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papers mention may be made of his observations on of the fisheries. The value of such collections of statistical the Snake River plains, on the water-bearing strata data as Lord Onslow suggests, as an adjunct to work of Idaho and Oregon, and on the volcanic eruptions carried out by special research steamers, cannot be doubted, of Martinique and St. Vincent. He was author of

and, judging from the reports already published, appears separate and more popular works on the lakes, glaciers, volcanoes, and rivers of North America.

to be fully recognised by the International Council. But no one with experience of the fundamental necessity of

accurate observation and scientific method in dealing with NOTES.

practical problems of this character will, we imagine, for a Only a few names familiar in the scientific world occur

moment be able to agree with the suggestion that such

collections of miscellaneous information, the trustworthiin the long list of honours announced on Friday last in celebration of the King's birthday. 'Lieut.-Colonel D.

ness of which must necessarily vary greatly in different Prain, F.R.S., director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, and

cases, can adequately supersede the observations and ex

periments of skilled investigators. The results already late director of the Botanical Survey of India, has been

foreshadowed by the International Council seem to be of appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire. Sir Christopher Nixon, ex-president of the Royal College

a promising character, and Lord Carrington, who replied of Physicians, Ireland, and the author of various papers

for the Government, was well advised in postponing the on diseases of the heart and nervous system, has received

consideration of the question of the continued participation the honour of a baronetcy. Among the thirty new knights

of this country in the investigations until after the full are Mr. T. Digby Pigott, Emeritus Prof. A. R. Simpson,

reports have been received. and Dr. A. E. Wright. Sir John Brunner, a member of A MEETING was held on June 27 in support of the che great firm of alkali manufacturers, Brunner, Mond and

National Association for the Establishment of Sanatoria Co, has been made a privy councillor.

for Workers suffering from Tuberculosis. The secretary Britisu merchants and manufacturers anticipated a great

announced that the association is receiving the active development of our trade in the Far East at the close of cooperation of friendly societies. At the present time the Russo-Japanese War last year; but it appears from twenty-eight beds have been bespoken for the General Post à special inquiry instituted by the Daily Mail that their

Office, fifteen for the Hospital Saturday Fund, and five expectations have not been realised. There has been a

for the Hearts of Oak Benefit Society. Donations have noteworthy expansion of trade since peace was concluded

been received from representatives of the participating last August, but the Japanese have taken care that the

classes, and this willingness of the ordinary public to assist chief advantages of it shall be to themselves. They have

men of science in their endeavours to eliminate a dreadful not only secured the Far Eastern market, but, according

disease will greatly lighten their task. Mr. Chamberlain, to our contemporary, the Japanese Government is laying in a speech supporting the scheme, pointed out that science plans for becoming our rivals as an exporter of goods to

has already done a good deal, and, without being too India, “ The fault," we read, " is chiefly our own.

Our i optimistic, it is likely that, from further discoveries and Government neither knows what is going on nor takes any

continued exertions of distinguished men engaged in medical measures to protect our interests. It is quite natural that research, perhaps in the near future the discovery of some Japan should seek to take the current when it serves, but

definite specific remedy for the disease will be made. we, too, ought to have our share of the flood that leads Cholera, diphtheria, and other diseases no longer have on to fortune, and if the Far Eastern department of the

their terrors, and consumption may cease to be what it is Foreign Office will kindly wake up we may secure it yet.'

at the present time. Mr. Chamberlain went on It is evident that the Japanese, with their scientific know

that he wished he could make his voice reach some of ledge and methods, will be as strong in peace as they

those who have, not merely too much wealth, but wealth have proved themselves in war. This is an age when

beyond the dreams of avarice, which the possessors themscience and system are essential to progress, and the ration

selves recognise they cannot make any possible use of. that realises it is best equipped for survival in the struggle

He urged upon the men of great wealth that there is no for commercial supremacy.

do which will bring greater Only by insisting that the possible thing they can scientific spirit which permeates Japanese education and

benefit to humanity at large, and give them greater satispolicy shall be possessed by our own statesmen can

faction, than to endow further great schemes for medical commercial position be made secure against attack .or

research. While sympathising with the desire to see our progress be assured, either now or in the future.

