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when it appeared in the pages of the Fortnightly THURSDAY, JULY 5. 1906.
Review. Both the clerical and the philosophical attack on the negative conclusions of science have
failed, Mr. Mallock declares. On the other hand, SOME RECENT PHILOSOPHY,
current science has no influence on practical life, and
all that is best in modern civilisation is to be traced (1) The Torld's Desires, or The Results of Monism.
to the three beliefs of theism, viz. the belief in human By Edgar A. Ashcroft. Pp. xii + 440. (London : Kegan freedom, in God, and in human immortality. But if Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., Ltd., 1905.) Price
the principles of science be only carried to their logical los. 6d. net.
conclusion, it is clear that everything that now (2) The Scientific Temper in Religion, and Other
happens must have been pre-arranged in all previous Addresses. By the Rev. P. N. Waggett. Pp. molecular conditions of things, and that this prexii + 286, (London : Longmans, Green and Co., 1905.)
arrangement is due to mind and purpose. The last Price 4s. 6d. net.
part of the work deals not unsuccessfully with the (3) The Reconstruction of Belief. By W. H. Mallock.
difficulties generally urged against a belief in the Pp. xii+ 314. (London : Chapman and Hall, Ltd.,
goodness of the Deity, and the author concludes his 1903.) Price 128. net.
suggestive volume with forecasting the difficulties (+) The linit of Strije. By E. K. Garrod. Pp.
which Christianity has still to face-most of all, the 1 + 194. (London: Longmans, Green
difficulty of competing with a new religious eclec1903.) Price 3s. 6d. net.
ticism. Mr. Mallock is to be congratulated on CHE first of these volumes need not detain us. work which will undoubtedly add to his reputation.
(4) The strife of which the title of this work Prof. Haeckel, and Mr. Ashcroft emulates his master speaks is the struggle for existence. The title is in the range and discursiveness of his work. One the one ambiguity, perhaps the one defect, of what would have thought that the “Riddle of the Uni- is, on the whole, a very clear and suggestive book. verse" had settled, at least for a modern monist Its writer is concerned mainly with the problem of realist, the majority of the topics here discussed that in man as compared with the lower creation
unless, indeed, the presence of two books in many 'the quality of fitness to survive has in some ways so similar is a part of the riddle to which it way become modified”; an agency has come into is desirable to direct attention. We note that Mr. Ash- | play which had not asserted itself on the same croft is able to tell us that “the system of Plato lines in the struggle for life before
the appeardisplay's few living qualities."
ance of man." What are the modification and the 12) Vr. Waggett's work is one of the very best of agency referred to ? The answer seems to be that its type, viz. of the books that seek to reconcile re- in man most clearly of all living things the unit in ligion and science. The author's chief characteristics the struggle is not the individual, but the community, are his boldness and his anxiety that there should be gradually expanding from the family to the tribe, the no nervousness or hysteria among the religious- nation, the empire, and that in close correspondence uninded when their faith is confronted by the facts with this development and expansion there has gone of science. “We ought to be positively alarmed at the increasing recognition of law and of some higher any appearance of unbroken agreement between re- power, which is the kernel of all religion. ligion and science." “ There is not in the Bible ever But this brief analysis almost does injustice to the any contrast between reason and faith. . . . In point closeness of the argument and the excellence of the of fact, faith is a kind of knowledge, and not only so, illustrations by which the argument is enforced. The but it is the model and type of all sure knowledge.' scientific analogies are not overdrawn—the great deThere is no theological interest, Mr. Waggett main- fect of some similar works--not even in one amusing tains, in weakening any particular theory about the passage where the author compares the walls of physical world. In regard to the gulf between the Babylon to the external defences of the crustacean, urganic and the inorganic-the classical treatment and points out that at a more advanced stage of of which is a famous chapter in “ Natural Law in development protection is given rather by moving the Spiritual World "-Mr. Waggett has already made masses acting on the offensive, just as for the most terms even with Mr. Burke's radium experiments on part the vertebrate organisms have abandoned the sterilised bouillon, experiments on which, at the same methods of the crustaceans and of insects protected time, he passes some acute criticisms. “Our faith by a horn-like covering. would not be shaken if the gulf which lies for thought One statement on p. 9o appears somewhat inbetween organic and inorganic matter were for exact. The author, showing how an ideal may lose thought to be bridged; for it has never rested upon the power of expansion by being enclosed and casethis or any other interval." Mr. Waggett is sug- hardened, writes thus :- Thus to the Israelite, gestive, too, in dealing with the problem of freedom, while they retained their lofty monotheistic concepprinting out that without freedom there can be no tion, Jehovah became the Deity exclusively of their error and no knowledge.
