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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
made (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions
without stirring, and they are consequently not at all expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake
final. I have also in my paper directed attention to the to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected fact that copper ferrocyanide membranes imbedded in manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE.
porous porcelain are particularly unsuitable for making No notice is taken of anonymous communications.]
conclusive direct measurements of osmotic pressure. To
these circumstances, it appears that their claim that they Osmotic Pressure,
have shown experimentally that aqueous solutions of cane IN the issue of NATURE for May 17 (p. 54) appears a sugar give the same osmotic pressure, whether observed communication by Mr. Whetham in which he attempts to
directly or deduced indirectly from their vapour-pressures, is consign actual experimental work osmotic pressure
not well founded. to the humble rôle of showing how far the assumptions As to the computation which Lord Berkeley and Mr. made in so-called thermodynamical proofs can be realised Hartley make concerning one of my experiments, I would experimentally. Among other things, the attempts to state that they assume as a basis for their calculation that apply thermodynamic reasoning to osmotic processes involve the slight amount of sugar found in the outer liquid occurs the assumption of a membrane which is semi-permeable there because the solution, as such, has passed through and which at the same time is quite passive, that is to the septum. Now this assumption is entirely untenable in say, which shows no selective action. Now in my paper
the light of the numerous experiments given in my paper (referred to in NATURE for May 3, p. 19) I have demon- illustrating the nature of the osmotic process, and their strated conclusively by experiment that in actual osmotic criticism is consequently worthless. Louis KAHLENBERG. processes the selective influence of the membrane is always University of Wisconsin, Madison, June 15. present, and is the determining factor as to whether osmosis will take place at all, and, if so, in what direc
The Olfactory Sense in Apteryx, tion. In studying that paper, the reader will also see About a year ago I stated in your columns (May 18, that the more nearly a membrane is semi-permeable in 1905, p. 64) that I was trying to have experiments carried character in practice, the greater is its selective action. out with the object of ascertaining whether the olfactory In fact, it is ihe pronounced selective action of the mem- sense of the kiwi is perceptibly developed, as one would brane which makes it approximately semi-permeable. This suppose it to be from certain structural peculiarities in being the case, it is evident at once that thermodynamic which the bird is unique, viz. the great relative size of reasoning cannot be applied to actual osmotic processes, the olfactory lobes of the brain and the great size of the and that the experimental work on osmotic pressure does olfactory capsule as seen in the skull. not play that humble rôle to which Mr. Whetham would I wrote to the curators of Little Barrier and Resolution consign it.
Islands, which are reserved as sanctuaries for birds, ask. Mr. Whetham sees perfect semi-permeable membranesing each of them to try certain experiments for me with (1) in the surface of growing crystals of pure solvent which the object, first, of finding out whether the kiwi exhibited separate from a solution when it freezes, and (2) in the any preference for particular species of earthworm, and, if free surface of a solution of a non-volatile solute as it so, whether any difference in odour, or noticeable differ. evaporates, and states that “ from these two facts follows ence in colour, was perceptible to them (the curators). I the validity of the thermodynamic relations between asked whether it was possible to deceive the kiwi in any osmotic pressure on the one side and freezing point and way by appealing to its sense of smell, while excluding vapour pressure on the other." Now I must insist that those of sight, hearing, and touch, and formulated a few the formation of crystals from a solution, or the concen- simple experiments with this end in view. tration of a solution by evaporation, are not osmotic I recently received a reply from the curator of processes. There are, in fact, no actual membranes or Resolution Island, in Dusky Sound, who is a careful septa involved in these processes, and to regard them as observer of the habits of birds. Mr. Richard Henry ex“ osmotic ” in character only causes much confusion, for perimented with the larger South Island bird, Apteryx they have nothing in common with an actual osmotic australis, usually termed the roa-roa, in opposition to the process, in which a membrane—an additional phase with other South Island bird, the small grey kiwi, A. oweni specific selective action--is always present as a determining the former feeds chiefly on earthworms, the latter on factor.
