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ment commenced some years ago, which has given interest- bodily pain; (5) effects of taste and smell (whether pleasant ing results. The removal of mussels from overcrowded or unpleasant; (6) effects of moods (of joy and depression) beds and the laying down of new grounds and the re- artificially induced, e.g. by hearing witty stories, recalling stocking of old ones has proved eminently successful, and the contents of certain poems, or the like. the increased rate of growth of transplanted individuals is With regard to many points Prof. Martius thinks that very marked.

definite conclusions are at present impossible; all that he reFrom the report on the sea-fish hatching at Piel we gards as established is the presence of a series of types of learn that more than a million plaice larvæ and nearly general emotional or " affective states, and especially the twelve million flounder larvæ were liberated during the distinction of the two types of activity and rest. But the breeding season, and a similar report upon the sea-fish methods described are insufficient to characterise definitely hatching at Port Erin shows that five million plaice larvæ for us special emotions like those of fear or sympathy. were liberated off the Isle of Man, but we look in vain It seems established, too, that joy and sorrow do not for any word which will show us that the liberation of possess definite complexes of symptoms by which they these fry during several years has produced any effect upon can be separated from one another, and further, bodily the fisheries of the district.

and mental activity produce the same appearances. Hence An interesting paper upon trawling observations, by Mr. while the will and the intellect are not to be regarded as James Johnstone, contains a section upon the food of plaice, one, they cannot be separated, and we can never analyse dabs, and other fishes, and we gather that the results so the products of intellect merely into sensations and feel far obtained tend to show that the plaice and the dab are ings. The other article follows the same lines and reaches not competitors for food, although living upon the same a similarly safe conclusion, that we can read out of the ground ; that whereas the former feed chiefly upon molluscs, experiment curves nothing but the most general character. the latter prefer Ophiurids and Crustacea, although they istics of emotional states, viz. excitement or repression. are less particular as to the nature of their food than are the plaice. Mr. Todd's observations as to the food of these species in the North Sea seem to bear out the omnivorous

DISCOVERY OF SEVEN THOUSAND ROMAN tendency of the dab, but they also seem to show that the

COINS. chief food of both species in that region consists of A COARSE earthenware, jar containing upwards of molluscs.

seven thousand “third brass Mr. Johnstone also contributes a paper on the marked

recently unearthed by the ploughshare on the farm of Mrs. fish experiments, in which he sets out the migrations of Wheatley, Stanley, near Wakefield. In very early times the plaice in the district, as shown by the re-capture of the bed of the river Calder, which has a remarkable sweep marked specimens. He finds that the fish tend to move

at this point, was deepened by the ancient Britons or along the shore lines during the winter months, and to

Romans, and an embankment made with the sand; in this migrate off-shore during the summer months, which facts the jar, with its contents, was deposited 1500 years ago. appear to agree with the results so far determined as to

The coins all belong to the Constantinian group: to the migrations of this species in the North Sea.

Constantine the Great, to his mother Helena, his stepMr. Andrew Scott's report on the tow-nettings for the

mother Theodora, his four sons, Crispus, Constantine, year contains a large amount of material, but the author Constantius, and Constans, Licinius his brother-in-law, has not drawn conclusions therefrom, so that the paper is with his wife Constantina and their son Licinius, and to somewhat heavy reading.

Delmatius. The reverses are chiefly of the

“ Gloria Prof. Herdman's paper upon the oligodynamic action of Exercitus"

type. copper, dealing with the possibilities of purifying infected

One-half, of nearly five thousand coins, which I have shell-fish by immersion in distilled water which has been carefully examined is, in about equal quantities, of the in contact with copper-foil, is extremely interesting, but is “ Urbs Roma type, with wolf and twins on the reverse, in the nature of a preliminary statement, as he is about and, " Constantinopolis, with a Victory on the reverse to investigate the whole question in conjunction with Prof.

with spear and shield, standing on the prow of a vessel ; B. Moore.

these latter were struck to commemorate the founding of The volume is illustrated, including a useful series of Constantinople A.D. 330. There are twelve represented of plates of copepods, trematodes, &c., in connection with

the twenty-four mints of issue known to us, among which Mr. Andrew Scott's “ Faunistic Notes.'

are Carthage, Alexandria, Antioch, Rome: but most are FRANK BALFOUR BROWNE.

from Treves in Germany, the residence of the governor of the west, Lyons, and Constantina, now Arles in France.