He was the Lord of Hosts who warred (3) A small part of Mr. Mallock's work always on their side against their enemies." On the dealt with in the “Notes ” columns of this journal whole it seems wise to distinguish some things which
are here confused, the henotheism (as it is called) of Copernicus to that of Sir George Darwin and Mr. the earlier period of Jewish history which regarded Moxly. Next come descriptions in popular language Jehovah only as one among many Gods, the one who of “the making of the tides," the "propagation of fought on the side of the Israelites, and who ought the tidal wave,” and the mean level of the sea and to be worshipped by them; and, contrasted with it, range of the tides. All these subjects are illustrated the later and truly monotheistic ideal of the prophets, by facts and figures drawn from actual observations. which emphasised the solity of Jehovah. It would, at The effect of wind and atmospheric pressure on the any rate, be difficult to harmonise our author's account tides is considered at some length, as a matter of with any of the accepted readings of Jewish history, considerable importance to engineers. Mr. Wheeler traditional critical. Part of the page ought has endeavoured to formulate a rule as to variations probably to be re-written.
to be expected with a given force of wind and heighi of tide; and considers that roughly “the effect of a
moderate gale is to raise or lower the tide according TIDES AND WALES.
to its direction as many inches as it would rise in fert
under normal conditions." He gives some striking A Practical Manual of Tides and Waves. By W. H. Wheeler.
instances of abnormal tides due to gales of long conPp. viii + 201. (London: Longmans,
tinuance, the heights attained in some cases exceeding Green and Co., 1906.) Price 7s. 6d. net.
the tide-table heights by six to eight feet. In "HE author of this book is a well-known civil THE
December, 1904, for example, at Grimsby, the mornengineer, whose practice has been largely con- ing tide was raised nearly seven feet, and at Hull as cerned with works on the sea coast and tidal rivers. well as on the Thames, about five feet above normal The practical side of the subject treated has conse- level by a heavy gale from the north-west. An inquently required and received from him long and vestigation is also made of the recorded observations close study; his intention in this volume has been “ to of variations in tides accompanying variations in give as practical an account as possible, free from all atmospheric pressure, and the conclusion is reached mathematical demonstration, of the action of the sun that “it is not possible to lay down any general law and moon in producing the tides : and of the physical applying to all parts of tidal waters." Mr. Wheeler causes by which the tides are affected after their considers that “although variation in pressure may generation, and of their propagation throughout the be a primary cause of the alteration in the height of tidal waters of the earth.” To these subjects the tides . . . yet the wind is a safer and more reads principal portion of the work is devoted; in a com- guide for the immediate purpose of navigation." paratively short section the author deals also with The chapter dealing with “ River Tides" is one of wave phenomena, in a manner likely to be useful to
the most interesting in the book, and from the nature practising engineers, and not lacking in interest to of the case is chiefly based on actual observations. a much wider circle of readers. Mr. Wheeler has given Mr. Wheeler traces the progress of the ocean tidal wave much time and thought to the production of the work, up a river channel, and shows how the distance to and the bibliography of his subjects (contained in an which the wave action reaches depends on the condiappendix) indicates a wide range of reading. In the tion of the channel and the depth of the low-water text itself a great mass of useful information and data stream. He describes the “ponding back ” of the is summarised; this is supplemented by several current in the river by the advance of the tidal wave, valuable appendices giving results of tidal and wave and demonstrates the necessity for the duration o! observations as well as formulæ of use in engineering the flood tide in rivers being less than that of the ebb. practice. A good index makes reference easy to the The phenomena of “double Aow" are explained. principal features of the book, and adds much to its and a distinction made between the propagation value to readers for whom it has been chiefly designed. of a tidal wave up a river and the tidal current. In one particular the scheme of the author is open to These movements of river water are accompanied criticism : he has aimed at making “ the subjects dealt by transport of material carried in suspension, and with in the separate chapters complete," and this has from the engineering side this is a question of involved some repetition of statement. Probably the great importance which Mr. Wheeler discusses fully explanation is that in some cases papers prepared for Closely related to tidal currents are tidal "bores," separate publication have been embodied in the book ; which occur in certain rivers. These are very fully but although the repetition (as the author says) may described by the author, who summarises the condihave “been avoided as much as possible,” his scheme tions necessary for the full development of a bore is for completeness in individual chapters necessarily in- follows:-A considerable rise of tide, a converging volves it, and in a book such as this is the result channel with a rising bed, the depth of water decrease is not altogether satisfactory. This is a small draw-ing as the channel is approached, or a sand bar over back, however, to a work of considerable merit that which there is not sufficient depth of water to admit will undoubtedly be welcomed by the engineering of the passage of the approaching tidal wave. profession as a book of reference bringing together these conditions, in place of a gradual rise of the water within small compass a great mass of useful informa- at the entrance to the river, the arrival of the tide is tion drawn from widely-scattered sources.