grubs of various kinds. Mr. Henry placed a number of In how far it is allowable to apply thermodynamic reason- earthworins at the bottom of shallow buckets and covered ing to the evaporation of a solution or the formation of them with four inches of earth. When such a bucket was crystals from a solution I shall not attempt to discuss placed on the ground the roa got quite excited in its hunt here, for it is quite outside the main subject with which through the earth, probing to the bottom for the worins. my paper deals, namely, the nature of osmosis and osmotic It must be borne in mind that, according to several good pressure. For the same reason I shall not enter upon a observers, the roa (and kiwi) is practically blind during discussion of Mr. Whetham's contention that the theory the day time,
moreover, the bunch of hair-like of electrolytic dissociation rests upon electrical evidence, frathers at the base of its snout intervenes between its and by such evidence it must be tried.” In this connec- eyes and the ground in this operation, while Mr. Henry tion it may suffice to refer the reader to the paper which states that it makes such a “sniffing noise" that it would I have prepared at the request of the Faraday Society (see be unable to hear a worm, even if the latter made any Trans. Faraday Soc., vol. i., also Phil. Mag. for February, disturbance in the soil. There remains, therefore, the 1905), in which I have directed attention to the fact that, possibility that the tip of the beak is highly sensitive, and in creating the theory of electrolytic dissociation, the actual that it finds the worms by touch. phenomena of electrolysis have played a minor part.
But Mr. Henry writes that the bird seemed readily to Concerning the remarks made in NATURE of May 17 be aware whether worms were below the earth without (p. 54) by Lord Berkeley and Mr. Hartley, I should like touching the soil, for “ when I put down a bucket of to state that, so far as I am aware, the only direct measure- earth without worms in it, the bird would not even try ments of osmotic pressure which they have made are some it : but the moment a bucket containing worms (covered preliminary results published in vol. Ixxiii. Proc. Roy. with earth) was put down the roa was full of interest in Soc., pp. 436-443. In their article in vol. Ixxvii. Proc. it," and commenced to probe at once with its long beak. Rov. Soc., p. 156, I find no direct measurements of osmotic Further, Mr. Henry took several dead worms that had pressure, but simply results of vapour-tension measure- been severely pressed by the spade in digging them up the ments from which osmotic pressures have been computed previous day, and put them at the bottom of a bucket of by means of a modification of a formula of Arrhenius. earth, and at the end of half an hour the roa had not leit Of the results given in the two papers mentioned, there a scrap of worm behind. He tried the roa with a bucket is but one case that is comparable, namely, that at con- of carth that had been searched by it on the preceding day, centration 420 grams sugar per litre, the other deter- but the bird “ would not even look at it.” Then he placed minations having been made at different concentrations, a couple of worms under the earth at the bottom of the so that they not comparable. Furthermore, all bucket, and again allowed the roa to have access to it;
this time the bird went to work promptly, as if he knew
MANX ARCHÆOLOGY AND NATURAL the worms were there.'
HISTORY. I had suggested, amongst other experiments, that he should rub a living worm over some substance that the N the year 1886 the House of Keys passed an Act kiwi does not usually eat, such as bread, so that it should entitled “The Museum and Ancient Monuments be flavoured and scented by the earthworm juice, and then Act." I well remember hearing of it, because in conceal it ; but he has not yet, apparently, carried out the
the course of that year I visited the Isle of Man for experiment.
the first time, in order to see some newly discovered Previously to my request Mr. Henry had experimented with a roa that he had trained to eat meat. He“ planted
Ogam inscriptions. It proved for me the first of a pieces of meat in drills three or four inches deep, and next
series of visits to the island with the view chiefly day found them gone, “though the ground was not raked
of studying Manx Gaelic and Manx folklore. I got over by the bird, but probed where the meat had been
to know the island and its people, and noticed among hidden. This was in an enclosure whither other creatures
other things the efforts made by two or three men had no
If, when the bird was at rest, though with tasie and zeal for archæology and history to hungry, he threw a piece of meat or an earthworm near interest the Many people in the relics of antiquity it, it seemed at once aware of the presence of food, would for which the Isle of Man is famous. On one of wake up and reach in the right direction, touching the my rambles, which led me a public school, I ground from time to time with the tip of its beak until it remember being much struck by finding hung on came in contact with the meat.