millionaires emulating the example of American men of

wealth in their support of scientific research, our statesmen the House of Lords last week, Lord Onslow asked

should not lose sight of the fact that it is as much their whether His Majesty's Government proposed to continue duty to see to the protection of the people from disease to take part, after next year, in the international investi

as from foreign foes. The endowment of scientific and gations of North Sea fisheries, and made some observ

medical research is as necessary a form of national defence ations by way of criticism of the methods of investigation a battleship, and to postpone the organisation of a International Council has adopted. The

State-aided campaign against a scourge like consumption gravamen of Lord Onslow's objection to the scheme appears until the generosity of millionaires has been developed is to be that, whilst in his opinion the most promising method unstatesmanlike and a dereliction of duty on the part of of attacking fishery problems is by the collection of

Governments. statistical information from the commercial fishing vessels and at the ports of landing, in the international scheme The death of Señor Manuel Garcia in London on Sunday the carrying out of accurate investigations at sea by men has deprived the worlds of science and music of a man of scientific education and training on board specially

whose work will be remembered so long as the human Equipped research steamers is regarded as essential to an voice is used and studied. While the throat is capable of adequate study of the very complicated problems which emitting musical sounds, and is liable to disease, the present themselves to those responsible for the regulation laryngoscope invented by Manuel Garcia wi is unique

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place among vocalists and laryngologists. Garcia sum of 5oool. at the disposal of the committee toward the born in Madrid on March 17, 1805, and the enthusiastic completion and equipment of the additional buildings for celebration of his centenary last year was described in engineering, metrology, and metallurgy, now in course of NATURE at the time (March 23, 1905, vol. Ixxi., p. 491). erection. The King invested him with the insignia of Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, and many other tributes to Tue past week will long be remembered by electrical his great services to mankind were presented to him. engineers on account of the international meeting referred While a teacher of singing in Paris, about 1840, Garcia to in our last number (p. 207). We have had among us devoted attention to the scientific study of the problems representatives of the electrical industries of France, the of his art, including the anatomy and physiology of the United States, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, and Canada, larynx. The epoch-making paper in which he laid the and have been enabled to

in some part the

4 foundation of the experimental study of the voice was read hospitality they have in past years extended to us. before our Royal Society in 1855, after he had settled in good and varied programme was arranged, and our leadLondon and invented the laryngoscope. Intra-laryngeal ing firms assisted by giving free access to their works medication and surgery, says the Times, soon followed and in entertaining the visitors. We trust that our guests the discovery of the diagnostic properties of this instru- will look back upon their visit here as no less delightiul ment, and its principles were extended to the elucidation

than those which many of our own electrical engineris and treatment of diseases of the parts situated between

still remember with gratitude to their respective countries. the nose and throat. The importance of the invention was not recognised until two years later, when the attention A RAINSTORM of exceptional severity was experienced over of the whole world was directed to the laryngoscope.

the whole of the south-east of England during the night of Compensation for the indifference first shown by the Thursday, June 28, and the morning of the following day. medical profession to Garcia's discovery was amply afforded The rainfall in and around London was as heavy as any. by the centenary celebration last year, when public institu- where. The downpour commenced shortly after midnight, tions and societies from every quarter of the globe united and continued without intermission for eight or nine hours. to honour the great teacher and investigator.

At Kew the measurement amounted to 2:36 inches, at

Camden Town to 2.27 inches, and at the observing station The Longstaff medal of the Chemical Society has been

of the Meteorological Office, in St. James's Park, tu awarded to Prof. W. N. Hartley, F.R.S., in recognition of

At Greenwich the measurement

was 185 his spectrochemical investigations; the presentation will be

inches. Other stations reporting heavy falls were Callmade at the first meeting of next session, October 18.

bridge, with an aggregate measurement of 2-3 inches The death is announced of M. Rayet, director of the Rothamsted, inches; Hiclington, in Norfolk, ami Observatory of Bordeaux-Floirac. M. Rayet was also pro- Epsom, 1.8 inches; and Oxford, 1.7 inches. Previous fessor of astronomical physics at the University of records only show so heavy a fall in twenty-four hours for Bordeaux.