Very few of them, if any, have ever been in circulation, PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MENTAL

They are most likely a portion of a military chest conACTIONS.

cealed during a threatened raid or invasion. It is remark

able that ten or twelve years ago a find of seventeen THE most recent number of the Beiträge zur Psychologie und Philosophie (Band i., Heft 4) contains two

thousand was made in the Forest of Dean, covering the articles, one by the editor, Prof. Martius, on the theory

same period, of exactly the same types, with a similar of the influence exerted on pulse and respiration by mental

redundancy of certain coins and a scarcity of others. A stimuli, while the other, by Mr. C. Minnemann, discusses

series of the Stanley coins has been presented to the pulse and respiration as studied in the subjects of genuine,

museum of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, first-hand emotion. Prof. Martius starts with pointing out

and are now on exhibition.

AQUILA DODGSON. the contradictory opinions held by other investigators regarding the effect of attention, of joyful or painful UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL emotions on pulse and respiration. This diversity he re

INTELLIGENCE, gards as partly due to the neglect of several precautions, and he proceeds to study, amongst other points, those OXFORD.-- The date of the fellowship examination in fluctuations of the pulse which are in direct correspondence chemistry Merton College has been altered from with respiration periods. He then examines the plethys- September 25 to September 18. Candidates are asked to mographic method, and comes to the conclusion that send their names to the Warden on or before September 1, variations of volume registered by it are partly due to and to call on him on September 17, by which date they movements of the limb under investigation, and that the should submit to him any dissertations or papers, method cannot be used at present to secure any definite evidence of research they have done. results regarding the circulation of the blood.

During the vacancy of the Linacre chair of comparative Elaborate details and analyses are next given of his anatomy, Mr. Edwin S. Goodrich, fellow of Merton experiments on five human subjects: they are classed College, has been appointed to act as deputy-professor. thus :-(1) effects on the pulse of artificial alterations in New College has resolved to raise the college contriburespiration (e.g. deepening, acceleration, retardation of tion to the stipend of the Wykeham professor of physics breathing); (2) effects of bodily activity on pulse and to 65ol. a year, thereby increasing the total income of the respiration ; (3) effects of mental activity ; (4) effects of professorship to 800l. a year.

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H. W. Normanton, of Batley Grammar School, has branches of technical instruction as building, for example, leen elected to a natural science postmastership at Merton there has been an increase of, say, 200 per cent. in ten College. A. H. Simpson, of Rugby School, has been years in the output of the technical colleges, whereas in lected to a natural science scholarship at Corpus Christi such subjects as medicine and theology there has been a College

considerable falling off in the number of students. As the CAMBRIDGE.—The striking success of the Appointments

writer of the note points out, “ The consequence of this Board in procuring appointments for young graduates at

over-production in technical

is a constantly Cambridge is shown by the following figures :-in 1902 the

diminishing rate of wages. number of appointments obtained was 67; in 1903, 93 : in The Government of India has decided, says the Pioneer 1904, 102 ; in 1905. 134. These appointments fall mainly Mail, to make to the Punjab C'niversity for the next four into the following classes :--appointments under various years an annual grant of 20,000 rupees. The main purpose Trublic authorities at home and abroad, industrial and of the grant is to assist in the improvement and efficiency -chnical appointments, administrative appointments on of the constituent colleges in those respects in which an railwa's, appointments for scientific work of various kinds, inspection by the University showed them to be defective. and lectureships in university colleges.

The Government of India has decided that no part of the Major E. 11. Hills, C.M.G., R.E., late head of the grant shall be devoted to the improvement of the GovernTopographical Department of the War Office, will deliver ment colleges. In addition to this grant, another of 10,000 au public lecture on the geography of international frontiers, rupees a year for four years has been assigned to the at the Sajgwick Museum, on Saturday, May 5.