accompanied by a breaking wave with a crest several A historical sketch of the development of tidal feet in height, which when formed advances rapidly science is first given ranging from the work of up the channel. In the Tsien-Tang-Kiang River,
China, the range of spring tides is about twelve feet
ELECTRICITY METERS. at the mouth; but the tidal wave becomes compressed
Electricity Meters. A Treatise on the General Prinin advancing towards the head of the estuary, and reaches twenty-five feet in height at ordinary springs
ciples, Construction, and Testing of Continuous and thirty-four feet when an onshore gale is blowing.
Current and Alternating Current Meters for the Use
of Electrical Engineers and Students. By Henry G. The bore is said to enter the river at the rate of 141 miles an hour, and during the first hour the rise of
Solomon. Pp. X+323. (London : Charles Griffin
and Co., Ltd., 1906.) Price 16s. net. tide is ten feet. Its approach can be heard for a distance of fourteen or fifteen miles. The Severn bore
a few months ago the literature on the is too well known to need description. Its height has
subject of electricity meters was entirely conbeen estimated at three to four feet, and velocity at
fined to articles in text-books on electrical engineerseven to eight miles an hour.
ing, and the advent of a book dealing exclusively In another section the author deals with wave motion :
with this subject is therefore a matter of importfirst with wind waves and secondly with seismic and
ance to those interested in the distribution of eleccyclonic storm waves. As a civil engineer, his chief
In the book just published by Messrs. interest is with the effects of wave motion upon harbour Griffin, Mr. H. G. Solomon has written a clear and works, coast defences, and other constructions; but comprehensive treatise on the principles and constructhese chapters also give an excellent summary of the
tion of this most important piece of electrical aptheory of deep-sea waves and the results of observ- paratus. ations on their dimensions and speeds. Some of the
The first chapters are introductory, and deal mainly facts recorded as to damage done by wave action are
with the theory of action of the more important very striking. During the construction of Plymouth types. In chapter ii. an important section on the breakwater, blocks of stone weighing from seven to
behaviour of three-wire energy meters is deserving nine tons were carried over the top through a distance
of attention. The errors in reading due to want of 138 feet and deposited inside the breakwater. At
of balance, both as regards pressure and current Bilbao a solid block of the breakwater weighing 1700
on a three-wire system, when the shunt coils of a tons was overturned. The partial destruction of the
three-wire meter are connected respectively across north pier at Tynemouth furnishes another illustration;
the outers, and between the middle wire and the in that case there can be no doubt that the depth below
outer, have been worked out. In the appendix still-water level to which wave disturbance was likely figures are given which show the percentage error to go in that locality had been considerably under- in different cases, and the advantage of connecting estimated. As to earthquake and cyclonic waves, Mr. the shunt coil directly across the outers is clearly Wheeler has collected a large amount of information proved. The fact that there is any error at all with of an interesting character, and he deals at this arrangement has hardly been recognised, though length with “ solitary ocean waves, which he thinks for switchboard meters the matter is certainly one are chiefly due to submarine disturbances. The great
of importance. The following chapters contain de majority of the solitary waves that have been observed scriptions of the various types of quantity and energy in the North Atlantic were in a line between places meters for continuous current circuits, and are largely subject to volcanic activity. One of the latest examples reminiscent, as writing of this kind must always be, of the destructive effect of a solitary wave occurred of manufacturers' pamphlets. in October, 1905, to the Cunard liner Campania on Mr. Solomon has very wisely excluded all hisher outward voyage to New York. A fresh gale | torical and out-of-date meters from this part of his was blowing on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland book, and the section contains a clear description, when the ship was suddenly struck by an enormous fully illustrated by many excellent drawings, of the wave; she lurched over, the water swept over the meters which the central station engineer has to use deck several feet deep, five passengers were washed and to test. The author is to be congratulated on overboard and twenty-nine others seriously injured. having almost entirely eliminated illustrations of the This wave was said to have reached as high as the outer cases of the instruments which he describes, funnels, but in the circumstances accurate estimates a type of illustration, unfortunately, all too common could hardly have been made.