the walls drawings of hatchets, hammers, and other Although other and more crucial experiments are needed
instruments of the ages of Stone and of Bronze, acand these could more readily be made in England (at Tring, for instance) under careful supervision--yet I think
companied with letterpress descriptions of them. the above affords a certain amount of evidence for the
They were intended to interest the more intelligent existence in Apteryx of a keen sense of smell.
of the children in such objects, and especially to help I may add that Resolution Island is quite an them to recognise them when accidents exposed such get-at-able place; it is visited about three cr four times a treasures to view. It struck me how desirable it year, twice by the Government steamer on its round-trips was that the same thing should be done in the public to supply lighthouses, &c., and occasionally by other vessels schools of this country, but I am not aware that it ar irregular times, so that four or five months may inter- has ever been done. This example of the Isle of vene before a reply is received to a letter. For instance, Man is well worth following, but I fear that the in reply to my letter dated April 30 I only received an
present is not a favourable moment for recommendanswer in October. I once tried to arrange to visit the island, but the uncertainty of getting back to the main
ing anything so far removed from the burning ques
tion of the day. land in any reasonable time was so great that I had to
But the present war of creeds and give up the idea. I hope someone in England will under
dogmas will, it is to be hoped, be followed by a take further experiments in this direction.
period of peace when the promoters of education may W. B. BENHAM.
be allowed to devote more attention to some of the Otago C'niversity Museum, Dunedin, N.Z., May 6 historical aspects of its more secular side.
The first Manx archæologists I came in contact Molecular Changes in Nickel Steel,
with were Canon Savage and Mr. A. W. Moore, who MR. Milne, chronometer maker in Manchester, has has since not only become Speaker of the House of kindly given me permission to send you the following keys, but established the right to be considered the interesting information. About two years ago he made a historian of the island. I found them inspired and clock having a rod pendulum of Dr. Guillaume's invar led by the experienced hand of Prof. Boyd Dawkins. steel (iron nickel alloy). It was carefully adjusted, and They have been since joined by other and younger was recording time in
men, such as Mr. Kermode, who has made the study Recently the gut of the driving weight tore, and the clock
of the runic crosses of the island his own.
He pubreceived a shock whereby the was altered a few seconds per day. This might be due to some mechanical
lished a valuable book on them in 1892, but he chose movement. After re-adjustment had been effected, it was
to call it a catalogue of them and of the inscripfound that the pendulum undercompensated for
tions, and now a larger work of his on the same changes of temperature, and it appears as if the coefficient subject is passing through the press, and will conof expansion, which was said to be 0.0000008 per 1° C.,
tain as illustrations numerous plates and a great had increased.
number of outline figures. The list of the trustees The second case is a watch the balance wheel of which of the Manx Museum and ancient monuments inWas made of invar steel and brass. In March, 1904, it cludes other men of light and leading in the island, was rated by the National Physical Laboratory, when it such as Mr. Ring, the Attorney-General, not to was found that there was no middle temperature error. mention that they have always had the Bishop on Now, after two years' working, this error is +1.08 seconds
that body, and enjoyed the support of successive per dav, ordinary steel and brass balances having a middle
Governors of the island, including among them the temperature error of about 2 seconds per day. The details are as follows:
well-known historian, Sir Spencer Walpole. These
men have always endeavoured to interest the Manx Temperature
people in their ancient monuments, and they have succeeded to a great extent, but a great deal still