London on three occasions during the last fifty years. This The council of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers cyclonic disturbance across the southern portion of England,

severe rainstorm was due to the passage of a shallow has appointed the president of the institution, Mr. E. P.

and in places the force of a moderate to fresh gale was Martin, as one of its representatives upon the main com

experienced. At Greenwich the pressure of the wind waa mittee of the Engineering Standards Committee in

10 lb. on the square foot, at 9 a.m., on June 29. Thr succession to Mr. E. Windsor Richards, past-president of

type of weather was peculiarly characteristic of thunderthe Institution of Mechanical Engineers, who has retired.

storms, but it was only in a few isolated places that thunder MR. G. MONTEFIORE-LEVI, of Brussels, formerly

and lightning occurred. member of the Belgian Senate, and president of the Association of Engineers, has bequeathed a portion, probably of a commodious laboratory for the study of marine biologi

ARRANGEMENTS have now been completed for the erection exceeding 100,000l. in value, of his residuary estate, to be

at Cullercoats, on the Northumberland coast. A much applied for the prevention of consumption.

smaller laboratory, which had been provided by the The Geologists' Association has arranged a long ex

munificence of Alderman Dent, the chairman of the Count cursion to the Yorkshire coast, extending from July 21 to

Council's fisheries committee, was accidentally burnt doun July 28. The object of the excursion is to visit the Lias some few years ago, and the proposed building is designed and Oolite sections from Robin Hood's Bay to Saltburn. to carry out, not only fishery research, but also general Members wishing to take part should communicate at biological studies. The gift of the site and the cost of once with Mr. H. Kidner, 78 Gladstone Road, Watford.

erection of the building will be borne in a very generous The party leaves King's Cross at 11.30 a.m. on July 21.

way by Mr. Wilfrid Hudleston, F.R.S., the managerinn

being under the control of the Armstrong College at lea At the annual general meeting held on June 28, the castle. It is hoped that the new building will be ready following were elected Fellows of the British Academy for use at an early period of the next collegiate session, the Rev. R. H. Charles, Mr. W. J. Courthope, C.B., and that students will in this way obtain a further means Mr. J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Mr. Andrew Lang, Prof. A. A. of valuable training in practical biology. Cullercoats is, un Macdonell, Dr. J. E. McTaggart, Canon Edward Moore, course,

classical ground to the marine biologist, havini and Dr. G. F. Warner. The number of fellows is thus been the source of much of the material upon which Alder brought up to ninety-four, out of a maximum of and Hancock's great work on the nudibranchiate mallus allowed by Order of Council.

was based.



AFTER the ceremony on June 25, when Mr. Haldane A CORRESPONDENT writes asking for information as to opened the electrical laboratory of the National Physical self-recording instruments of the variations in the direction Laboratory, Sir John Brunner very generously placed the of the wind, and suggests that no such self-registerin

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wind vanes are well known to the public. The information An interesting report on the leading zoological gardens required may be found in any good text-book of meteor- of Europe has been issued by the Egyptian Department of ology, and the letter asking for it is characteristic of the Public Works as the result of a mission undertaken last general lack of knowledge with regard to meteorological year by Captain Stanley Flower with the view of obtaining

There are, of course, many recording anemo- information and hints which might prove of use in the graphs which give wind direction, and our correspondent establishment under his charge at Giza. While avoiding should apply to instrument makers, such as Messrs. Lander invidious comparisons, the author has pointed out some and Smith, of Canterbury, or Messrs. Negretti and Zambra, features in connection with buildings where particular of Holborn Viaduct, E.C., for a price-list. Recording menageries excel their fellows, and has likewise published direction anemographs can be seen at work at many lists of some of the more notable animals which came observing stations, such Greenwich, Kew, Oxford, under his observation. Falınouth, Flertwood, Holyhead, Manchester, Stonyhurst, and other places.

SHIZOPOD crustaceans from the Atlantic slope, by Messrs.