in some other works on kindred subjects. Chapter vi. The final chapter deals with tides as a source of contains a description of continuous meters for special power. The author gives full accounts of applications of purposes.
The last section deals with tramcar meters. the principle that have been made at various times, but The practical importance of this type of meter is his conclusion is that the attempt to utilise tides on a hardly yet well recognised. Is Mr. Solomon says : large scale with existing mechanical appliances cannot The careless manipulation of the controller and be considered as coming within the lines of commercial brake is a matter of serious importance, resulting economics. In this conclusion he has the support of in a considerable loss of energy. By properly regeneral engineering opinion.
cording the actual energy taken by the cars, and On the whole, Mr. Wheeler has succeeded in the keeping records of the motor men, a saving amountobject he had in view, and has “ produced a handbook ing to from 10 to 20 per cent. of the total used can that will be of interest and practical service to those be effected." The descriptions of the best known who have neither the time nor the opportunity of in- types of meter for this purpose are somewhat disapvestigating the subject for themselves.” W. H. W. pointing
The chapters dealing with the theory of single Respecting future arrangements, Colonel Bingham phase and polyphase meters is complete and satis- announces that four volumes on Beetles (including factory. All the best known methods of measuring a volume on Phytophaga, by M. Jacoby), a second alternate current power are described. A matter of volume on Butterflies, by Colonel Bingham, and a some importance is the effect of wave shape on the volume on Land Shells, by the late Dr, Blanford accuracy of registration; errors due to this cause and Colonel Godwin-Austen, are in preparation, of may amount to 5 per cent. or more with meters which it is hoped that the volume on Butterflies and of the induction motor type when running on non- a half-volume on Longicorn Beetles may be issued inductive load, while the same meters record quite during the current year. accurately when supplied with a sine wave of potential Turning from this highly satisfactory record of difference. The chapter dealing with tariff meters progress to the volume before us, we find that it is full of useful information for the central station concludes the suborder Heteroptera (the true Bugs), engineer, and the subject is well treated. The Hop- with families 17 to 24, Anthocoridæ, Polyctenida, kinson doctrine (one might almost call it an axiom) | Pelogonidæ, Nepidæ, Naucoridæ, Belostomatida, that “the charge for a service rendered should bear Notonectidæ, and Corixidæ, including collectively some relation to the cost of rendering it" is funda- sixty-two species; and commences the suborder mental, but one of the chief disadvantages in its Homoptera with the families Cicadidæ and Fulgoridæ. application in the Wright maximum demand system of which collectively 570 species are described. There is, as Mr. Solomon says, that “the average con- still remain three families of Trimerous Homopter3 sumer experiences considerable difficulty in under- | -Membracidæ, Cercopidæ, and Jasside-to be dealt standing it, and the attitude of the consumer cannot with in a future volume, as well as the Dimera and be ignored.”