remains to be done in the same direction. The pride +06
+ 1 '08
of ownership is very strong in a Manxman : perhaps +16
10:36 it is in all small nationalities--at any rate, I have
noticed it not only in Man, but also in my
country, the Principality of Wales. What may be Mean
the explanation I do not know, but a member of a 65°
small nationality is a more considerable portion of
that nationality than if he belonged to a larger Middle temp. error
nationality, and perhaps that has something to do 1'08
with the greater difficulty which he finds in rising to
the idea of giving up to the nation anything of
C. E. STROMEYER. i which he is the exclusive owner. That is, however, * Lancrfield," West Didsbury, June 28.
not what I was coming to, but to the fact that, in
spite of the pride of ownership, the safe keeping of lished. The town, they thought, should be Douglas, the object owned is by no means guaranteed either and the cost of maintenance, estimated at 250l. per in Man or Wales. But to confine my remarks for annum, should come out of the revenue, not out of the the present to Man, I may say that I have known
The question of ways and means was in due a sad case of perversity of this kind in the matter time discussed, but nothing seems to have been done of a piece of most valuable antiquity, which I abstain even by the town of Douglas, which was at one time from describing more minutely. This is within my
eager to have the
In the meantime own knowledge, and I think no superstitious feeling Governor Henniker placed a portion of Castle Rushen, entered into the matter; but in a case I have heard at Castletown, at the disposal of the trustees for the of it is possible that an element of superstition mixed purpose of a temporary museum. In fact, the nucleus itself with the mere sense of ownership. I was told of a collection had been stored there since the time years ago that an ancient burial urn had accident. of Governor Loch. Other articles, however, had been ally been exposed partially to sight, but that the stored at the Government Office in Douglas and in owner could not be persuaded to allow it to be carried Peel Castle; but the former have been added since to away to a museum. At the same time he would do the Castle Rushen collection, which has been still nothing to protect it from being damaged by boys further increased by the generosity of benefactors, shying stones at it or from other dangers. Here especially Canon Savage. there may have been a superstitious fear of removing So for the present Castle Rushen, a famous anything supposed to be connected with the dead. At mediæval fortress, is the insular museum, and it is all events, it will serve to illustrate one of the grave curious to read that the banqueting hall, that had difficulties which those have to face who want to see witnessed scenes “ of revelry by night," has the fine and the relics of antiquity brought to places of safety, very perfect example of the Irish elk " from Poortown
This leads me to mention the last“ Report of the standing in the iniddle of the floor-it is, if I am not Manx Museum and Ancient Monuments, " which lies
mistaken, not the only “ Irish elk” found in the before me, dated March 6, 1906, signed by the island; I have heard it said that one was presented chairman, Mr. Moore, and the hon. secretary, Mr. by one of the Scottish kings of Man to Edinburgh. Kermode. It show's very clearly how far the trustees Among contents on a less colossal stage are the have got with their scheme, and what its objects are. valuable casts of the early sculptured stones and inThese, as the title suggests, are two—the safe keep- scribed monuments found in the island, a hundred ing of the ancient monuments, and the exhibition of and twelve in all-and the casts are already too ieu, them for the education of the Manx people, or rather for at least two more cross slabs have been discovered of a wider public still; for nobody can, for instance, since the drafting of the report. In fact, this is one be said to have completed his study of runic crosses of the most encouraging aspects of the whole busiand Scandinavian epigraphy without visiting the
The collection is steadily increasing as the series in the Isle of Man, the most central spot in result of gifts, purchases, or loans, as the catalogue the British Isles, and one most easily accessible from testifies. But here comes the difficulty, for, as the Liverpool and the north of England. Under the first trustees point out, even for the purposes of a local heading a “ Scheme for the Better Preservation of the archæological collection making any approach to com. Manx Sculptured and Inscribed Stones” has been pleteness the space is insufficient for the methodical adopted by the trustees, subject, of course, to alter- exhibition of it to the best advantage. This leaves ation in detail where found necessary, and to the ut of consideration other