Punjab l'niversity by the Government of India. This sum The governing body of Gonville and Caius College, is to be regarded as a consolidated grant to be applied Cambridge, proposes in the summer, if suitable candidates primarily to the inspection of colleges and to strengthening poit, to make an election to the Wollaston research the administration of the Cniversity. The Government of studentship in physics. The value of the studentship will India has made a further grant of 30,000 rupees a year *1201a year. It will be tenable in the first instance for for four years for building purposes and for the equipment *7* tear, but may be prolonged for a second year. Candi- of the new Senate hall and the University librarv. ales for the studentship must be more than twenty-one ad under twenty-five years of age on the first day of

SPEAKING on Saturday last at the opening of a ktor, 1906. The studentship is open to students of all grammar school at Farnham, the Archbishop of Canterbury British colonial, and American universities. Applications

remarked that secondary education in England has not uld be made before July 21 to the Master (the Rev. made progress during the last fifty years commensurate • S. Roberts).

with that made by those forms of education that are both The Gilber lecturer on the history and economics of

above and below it. He believes that the explanation lies aliculture gives notice that he will lecture on “ The Re- in a certain unwillingness to bring this kind of education Laikaa oi Reni, Profits and Wages in Agriculture, and the

under central government and organisation. He does not tearing on Rural Depopulation, on Tuesday, May 15, and

believe that either the German or French people are more its three following days.

anxious as a whole for higher education than we are in Bi it. bequest of Dr. E. H. Perowne, the late Master England, but they will consent 10 what English people Corpus, a fine collection of specimens of amber has

will not consent to, viz. a kind of drilling on the subject un arquired by the Sedgwick Museum.

which will bring about a uniformity that can better pro

mote progress than the more lax, scattered, and inde0 Car mernoration Day, Wednesday, May 9. after the pendent efforts which the people of this country in their not contain of graduates at the University of London, national nature prefer to the more hide-bound and redotpre will be a reception at Bedford College for Women tape systems. The Education Bill recently introduced in from sur to seven o'clock,

Parliament, if it passes into law, will give English people Pans. T. W, RICHARDS, professor of chemistry at

an opportunity which they have never had before of taxing Harvard l'niversity, has been designated by the German

themselves ten times as much for secondary education. No Copromete as Harvard visiting professor at the l'niversity it, and those who have been pining to be able to give more

one will be forced to do it, but everyone will be able to do vi Esrbia for the academic year 1900-7.

largely to the cause of secondary education will, if the Bi!! The fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the Uni- becomes law, have an opportunity of doing so. etsitt of Melbourne was celebrated last week. Congratu17ton ddresses were presented by representatives of British

THE paramount importance of secondary education in 20 cih- universities.

any national system designed to educate the children of all

social grades becomes more recognised every year by those Ir is proposed to form an association of past students of

in authority. The presence of the President of the Board Hoverhnical College, Finsbury. With this end in view a of Education at the opening of the new county school at #reporting ci old students will be held at the college on May 8. Acton on April 28, and of Sir William Inson, late Parlia

0*9 Roberts will preside. Any old student who has mentary Secretary to the Board of Education, at Sutto: *** promised a notice of this meeting is requested to com- (oldfield on April 27, on a similar occasion, are indications Tinirate with Mr. J. W. G. Brooker, Durlstone, Brockley

of this recognition. Speaking at Acton, Mr. Birrell said l'ara, Fotrat Hill, S.E.

the only difference of a philosophical character between Prie. ILALTER VERNST, director of the chemical physics elementary and secondary education turns upon the lengths pituer. Berlin, is to deliver a course of lectures on ex

of time available for each. There is naturally a distinction primerial and theoretical applications of thermodynamics

between children who remain at school only to the age atze (niversity, Connecticut. He will also give the of fourteen and those who stay until sixteen or seventeen. laran lectures, founded in memory of Benjamin Silli- years of age. The great thing for the nation to accomplish Tran tatips and son, the former of whom was connected

is the wise selection of those children who are fitted to 19 Yale so far back as 1803. and is best known to

benefit from a prolonged educational course, and to see that Euroa.7 people as the founder of Silliman's 1merican they get it, irrespective of their rank or position in life. jurul of Vitince and Arts.