Monomera, comprising the families Psyllidae Chapter xi. gives a description of a large number Aphididæ, Aleurodidæ and Coccidæ. With the excepof pre-payment meters, and in the next chapter tariff tion of the Anthocoridæ and the curious bat-parasite and hour meters are dealt with in the same way. In Polyctenes lyrae, Waterh., the Heteroptera described the penultimate chapter some special mechanical in this volume are all aquatic, including the curious features in meter design are described, for the obvious water-scorpions, water-boatmen, and the great Beloreason that “the proper working of a meter depends stoma indicum, Lep. and Serv., which attains a on its mechanical as well as its electrical design." | length of three and a half inches, and is perhaps The subject of meter testing is discussed at some the largest heteropterous insect found in India, length in the last chapter.
though some of the allied South American species are The book should be of great value both to students larger. and to central station engineers who wish to know Our British species of the suborder Homoptera, of something about the instruments in use on their which the froghoppers may be taken as typical, are supply systems.
all small insects, the largest, our only British representative of the true Cicadidæ (Cicadetta montana,
Scop.), a scarce and local insect, only measuring an A NEW VOLUME OF THE FAUNA OF
inch and a quarter across the wings. But many of BRITISH INDIA.”
the Indian species of Cicadidæ and Fulgoridæ are The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and much larger, the largest Indian Cicada, Pomponia
Burma. Published under the authority of the Sec- intermedia, Dist., measuring seven inches across the retary of State for India in Council. Edited by wings. Lieut.-Colonel C. T. Bingham. Rhynchota, vol. iii., Although many species of Cicadidæ are more or Heteroptera-Homoptera. By W. L. Distant. Pp. less spotted, and more or less opaque towards the xiv + 503; figs. 266. (London : Taylor and Francis, base, yet the tegmina and wings are, in most in. 1906.)
stances, almost entirely transparent.
In few THE present series of works was initiated and species, however, they are opaque, and brightly
carried on for upwards of twenty years under coloured. But in the Fulgoridæ, or Lantern-flies, the able editorship of the late Dr. W. T. Blanford, many of which are of considerable size, measuring and as this is the first volume issued under the super- two or three inches in expanse, the wings are often vision of his successor, Lieut.-Colonel C. T. Bingham, opaque, and varied with such bright colours that they this seems to be a fitting opportunity to summarise might easily be mistaken for butterflies or moths by the progress that has already been made. In Verte persons ignorant of entomology. Indeed, one species, brates eight volumes have appeared--one on Mam- Aphana caja, Walk., has received its name from its malia, by W. T. Blanford; four on Birds, by Eugene superficial resemblance to a tiger-moth. W. Oates and W. T. Blanford; two on Fishes, by Many Fulgoridæ exude a white waxy substance, Francis Day; and one on Reptilia and Batrachia, by which is sometimes very abundant and conspicuous G. A. Boulenger. In Invertebrates ten volumes have Others, such as the true Lantern-flies or Candle-flies, appeared one on Butterflies, by C. T. Bingham; four are conspicuous both for their bright colours and for on Moths, by G. F. Hampson; two on Hymenoptera, the long projection on the head of many of the by C. T. Bingham; one (half-volume) on Arachnida, species. Some have short wings, others very long and by R. I. Pocock; and two on Rhynchota, by W. L. narrow ones. Mr. Distant's figures are without Distant.
colour, but they give a very good idea of the wing:
venation and curious forms of a very interesting but by his audience and to enlarge upon difficult points to still much neglected group of insects. These figures their mutual advantage, but now, when these aids have been drawn by Mr. Horace Knight in his usual
are absent and the student has to read lectures with admirable style.
modified diagrams, it is incumbent on the author of
them to write clearly and with precision. We have much pleasure in commending this volume
Turning, however, to the text, it can hardly be said (in which a large number of new genera and species that the author has succeeded in making his meanare figured and described) to all entomologists who ing sufficiently clear in many places. Among the are interested in exotic insects.
W. F. K. more important of these the following require men
tion :-“ The magnetic force of the earth is of course
everywhere acting in only one direction” (the italics OUR BOOK SHELF.
are the author's), a very misleading assertion. The Plants and their ways in South Africa. By Bertha expression “ the line of dip is horizontal at the magStoneman. Pp. ix +283.. (London: Longmans, student to understand from the words, the compass,
netic equator " is unsatisfactory. Again, what is the Green and Co., 1906.) Price 3s. 6d.
