ Majoris. They are all on the British Guiana, and directed attention to the preponderance descending side of the Kensington curve of stellar tempera- of males.- Papers.-Some bionomic notes on butterflies from ture, the first three being of the Markabian type and the the Victoria Nyanza region, with exhibits from the Oxford last of the Sirian type. A short account is given of the University Museum : S. A, Neave.—The habits of a spectrum of each of these stars.

species of Ptyelus in British East Africa: S. L. Hinde, a Andromedze has recently been found by Slipher, of illustrated by drawings by Mrs. Hinde.—1) Mimetic forms the Lowell Observatory, to be a spectroscopic binary with of Papilio dardanus (merope) and Acraea johnstoni ; a period of about 100 days. Prior to this, an investi- (2) Predaceous insects and their prey: Prof. E. B. gation of the various Kensington spectra of a Andromedæ, Poulton.-Studies on the Orthoptera in the Hope Departtaken in the years 1900-4, appeared to indicate slight ment, Oxford University Museum, i., Blattidæ ; and a changes in the relative intensity, position, and definition

a feeding experiment on the spider Nephila of some of the lines in the various photographs. There i maculata : R. Shelford.





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