Sir William Inson, dealing with the question of the curriCerer the doubtíully appropriate title of “ Technical

culum in secondary schools, said he does not think it is restraining in Germany, attention is directed in the

possible ever to revert to the old type of classical school. Jurnal of the Society of Arts for March 30 to what is

He went on to say that the claims of science are nowaday's undoubtediv a real danger. It is not a question of over

never likely to be disregarded, but the study of languages tuning in the sense that the courses of the technical

should not be neglected. He remarked, in conclusion, that molleges are of too high a scientific standard, but the

the overloading of the curriculum of secondary schools with canga? 1:45 in the great increase in the number of subjects which might be postponed to a later stage is a

mistake. texas trained students, an increase which makes the supply greatly in excess of the demand. A survey of the Ir appears from an article hr the special correspondent figures given, which are largely based on the report of the of the Times at Palo Alto, published in luesdas'n issue, Amseran Consul Mannheim, shows that in such that the Leland Stanford Junior University at Palo Alto

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suffered great damage by the earthquake on April 18. (1) they involve strain in the machine of a much larger A massive gateway of stone at the main entrance to the order than in the electric method ; (2) they are less senajUniversity grounds is now a ruin, and the great dragons tive; (3) it is impossible to measure between point ani which surmounted it lie broken to pieces on the ground. point. To measure between points or rounded points is An immense memorial arch has been wrecked, and a fine essential in accurate metrology, especially for gauges with marble memorial to Henry Lathrop, Mrs. Stanford's flat ends; for when each jaw has a flat face and each brother, has been demolished. The museum has been end of the gauge has also a flat face, each of these four seriously damaged, the whole roof of the art gallery having faces having errors in planeness and parallelism, the refallen in, and part of the roof of the other wing. The sulting measurements must be erroneous. If, however entire centre of the building devoted to the department of measurement be taken between small spheres on the screw chemistry is a wreck. The gymnasium, just completed ends, no assumptions as to planeness and parallelism are and never used, is an absolute ruin, and another large new made, and such errors vanish from the results. building, the library, also just completed and about to The electric measuring machine consists of (a) two headbe dedicated, is in the same condition. The building de- stocks containing micrometer screws; (b) a table to carry voted to zoology and physiology is not much damaged. the gauge ; (c) a massive slide bed, on which run the headThe president of the University, Dr. D. S. Jordan, who stocks and table. The gauge to be measured is clamped was at home at the time of the earthquake, believes that on the table, and is set true with respect to the microthe shock of April 18 was not only one of the severest, meter screws by two rotations and two translations pror but also one of the longest duration on record. The Times vided in the table. This adjustment is made by special correspondent learns also that the narrow-gauge railway electric-touch methods devised for the purpose. To make to Santa Cruz has been so badly damaged that it will be a measurement of the gauge the left screw is brought months before trains can again be run. There are many into electric contact (indicated by a telephone) with the tunnels on this line, and in various instances these tunnels, gauge; then the right screw is brought into electric touch which formerly were straight lines, are now corkscrew- with it, and when current passes through from one measurshaped. At San Jose a flower garden was turned into a

ing point to the other the two divided heads on the microlake of mud from which a dozen geysers burst into activity

meter screws are read. To turn the graduated head the after the earthquake.

screw system is not actually touched by the hand, but in The current number of the University Review contains worked by an outside hand-pulley and string. an inspiring article on Science and the Public by Major Special care is taken in the design of the machine to Ronald Ross, F.R.S., professor of tropical medicine in the avoid periodical screw error and backlash. University of Liverpool. Insistence is laid on the fact that A careful calibration by wave-lengths of several mill:science is almost exclusively the work of individuals, and metres of the screws shows where they are specially that, though willing enough to benefit by the discoveries uniform, and therefore fit for use. and inventions of men of science, the public is in no sense Results are obtained for all kinds of gauges. For har imbued with the scientific spirit. Instead of cultivating gauges with flat ends, measurements taken at many places the absolutely impartial judgment demanded by science, the reveal considerable variation in thickness, so that irregular public encourages the habit of mind eulogised by Tenny- contour curves, roughly centred in the centre of the gauge son, believing where we cannot prove," and forgets there faces, can be drawn showing that the ends are far from is nothing meritorious in such conduct