may be regarded as a north seeking particle "? The schools in Cape Colony and in other South
In lecture vi., following wrong premises, it is stated Aírican colonies are already indebted to the publishers that at a steering compass in H.M.S. Powerful the of this volume for several useful educational books. coefficient i=0.790 would be increased to 0.968 after Although this book, and one on geology, are the only correction by spheres. To obtain such an increase of ones issued under the title of the “ South African directive force has long been eagerly sought after in Science Series,” Messrs. Longmans have previously vain, but, unfortunately, observation in the present published an clementary botany and a book on South
case shows that a value of about 0.830 is near the African flowering plants. The present volume by truth after correction. Again, the results of observMiss Stoneman is written for younger children thanations made as described on p. 70 could not be used the two former. The treatment of the subject on an
in constructing chart No. I with any degree of elementary physiological and ecological basis is quite
accuracy. With the large number of observations the most suitable, and the author displays consider- from observatories and results obtained with absolute able originality, although at times she develops a
instruments in the field, as well as relative observcrudity of expression.
ations at sea, there is no need to trust to inferior A chapter on seeds forms the introduction to the
results. physiological considerations of growth; leaves and
The last lecture is devoted to the methods of adjusttheir functions are then discussed, and four ecological ing a compass with large errors, but it must be rechapters precede the morphology of flowers, fruits, marked that the directions given are not generally and seeds. The latter half of the book is devoted to
agreeable with the practice of recent years. For exclassification, limited wisely to a description of the ample, for all purposes connected with the heeling principal orders, and the writer has drawn up tables
error, the dip circle has long been discarded in favour for differentiating all the genera mentioned; these of the heeling-error instrument. are exceedingly useful, but the key for distinguishing
Finally, it will be observed that the equipment of to orders according to Bentham and Hooker's system, torpedo-boat destroyers and torpedo-boats with the and the synopsis based on Engler's arrangement, liquid compass is not referred to.
This is probably would be more suitable for advanced students.
an unintentional omission which may be remedied in One of the chief merits of the book lies in the
future editions of this work.
E. W. C. natural manner in which rather difficult subjects, such as the law of correlation of growth, are introduced ; | Lotus Blossoms. A Little Book on Buddhism. By also every opportunity is taken to base instruction on Maung Nee. Pp. vi + 103. (Rangoon : Printed practical experiment. Certain mistakes or mis-state- Privately, 1906.) ments occur that might liave been avoided with a A DAINTY booklet in which a number of passages from little more circumspection, and the mis-spellings are various Buddhist writings have been gathered together more numerous than is consistent with careful read- under different headings. As indicative of the high ing; but these defects are slight, whereas the author tone and lofty character of the teaching in the has succeeded in giving plenty of character to the Buddhist writings, the following sentences may be book, and has written with the object of stimulating quoted : “Strive with all your strength, and let not observation and inquiry on the part of the reader. sloth find a place in your hearts." " The wise man The book is well supplied with illustrations, of which ďoes not remain standing still where he has made a a fair proportion has been specially drawn or pre- beginning, but ever reaches forward towards fuller pired.
enlightenment." “ Idleness is a disgrace. These
are classed under the heading “correct aim," but Lectures on Compass Adjustment. By Captain W. R. equally sound morality can be read in all the sections.
Martin. Pp. 98; with three charts. (London :
George Philip and Son, Ltd., 1906.) Price 5s, net. Hydrographic Surveying. Methods, Tables, and Is this book is reproduced a series of eight lectures
Forms of Notes. By S. H. Lea. Pp. 172. (New on compass adjustment in iron and steel ships, de
York : Engineering News Publishing Company; livered at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, to the
London : Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 1905.) classes of senior officers as well as to navigating
Price 8s. net. officers up to the year 1902. There can be no ques- This is an excellent volume, and thoroughly describes tion that these lectures, profusely illustrated by the more complicated branch of hydrographical work, diagrams and supplemented by practical instruction such as rivers, lakes, &c. The book touches very by means of models, were in many ways of great lightly on ocean surveying, and apparently is not invalue to officers whose career was bound up with the tended as a work on this subject. Several of the navigation of ships, where the compass might be terms used are not often met with in English works, cithes a treacherous guide or a means of safety when being American technical terms; but these soon beadjusted and cared for as the author describes. No come familiar, and, as usual, are very descriptive and doubt the lecturer was able to answer questions asked to the point.
H. C. LOCKYER.