aspects of the museum quesconsent of the rectors and vicars of the parishes tion, for the trustees are forced to add that though concerned. This scheme seems really to consist of they are very willing to receive and store geological so many separate schemes there are parish and local natural history objects, they are at present churches with important monuments of antiquity | unable to exhibit them. Manx archæologists are onlv near them. Even had there been a spacious museum just in time to save the crosses of the island, but even ready to receive all the stone monuments of the year much is being lost for ever for the want of a island, no Manxman would probably entertain the museum, and the loss is not only that of Man, but of notion of removing thither the more important runic the archæology of the British archipelago as a whole crosses such as the group at Kirkmichael. So the But how is the museum to be provided? There arrangement which finds favour is that of construct
seems to be no prospect of the island setting one up ing sheltered places for them near or within the even at the modest expenso of 5000l., and as to that churchyards where they stand. The work has been figure I should guess that the bare building required done already in some instances, and it may all be would cost that sum, not to mention the furnishing, expected to be completed in the course of the summer. which would probably cost another 5000l. Before The Tynwald Court has unanimously voted, for the all I ought to have mentioned the site, for which, it carrying of it out, 250l., and 1501. more are expected it is to be at Douglas, I would rather not indicate from voluntary contributions.
any sum. Suftice it to say that the money difficulties Thus far of the protection of the larger of the ancient are such that I can only make one suggestion, and monuments in their respective localities. The smaller that is, that the Imperial Government should take objects of antiquarian interest ought to find their the matter in hand. What it has done for the island safe keeping in a museum, but to meet this want of late besides affording it and its herring feet general less progress has been made. It is now some ten protection I know not; but it is understood that the vears since the trusters adopted a memorandum island, besides paying the expenses of its own Govern. to the effect that the Manx Museum should consist ment, pays direct to the imperial exchequer 10,000/ of local objects to illustrate fully the archæology annually, besides a very large income from royalties and and natural history of the island, and the buildings other sources of revenue which discharge perennially requisite for the purpose should have a minimum area into the coffers of the Crown. Having alluded to these (including galleries) of 5000 square feet, and cost disbursements, it is needless to point the moral. A!! no less than 5000l. They also agreed that such an lovers of fair play will agree with me that it would institution, being purely national, not municipal. be but reasonable for the central Government to come should be provided partly by public subscription, partly to the help of the Manx people in the matter of its by a grant from the revenue, and partly by the rates antiquities and natural history, and the sooner the of the town in which the museum to be estab- better.
THE SOUTH AFRICAN MEDAL OF THE
balance will come to about 500l. It is clear that this BRITISH ASSOCIATION.
balance ought to be returned to South Africa in some
way, and a resolution has been passed by the council WHEN the members of the British Association of the association that the unexpended balance shall in
last August and be devoted to the augmentation of the medal fund. September, it occurred to someone of the party that The expenses attendant on the design of the medal it would be well to commemorate our visit by found- have amounted to about 100l., and it is hoped that ing a medal for South African students. I am sorry more than 12001. will remain for transmission to South that I cannot remember to whom the credit of this Africa. As a higher rate of interest on safe investadmirable suggestion is due, but the officers at once ments is obtainable there than here, a substantial adopted it with enthusiasm. Papers explaining the annual sum will be provided in aid of research. proposal were first circulated through the special The cordiality of our reception in South Africa trains on our way from Durban to Johannesburg, and surpassed all that could possibly have been foreseen, a substantial sum was promised in a very short and we in England are glad to be able to establish time. The proposal was subsequently laid before
this small foundation as a memorial of the most rethose who did not happen to be travelling in the markable of the many annual meetings of the British special trains, and ultimately before all the members Association.