, but much that is being plane or parallel. These errors in bar gauges have the reverse. The essay proceeds to show that to this not been previously pointed out or measured. The author willingness to ignore science and scientific methods may be contends that all bar gauges should be measured by this traced the credulity of the public which leads it to sub- method and the errors registered, so that, even if the sidise quack medicine, to ignore beneficent discoveries like errors are not corrected, by re-scraping or otherwise, they that of Jenner, to hamper scientific research by unintelli- will be known and allowed for. gent anti-vivisection societies, and generally to proclaim

Cylindrical and spherical gauges are also tested ; these its adherence to the policy of “ muddling through.” An are shown to be much more nearly perfect than bar gauges. instance is given by Major Ross from his own experience A further use of the machine is in the measurement of which shows how slightly as yet the mass of mankind has non-conducting bodies, such as glass plates, the thickness been influenced by scientific methods. More than seven of which can be measured with great accuracy. years ago it was demonstrated that malaria is conveved

Readings are taken with ease and certainty to 1/250,000th from man to man by a group of gnats, and several obvious of an inch, and one-quarter of this can be obtained if and practicable modes of prevention were suggested in specially desired. consequence of the discovery. But when these measures were urged upon the public and governments of our tropical March 1.-“ An Experimental Inquiry into the factors colonies, the so-called educated white people scofied at the

which determine the Growth and Activity of the Mammars whole discovery, without troubling to ascertain the facts, Glands." By Miss J. E. Lane-Claypon, D.Sc., and Prof. and the governments, with the exception of a few, took E. H. Starling, F.R.S. no action which could for a moment be called adequate. So far as the authors' experiments go, they show that the The magnitude of the offence may be gathered when it is growth of the mammary glands during pregnancy is due remembered that half the people in the tropics suffer from to the action of a specific chemical stimulus produced in the disease every year; but in view of recent events it is the fertilised ovum. The amount of this substance ineasy to see that the world will be dominated eventually creases with the growth of the fætus, and is therefore more and more by the disciplined and scientific peoples, largest during the latter half of pregnancy. Lactation is and those nations which reject science will be set aside. due to the removal of this substance, which must therefore

be regarded as exerting an inhibitory influence on the gland

cells, hindering their secretory activity and furthering their SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

growth. It is probable that the specific substance is

diffusible, and will withstand the boiling temperature. L.ONDON.

The authors do not, however, claim that these conclusions Royal Society, Janvary_25.—"An Electrical Measuring

are firmly established. A final decision can only be given Machine." By Dr. P. E. Shaw. Communicated by by a research carried on under more favourable conditions. Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S.

In fact, a farm is required where the authors could have The principle of the measuring machines in general use at their disposal 500 rabbits, and could arrange for a is that one face of the gauge rests against one jaw, fixed, plentiful supply each day of rabbits about the middle of of the machine, whilst the other jaw is moved forward by

pregnancy. a screw until it touches the other face. These machines may be called mechanical-touch machines in contradistinc- Zoological Society, April 10.- Mr. H. Druce, vice. tion to the new machine called the electric-touch machine. president in the chair.-The fresh-water fishes of the This depends on the same general principle as the electric island of Trinidad : C. Tate Regan. The author's remarks micrometer used by the author in several researches.

were chiefly based on a collection made by Mr. Lechmere Objections to the mechanical-touch methods

Guppy, jun., and presented by him to the British Museum.