Holt and Tattersall, and fishes from the Atlantic slope, by MANY men of science will be glad to learn that it is Messrs. Holt and Byrne, form the subjects of the latest proposed to establish some permanent memorial of the late issues of Scientific Investigations, Fisheries, Ireland (1904, Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, not only of the man himself, but

v., and 1905, ii.), both published this year. The former also of the niovement with which his name is especially adds five species to the British list, of which one is new. associated, the application, that is, of exact methods of Although, as the authors remark, the addition of new statistical inquiry to the study of variation and kindred

species of deep-sea fishes to the British fauna is a matter problems in zoology. It has been suggested that the

of no real importance, they are enabled to increase the memorial should consist of a portrait-medallion or bust- list by no less than sixteen species, of which one is new, in the mus

useum at Oxford, a cast of which might be placed the most interesting among these is the salmonid Bathyin University College, London, and of a prize to be lagus atlanticus, previously known only by a single speciawarded periodically to the author of the most valuable men taken off Patagonia by the Challenger. biometric publication of recent date. The committee will arrange that subscribers may eventually purchase a repro

Trudui St. Peterburghs. Obshch. (Trav. Soc. Imp. Nat. duction of the portrait. Contributions may be sent to Dr. G. C. Bourne, Savile House, Oxford ; Dr. G. H. Fowler, contains an illustrated account, by Mr. D. D. Pedaschenk,

St. Pétersbourg) for March and April (vol. xxxvii., part i.) 58 Bedford Gardens, W.; Prof. Karl Pearson, F.R.S.,

of a wonderful new pelagic cælenterate from Java, for L'niversity College, W.C.; Mr. Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S., which the name Dogielia malayana is proposed. MeasurTrinity College, Cambridge ; or to the Weldon Memorial

ing only from one to one and a half millimetres in length, Account, at the Old Bank, Oxford.

the organism is remarkable for the possession of a complex

system of paired branching outgrowths. It is considered A Royal Commission has been appointed to consider

to be a highly-specialised member of the Ctenophora. certain questions affecting the erosion of the coasts of the

The other papers include notes on glaciation in the western Cnited Kingdom. The commission is to inquire and re

Urals, on case of artificial formation of sillimanite, port: a) As to the encroachment of the sea on various

and on regeneration in the polychæte worm Spirographis parts of the coast of the United Kingdom and the damage

spallanzanii. which has been, or is likely to be caused thereby, and what measures are desirable for the prevention of such

In addition to an obituary notice, with portrait, of the damage. (b) Whether any further powers should be con

late Dr. Max Kaeck, and a report on the museum and ferred upon local authorities and owners of property with a view to the adoption of effective and systematic schemes

gardens for the past year, the contents of the Boletim do

Museu Goeldi (Para) include a continuation of Dr. J. for the protection of the coast and the banks of tidal rivers.

Huber's account of the Brazilian fora, a synopsis by the (c) Whether any alteration of the law is desirable as re

same author of the plants of the genus Hevea, a supplegards the management and control of the foreshore. (d) Whether further facilities should be given for the re

ment by Mr. A. Ducke to his papers on the social wasps clamation of tidal lands. Science is represented upon the

of Para, and a paper by Dr. E. Goeldi on the chelonians

of Brazil. Exclusive of the marine forms, the author commission by Dr. T. J. Jehu, lecturer in geology at the University of St. Andrews.

recognises twenty-one species of the latter as indigenous

to the country, all but four of these belonging to the A List of Paraguay locusts (Acrididae), with descriptions

Pleurodira. Perhaps the most important part of this paper

is an of new species, by Mr. L. Bruner, forms the subject of

account of the habits of the great arrau turtle No. 1461 of the Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum.

(Podocnemis expansa) of the Amazon, from observations

made by Major J. M. da Silva Coutinho in 1868. We have received copies of two papers, by Mr. H. H. Bloomer, on the anatomy of certain species of Solenidæ,

With its second (June) number, of which

we have reprinted from vol. xii. of the Journal of Malacology.


received copy, the Hasle mere Museum Gazette has note that the familiar name Solen ensis is replaced by changed its title to the Museum Gazette. There are several Ensis ensis.

excellent illustrations in this part, among them figures of

the two common British snakes and a reproduction of a The articles in the June issue of the Zoologist are all photograph of the historical department in the Haslemere devoted to birds, Mr. E. Selous discussing sexual selec- | Museum, and a number of short articles, dealing chiefly tion, as exemplified by the breeding-habits of the ruff, with natural history subjects from an educational point of while Mr. W'esché contributes notes on the habits of cage- view. Certain items in these will be read with some birds, and Mr. G. W. Kerr continues his notes on the surprise by naturalists. We are told, for instance, birds of the Staines district.