G. H. DARWIN. of the British Association.
On our return to England, a meeting of the subscribers was summoned, and committee was
THE EARTHQUAKE IN SOUTH WALES. appointed to consider the manner in which the fund THE earthquake which occurred in South Wales on should be applied. It was resolved that the South June 27 at about 9.45 a.m. ranks among the African Association for the Advancement of Science strongest shocks of which we have had any experience should be asked to accept the trusteeship and adminis- | in this country. It was felt over the whole of Wales,
tration of the fund, and to undertake the annual and throughout the greater part of the west and southaward of the medal which was to be struck.
west of England. Judging from the accounts which The income of the fund was to be in aid of scientific I have already received, the disturbed area must exresearch among South African students, and it was tend some distance to the north of Liverpool; towards thought that the medal would commemorate appro- the east it includes Northampton and Maidenhead, priately the fact that the recipient of the award was and approaches to within about twenty miles of of such promise as to have been deemed worthy of London, while the southern boundary lies in the the confidence placed in him.
English Channel to the south of Dorset, Devon, and The South African Association has cordially Cornwall. I have not yet obtained any observations accepted the duties in question, and a medal, shown from Ireland, but there can be little doubt that the in the illustration, and to be struck in bronze, has shock was sensible over most of the counties of Wickbeen designed by Mr. Frank Bowcher.
low and Wexford. A first rough estimate makes the The total sum subscribed by the members of the disturbed area nearly circular in form, about 280 miles British Association amounts to 8591., but the fund in diameter, and about 60,000 square miles in area. will receive a further substantial augmentation, as I The shock, which affected a region greater than shall now explain.
the combined areas of England and Wales, was Before the meeting of last year, the several South naturally of considerable strength within the central African colonies subscribed a large sum in aid of district. It is too early to make any estimate of the the expenses of the members intending to come out total damage to buildings, but the first reports show to South Africa, and this sum was supplemented that a very large number of chimneys were thrown although on a less liberal scale, by a subscription in down, especially in Swansea, where the number is England. The total of this special South African said to amount to several hundred. From Kidwelly fund was a little more than goool. It is expected on the west to beyond Neath on the east, and from that, when all the accounts are settled, the unexpended Glanamman on the north to beyond Swansea on the south, it will probably be found that few towns and also professor of palæontology in Harvard University. villages have escaped some injury. The isoseismal While retaining this professorship, he was in 1873 line of intensity 8, or the curve which bounds the appointed director of the second Kentucky Geological area of slight damage to buildings, seems to be Survey, a post he held until 1880; and in 1887 he roughly elliptical in form, about twenty-eight miles became professor of geology in Harvard University, from east to west and eighteen to twenty miles and occupied the chair until his death this year at from north to south, or a little more than 100 square
the age of sixty-five. When little more than twenty miles in area.
years of age he discussed the age of the rocks in Nearly all the strongest British earthquakes belong Anticosti, in a paper read before the Boston Society to the class which have been called “twin" earth- of Natural History, and in 1865 and following years quakes. They originate within two foci, which are he brought before the same society his views on the nearly or quite detached, with their centres, as a rule, elevation of continental masses, arguing that seaabout eight or ten miles apart. But the chief bottoms on which sedimentation was taking place peculiarity about them is that the two impulses which
were areas of depression, and that prominent lands cause them take place almost simultaneously, or, if
undergoing denudation were areas of uplift. He disnot quite so, that the second impulse occurs before
cussed the formation of mountain chains (1866), and the vibrations from the first focus have time to reach
maintained that while the continental folds were the other, the two impulses being thus due to a single
corrugations of the mass of the earth's crust, the generative effort.