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The collection was accompanied by natural history notes image of the sun for meteorological study : Miss C. O. and by a srries of beautifully executed water-colour draw- Stevens. By this method it has been ascertained that iny's Forty species of fresh-water fishes were now known where the direction of movement of the atmosphere is trom the island; these were enumerated in the paper, and tangential to the limb of the sun, the phenomenon of fuur of them described as new to science.-The collection" boiling" displays a coursing or rippling character, and of Alcyonarians made by Mr. Cyril Crossland at Zanzibar that where it is perpendicular to the limb of the sun, the In 1901-2 : Prof. J. A. Thomson and W. D. Henderson. character of the movements of distortion is that of springSpecimens of sixty-five species or varieties were contained ing in and out of the area of the sun's image. Both these in the collection, of which twenty-seven were described as elements of movement are continuous even in the absence new.-Cyclopia in osseous fishes, as observed in several of all visible cloud, and it is possible, not only to detect, advanced trout embryos : Dr. J. F. Gemmill. A detailed but also to distinguish between overlying invisible atmoBerount of the anatomy of the specimens was given, and spheric strata. . comparison made with Cyclopia in mammals. The

Mathematical Society, April 26.— Prof. A. R. Forsyth, author's views were also put forward regarding the mode u origin of this condition in fishes.--Cases of super

president, and subsequently Prof. W. Burnside, vice-presi

dent, in the chair.-Perpetuants and contra-perpetuants : anerary eyes, and local deficiency and re-duplication of

Prof. E. B. Elliott. the notochord, in trout embryos : Dr. Gommili.-Descrip

It is proposed to apply a method,

based on the use of symmetric functions and of certain tions of three new varieties of butterflies of the genus Heliconius : P. I. Lathy.

differential operators, to the discovery of complete systems

of perpetuants of given partial degrees in assigned sets of Faraday Society, April 10.-Prof. A.' K. Huntington coefficients, which shall be equivalent in their aggregate in the chair.-Electrothermics of iron and steel : C. A. to those which have been arrived at by the systematic

The author deals with the present position of his examination of symbolic products. Contra-perpetuants are Processes, he describes the electrical steel plant which introduced in connection with Hermite's doctrine of reMessrs. J. Holtzer and Co. have just installed in their ciprocity between degree and extent in systems of seminMurks at Unieux (Loire). This is a 1500 h.p. plant, and variants when this doctrine is correlated with the theory vill utilise in a single furnace the current from a 20,000- of perpetuants.-A set of intervals about the rational ampere Westinghouse alternator. The furnace, which rests numbers : A. R. Richardson. A definite construction is 11 a steel cradle and can be tilted, weighs about 50,000 given for associating a set of intervals with the rational kilos.; the various mechanical and electrical controls are numbers, in such a way that all the rational numbers are "btained by hydraulic motors. The steel obtained from a included in the intervals, and certain definite sets of Siemens-Martin furnace will be into the electric irrational numbers are excluded from all the intervals.furnace immediately after the oxidising melt, and for the Some theorems connected with Abel's theorem on the conTamaining operations of deoxidising and refining the tinuity of power series : G. H. Hardy. The paper deals uitnt exclusively will be used.-Vote on the rotating with the generalisation, for series of which the terms are "inc steel furnace in the Artillery Construction Works, continuous functions of a variable, of certain well-known Turin: Ernesto Stassano. The furnace described and theorems relating to power series. The convergence of Zan usisated in the paper is being installed by the “ Forni is sufficient

the uniform convergence

of Termoelettrici Stassano". Company for the Italian War Zant(.x) in an interval in which all the functions fn(x) Office. It is of the author's well-known arc type, and are continuous, and these functions diminish in value as strirbs 140 kilowatts, yielding 2400 kilos. of steel in n increases ; a similar theorem holds also if Xan diverges, Arnir-four hours. The current is a rotary one with 80 but is of the type which can be summed by averages.-

its live ween each phase. The consumption of electrodes is The canonical forms of the ternary sextic and quaternary les than 5 kilos. per ton of steel, and the cost of renewing quartic : Prof. A. C. Dixon. The forms are the sums of the refractory covering of the furnace 10 francs per ton ten sixth, or fourth, powers, as the case may be. Proof metal made. The furnace is principally used for re- cesses are given for carrying out the reductions to these firing pig-iron and smelting scrap. The product ordinarily forms, and it is shown that in each case there are two mnade is used for artillery projectiles.-Note on recent de- solutions.--The accuracy of interpolation by finite differplopments in the Gin electric steel furnace : Gustave Gin. ences : W. F. Sheppard. The paper deals with the The author's canal-type of furnace is now installed at the relative accuracy