p. 65, that

all the gnus are South African, and i



appear to bear the same relation to the buffaloes of that

little exploration has been carried out owing to difficulties continent that the North American bison does to the

of transport. In Boletin No. 33 Messrs. C. W. Sutton, American buffalo "'; while on the preceding page we are J. J. Bravo, and J. I. Adams describe the geology of the informed that “the camels and llamas form transition province of Callao. An account is also given of the species between horses and oxen (ruminants and solid triangulation of the province. The base line of a kiloungulates).” Almost equally original pieces of inform- metres at Playa Brava was measured with a 100-metre ation occur on other pages.

steel band, and the angles were measured with an 8-inch

theodolite reading to two seconds. In Boletin No. 34 Mr. In the Bulletin (May) of the Department of Agriculture, H. C. Hurd submits a report on the possibility of inJamaica, a new epiphytic fern, allied to the rare Poly- creasing the quantity of water available for irrigation in podium Fawcettii and Polypodium dendricolum, is described the valley of the Chili, in the department of Arequipa, by Mr. W. R. Maxon under the name of Polypodium nesioticum. Reference is made to a weevil attacking the The current issue of the Records of the Geological camphor trees at Cinchona that has been identified as Survey of India (vol. xxxiii., part iii.) is a number of Hilipus elegans, a species abundant in Central America, more than ordinary interest. Mr. L. Leigh Fermor gives whence it has been probably imported to Jamaica. The

some notes on the petrology and manganese ore desposits Bulletin also contains a note on the coagulation of Castilloa

of the Sausar Tahsil, Chhindwara district, Central rubber, as well as an article recommending the plantation Provinces, in which he puts on record petrological descripof Castilloa trees in Nicaragua in preference to Hevea.

tions of certain types of rocks, chiefly of the metamorphic

and crystalline series, and gives an account of the eleven The investigation of the fungi that prey upon scale- manganese ore deposits known to occur in this area. insects has its practical aspect, as already some of these Several of them are of economic importance. Six beauti. fungi have been successfully employed in the United States fully reproduced plates of rock photomicrographs accomas remedies against scale-pests. They are probably un- pany the paper. Mr. P. N. Datta describes the geology of important in temperate regions, but in the tropics they parts of the valley of the Kanhan River, Central Provinces, are widely spread, as may be gathered from an account and gives a geological map of the area. Mr. L. Leigh contributed by Mr. J. Parkin to the Annals of the Royal Fermor describes a specimen of manganite from the Sandur Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, vol. iii., part i., reviewing the Hills, Madras Presidency, which is of special interest subject generally and making special reference to Ceylon inasmuch as the occurrence of this ore in India has forms. All the fungi so far determined fall under the previously been recorded but twice. In the miscellaneous Ascomycetes, and most of them belong to the Hypocreales, notes the occurrence of gypsum in the Vindhyan series at the best-known genus being Nectria. Other genera are

Satna is recorded, and accounts are given of ores of classed with the fungi imperfecti, although they are prob- antimony, copper, and lead from the Northern Shan States; ably conidial stages of the Hypocreales.

of gems from the Tinnevelli district, Madras; and of

cassiterite-granulite from the Hazaribagh district, Bengal. IN accordance with the announcement that papers on The great increase in the exports of manganese ore from systematic botany and monographs concerned with Philip- India is also noted, brought about by failure in the Russian pine plants will be published as supplements to the

supplies following the internal disturbances. The manPhilippine Journal of Science, a supplement to the first ganese ore exported from India in 1905 amounted to volume contains a list of plants collected in that portion | 281,735 tons, against 154,829 tons in 1904. of the island of Luzon lying upon the north-west side of Manila Bay known as the Lamao forest reserve, where it We have received from Prof. J. A. Pollock and Mr. is intended to investigate various forestry problems. The S. H. Barraclough, of the University Sydney, a reprint compilation has been prepared by Mr. E. D. Merrill, with of an interesting paper read by them before the Royal assistance from specialists, from material recently obtained Society of New South Wales on a hollow lightning conby different collectors. Out of the total of a thousand ductor crushed by the discharge. The tube, 1.8 cm. in species of phanerogams, representing more than six hundred outer diameter, made of copper 0.1 cm. thick, was crushed genera, 45 per cent, are classed as endemic and 54 per cent. in symmetrical

manner, showing the characteristic trees. Obviously there are few genera with many appearance of a tube which had collapsed under external species, Ficus and Eugenia being two exceptions.