mountain chains were folds only of the outer portion From the descriptions which have been given there
of the crust caused by contraction of its underlying can, I think, be no doubt that the recent shock was
part, and that the formation of mountain chains a typical twin earthquake. Many hundreds of observ- would be promoted by the subsidence of the ocean's ations will be required to determine the positions of
Aoors, fractures and dislocations being thereby prothe twin foci, and to ascertain which focus was first duced along their borders (see G. P. Merrill's Con. in action. But, so far as the evidence already collected tributions to the History of American Geology," allows us to judge, the foci appear to have been
1906). In a subsequent paper (1875) Shaler suggested situated along a nearly cast and west line, and are
that the transfer of weight to the land by the accumuprobably coincident with an east and west fault, pass
lation of an ice-sheet would influence terrestrial moveing close to Llanelly, Swansea, and Neath. It would
ments. He also discussed the possibility of the Japan be useless at present to attempt a more exact definition
current flowing at the close of the Glacial period over of the originating fault, but it is clearly connected
what is now land about Bering's Strait, and thus with the great Armorican system of crust-movements,
modifying the climatic conditions. He issued memoirs which attain their maximum in Brittany and mid- and reports on the geology of Kentucky (1876, &c.), Devon, and, as they enter South Wales, begin to die and in later vears dealt with a great variety of subaway. In this district, as Mr. Aubrey Strahan re- jects, scientific and practical, including the classifimarked in his address at the Cambridge meeting of cation of lavas, the fossil brachiopods of the Ohio the British Association, the chief disturbances are of
valley, soils, the geological history of harbours, peatpost-Carboniferous age. That they are still occasion- deposits, road-stones, the features of the earth and ally continued, though on a much smaller scale, the moon, &c. He was author of important reports on recent shock bears ample testimony.
the geology of Cape Cod district (1898); (with J. B. It is evident from the above account that the earth- Woodworth) geology of the Richmond Basin, Virquake presents several features of considerable interest ginia (1899); and (with A. F. Foerste) geology of the to geologists. The district is also one that affords Narragansett Basin (1899). He wrote also “ Outlines unusual opportunities for the study of the nature and
of the Earth's History" (1898); Sea and Land : effects of the shock in deep mines, and it is to be
Features of Coasts and Oceans, with Special Referhoped that our somewhat scanty knowledge will be
ence to the Life of Man" (1895); “ Study of Life advanced in this respect.
and Death" (1900), and other works of a I take this opportunity of stating how greatly my less popular character. investigation of the earthquake would be assisted by Prof. Israel Cook Russell, whose death occurred at the contribution of records from different places, and the age of fifty-three, was born at Garrattsville, in especially from the workings in the mining districts.
New York State, on December 10, 1852. He gradu. The points on which I wish to obtain information will ated at the University of New York in 1872, and after be found in many local newspapers, but I shall be further study at the School of Mines, Columbia, glad to send forms on which descriptions may be
was appointed a member of the U.S. expedition to conveniently entered if application is made to me at
New Zealand (1874-5) to observe the transit of Venus. 16 Manor Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham.
His attention, however, was given mainly to the study CHARLES DAVISON. of physical geology. On his return from New Zealand
he became assistant professor of geology at the
Columbia School of Mines, and in 1878 was appointed PROFS. N. S. SHALER AND I. C. RUSSELL.
assistant geologist on the U.S. geographical and
geological survey west of the one hundredth meridian. GEOLOGICAL science, and America in particular, From 1880 to 1892 he served as geologist on the U.S.
Geological Survey, and in 1892 he became professor university professors, N. S. Shaler, of Harvard, and of geology in the University of Michigan. His earlier 1. C. Russell, of Michigan.
papers (1878) dealt with the physical history of the Prof. Nathaniel Southgate Shaler, who was born Trias in New Jersey, and with the intrusive nature in Newport, Kentucky, February 1841, of the eruptive rocks, in which he recorded the graduated at Harvard University, and served two presence of a solid hydrocarbon. One of his more years as an artillery officer in the Union Army during important works a sketch of the geological the Civil War. Subsequently he pursued the study history of the former Lake Lahontan, which in of natural science, to which he had been attracted at Quaternary times occupied an area of nearly 8500 the Lawrence Scientific School in Cambridge, took square miles in N.W. Nevada (1883); he wrote also the degree of Sc.D. in 1865, and became in 1868 on the glaciers of Mount Rainier (1898), and on the instructor in zoology and geology in that school, and geology of the Cascade Mountains (1900). Of later