pressure. The crushing appears to have been due to the

electrodynamic action of the current. The material of the In the Bulletin de la Société d'Encouragement (vol. tube was probably plastic at the time of collapse. If so, cviii., No. 4) there is an illustrated description of a re

the current is calculated to have been one of about 20,000 markable testing machine of 270 tons constructed for the amperes; if not, the current would have been one of about University of Illinois. It is i metres high, and will test 100,000 amperes. for compression pieces 74 metres long, and for tension pieces 6.6 metres long, provided that the elongation does

Himmel und Erde for April contains an interesting not exceed 20 per cent. There are also dimensioned draw- article by W. Gallenkamp, of Munich, on the results of ings of the 10,000 horse-power turbine at Snoqu mie

recent rainfall investigations. This paper does not deal Falls. It weighs about 86 tons, and has an efficiency of

with statistics in the usual manner, but resers to experi84 per cent.

ments by Lenard and Defant on the determination of the

size of raindrops and on the velocity with which they fall. The three latest Bulletins of the admirable series issued The size is determined by measuring the wet patch made by the Peruvian Corps of Mining Engineers have been on blotting paper, assuming that a drop of a given size received. In Boletin No. 32 Mr. F. Malaga Santolalla will always produce a similar patch. The result arrived describes the ore deposits and coalfields of the province at is that the weights or volumes of the drops have a of Celendin, one of the smallest but richest of the depart- definite proportion to each other, e.g. if unity is taken ment of Cajamarca. The ore deposits are numerous, but as representing the smallest drops, the weights of the





No. 3)


other drops are found to be 2, 3, 4, 6, &c., times that STEREOSCOPIC MEASUREMENT OF PROPER Motions.--A deWight. Generally speaking, the absolute size of the drops tailed description of the stereo-comparator method of atribits very small differences; the smallest weigh about determining the proper motions of stars is given by Prof. . !! mg., and the weights of the others are multiples of that

Max Wolf in No. 4101 of the Astronomische Nachrichten,

where he also gives and describes the first results obtained value, as explained above. In a lasting downpour the largest by the method. A pair of photographs, arranged for the drups weigh about mg. With respect to the velocity at stereoscope, which accompany the paper show the effect which the drops fall, the rate is not at all proportional of proper motion beautifully, for a star which has moved to the weight; those of 0.11 mg. to 1 mg. fall at the rate

19 seconds of arc in fourteen years appears to be conpvf 27 metres to 44 metres per second, while those of siderably behind the general plane of the surrounding stars.

With an especially constructed micrometer, the observer exceptional wright, say 65 mg., only fall at the rate of is able to determine the amount of the proper motion in about 8 metres per second. These rates only hold good right ascension and declination. during calm air; in an ascending current of 2.7 metres

Prof. Wolf shows in a table the values measured and per second the smallest drops would remain suspended.

the results obtained for ten stars of about the tenth The later part of the article deals with Mr. Wilson's magnitude, and also for two other stars, Nos. 75 and 74

in Prof. Kobold's list. Comparing the meridian-observation experiments on the ionisation of the atmosphere as the

results for the latter with the stereo-comparator values, he probable prime cause of the formation of rain. A note on shows the trustworthiness of the new method thus:the size of raindrops will also be found in vol. xviii.,


KOBOLD 74 p. 242, of the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteor

Proper motion Position Proper motion

Position ological Society.

(in secs, of arc) angle in secs. of arc) angle As interesting contribution to the study of the nature

Meridian circle 2'23

162.0 0.88 199*3 al solution and of osmotic pressure is contained in a paper



091 183-2 by Mr. C. S. Hudson in the Physical Review (vol. xxii.,

This is very satisfactory, especially when one remembers The conception of Prof. Hulert that the low that on the scale of Prof. Wolf's plates i second of arc 53pour-pressure of solutions indicates that these solutions is represented by only 0.004 mm. are under a negative pressure is extended to explain the Jepression of the freezing point of water by the addition

RADIATIVE POWER OF THE Sun's Disc.-In No. 4, vol. ni a dissolved substance. It would appear at first sight

xxiii., of the Astrophysical Journal, Prof. Julius describes that a negative pressure would occasion a rise in the

a new method for determining the radiative power of the

different parts of the solar disc. Briefly, the method confreezing point, because an increase of pressure causes sists in recording the intensity of the solar radiation at lowering of the melting point of ice; but this reasoning is

definite intervals during the progress of a total solar eclipse. not correct, because the ice which freezes from a solution Then every increment (either positive or negative) of the is under armospheric pressure, not negative pressure, and

intensity is solely due to the radiation coming from that only the solution may be regarded as being subjected to

strip of the disc through which the limb of the moon has

appeared to move during the corresponding interval. As the negative pressure. By using Prof. Poynting's calcula- the geometrical form of each of the strips is easily deterson of the change of freezing point caused by an increase mined, the amount of each of the concentric zones (into in the pressure on the ice alone, it is shown that the which the disc is previously divided) contained in any one molecular depression of the freezing point of water caused strip may be found.

The total radiation from each zone is by the addition of a dissolved substance is exactly equal

then determined by a suitable mathematical solution. TI

method was tried at Burgos during the last eclipse, and, to that corresponding with a negative pressure exerted on despite the unfavourable meteorological conditions, the the solvent, and equal in magnitude to the osmotic results lead Prof. Julius to hope that under suitable conThe osmotic pressure thus corresponds with a

ditions it may be found very satisfactory. positive tension exerted on the liquid by the dissolved solid. A general thermodynamic investigation of the process of


4100 of the Astronomische Nachrichten M. Emil Schaer freezing is also contained in the paper.

describes a novel method of constructing a short-focus A FOURTH edition of Mr. C. F. Townsend's “ Chemistry

astrographic objective. Two lenses of the usual crown and

dense flint glasses are employed; the crown is placed in for Photographers " has been published by Messrs. Daw- front of the fint, and the back surface of the latter is barn and Ward, Ltd.

silvered, so that the photographic plate has to be placed in front of the combination at the combined focal distance. M. Schaer has tried this method with two discs of 280 mm.

(about u inches) aperture, made for him by M. Mantois, OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

and, by suitably figuring the back surface of the fint

before silvering it, has obtained an objective of 89 cm. SEARCIA-ET'HEMERIS FOR FINLAY's Comet.—In No. 4100 of the Astronomische Nachrichten M. L. Schulhof publishes effects, and has a large light-gathering power. To obviate

focal length which is practically free from aberration an approximate daily ephemeris for the coming apparition of Finlay's comet. The time of perihelion passage is taken

unnecessary reflections, the two lenses were stuck together.

Another innovation in the construction of objectives is 28 September 8, and the ephemeris covers the period

announced in No. 597 of Science, where it is stated that June 18 to August 1; two contracted ephemerides are also

a Hungarian chemist, after many years' experimental work, given for T=September 4.0 and T = September

has succeeded in manufacturing perfectly satisfactory fluid Owing in its expected close approach to the earth, the

lenses. The fluid is hermetically sealed between two hard pamet shrnuld be in an excellent position for observing later glass surfaces, similar to watch crystals, the glass being

chosen so that the combination is achromatic. The perturbations since the last apparition of this comet The inventor claims that an objective, equal in practice havr not been taken into account in the present ephemeris, to any vet made, of 1.50 metres aperture can be made in but a more accurate ephemeris is promised in an early a few weeks at a cost of 2000 or 3000 marks (i.e. about publication. According to that now published, the comet

1501.). is at present (July 5) apparently near to & Aquarii, which These lenses are already being manufactured, and are rises abeut u p.m., but by the end of the month it will giving satisfactory results, in Austria, and patents are nave passed into Cetus, and will be about half-way between being taken out in other countries where they are soon to A and Mira Ceti.

be introduced.

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