of the ordinary advancing-difference f'ottenberg Works, Westphalia, of which illustrations are formula and the central-difference formulæ in regard to grea in the paper, but it is not stated which particular the two sources of error which arise (1) from omitting the type of furnace has there been experimented with. The remainder in the series by which the values of a function Hollowing types are described :-(1) furnace with canals are calculated, (2) from the fact that tabulated values of a

nd chambers; (2) combination furnace; (3) induction function are only approximate.-The geometrical interpretfurnare.-Notes on the cleaning of work by means of the ation of apolar binary forms: C. F. Russell. bistric current: H. S. Coleman. The work to be cleaned is concerned with geometrical constructions which may iuualle preparatory to electro-plating) is suspended in a be regarded as generalisations of the construction of the hot solution of equal quantities of brown Montreal potash fourth harmonic point of three given points in a definite and sodium hydrate contained in a wrought-iron tank. order. For two apolar forms of the same order, analogous The work and the tank are connected to a dynamo, and the to two quadratic forms harmonically related, the constructink used as the anode for five to ten minutes, the voltage tion is linear.-Two cubic curves in triangular relation : ng about 2.5. The current is then reversed for a short Prof. F. Morley.--The question of the existence of trans*ine, until the surface of the work is clear and bright. finite numbers : P. E. B. Jourdain.—A question in the The operation is repeated as many times as may be theory of aggregates : Prof. A. C. Dixon. necessary.

PARIS. Royal Meteorological Society, April 18.- Mr. R. Academy of Sciences, April 17.-M. H. Poincaré in the Bentley, president, in the chair.-Some so-called vagaries chair. --The president announced the death of Prof. of lightning reproduced experimentally : A. Hands. The Langley, correspondant of the academy.--The evaluation uthor, in the course of an extended investigation into the of the foco-facial distances of microscopic objectives : L. fects of lightning, has come across many cases that have Malassez. A comparison of two experimental methods topeng called vagaries, but which on a close inspection have with the results of a formula developed by the author in prewed to be extraordinary only in the erroneous way in previous papers.-Pure ferro-molybdenums : contribution to which they were described, and, had they been correctly the study of their constituents : Em. Vigouroux. Alloys reported, would have appeared perfectly consistent with of iron and molybdenum containing varying proportions Reconceived ideas in fact, could have been foretold in of the two constituents were submitted to treatment either Fury case if the conditions that led to those effects had with dilute hydrochloric acid or an acid solution of cuprous leen known before the events occurred. The author re- chloride. The insoluble residues from fourteen separate produced experiinentally several so-called vagaries of light- alloys were analysed, and the following four compounds of ting, showing by means of rough models the conditions iron and molybdenum isolated in a pure state :--Fe, Mo, under which they occurred.—The value of a projected, Fe, Moz, FeMo, FeMog. The physical and chemical proper

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THURSDAY, MAY 10. of ethyl glyoxylate : the action of ammonia on this ether

Royal Society,' at 4:30.- Probable Papers: "Adsorption" and "Occla

sion": the Law of Distribution in the Case in which one of the Phases and its derivatives : L. J. Simon and G. Chavanne. By possesses Rigidity : Prof. M. W. Travers, F.R.S.-Cyanogenesis in the action of ammonia on ethyl glyoxylate a substance Plants, part iv., Phaseolunatin in Common Flax (Linum usitatissimum): C,H,N,O, is formed. This is blue-black in colour, and

part v., The Occurrence of Phaseolunatin in Cassava (Manihot Aipi and

Manihot Utilissima): Prof. W. R. Dunstan, F.R.S., Drs. T. A. Henry, possesses very powerful tinctorial properties, and hence

and S. J. M. Auld.-A Variety of Thorianite from Galle, Ceylon : Prof. mav form a useful test for this ester. The composition W. R. Dunstan. F.R.S., and B. Mouat Jones.-The Mechanism of of this substance has not yet been established.-The acid

Carbon Assimilation in Green Plants: the Photolytic Decomposition of properties of starch : E. Demoussy. Starch possesses all

Carbon Dioxide in vitro: F. L. Usher and J. H. Priestley.

INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Long Flame Arc Lamps : the characters of a feeble acid, comparable with carbonic L. Andrews (Adjourned Discussion). acid, and resembling in this respect the other carbohydrates.

FRIDAY, MAY 11. It forms compounds with metallic hydroxides which are ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.- Some Astronomical Consequences of the dissociable by water, and can absorb small quantities of Pressure of Light: Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. neutral salts. These properties probably play a part in

PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-The Effect of a Rapid Discharge on the Throw

of a Galvanometer : A. Russell.-Exhibition of Lippmann Capillary the absorption of mineral matters by plants. The state of

Dynamo and Electromotor : Prof. H. A. Wilson.- Exhibition of an colouring matters in crystals coloured artificially : P. Apparatus for demonstrating the Movements of the Diaphragms of Gaubert. It has been shown in previous papers that there

Telephonic Transmitters and Receivers and the Current flowing into two cases in the artificial colouring of crystals; in

and out of the Cable during Speecb : W. Duddell.

ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 5. the first case the crystal is only coloured when the solution MALACOLOGICAL Society, at 8.-Notes on the Subgenus Malluvium : from which the crystal is depositing is nearly saturated E. A. Smith, I.S.O.-Notes on some Species of the Genus Mitra, with with the colouring material ; in the other case the crystal

the Description of M. Brettinghami, n.sp: E. A. Smith, I.S.O.-On

some Land and Fresh-water Mollusca from Sumatra, part ii. : Rev. R. is coloured, whatever the dilution of the colouring material.

Ashington Bullen.-Notes on a Collection of Nudibranchs from the Cape tue present paper gives details of measurements made on Verde Islands : C. Crossland and Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G.-Notes crystals of the latter class, phthalic acid, with methylene

on Indian and Ceylonese Species of Glessula : Col. R. H. Beddome. blue in solution. It was found that the ratio of the concentrations of the methylene blue in the liquid and crystals

CONTENTS.

PAGE was practically constant, although the absolute concentration of the methylene blue was made to vary within Radiobes and Biogen. By J. A. T. 1. wide limits. Similar results were found with methylene Principles and Practice of Pottery. By William blue and crystals of urea nitrate.—The Vesuvian origin of Burton the dry storm observed at Paris on the morning of April 1: The Soil and its Tillage

4 Stanislas Meunier. A microscopical examination of the Inorganic Chemistry for Students. By W. A. B. 5 dust deposited during this storm showed it to be identical Our Book Shelf:in nature with the dust from Vesuvius in 1822.

Klein: “ Collodion Emulsion".

5 Jordan : “Der Gegensatz zwischen geographischer und nichtgeographischer Variation.”- F. A. D.

6 DIARY OF SOCIETIES. Walker-Tisdale and Robinson: “Buiter-making on the

6 THURSDAY, MAY 3.

Farm and at the Creamery.”—C. Simmonds . Royal Society, at 4.-- Election of Fellows. - At 4.30.-On a Static Method

Deinhardt and Schlom inn: “The Deinhardt-Schlo. of Comparing the Densities of Gases: R. Threlfall, F.R.S.- The Stability

mann Series of Technical Dictionaries in Six Lan. of Submarines ; Sir William H. White, K.C.B. F.R.S.-The Action on

guages : English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Bacteria of Electrical Discharges of High Potential and Rapid Fre

Russian

6 quency: A. G. R. Foulerton and A. M. Kellas. - The Action of Pituitary Extracts upon the Kidney: Prof. E. A. Schäfer, F.R.S., and P. T.

Letters to the Editor:Herring

Osmotic Pressure.—Earl of Berkeley

7 RYAI. INSTITUTION, at 5.- The Digestive Tract in Birds and Mammals :

The Eruption of Vesuvius.—Dr. Hj.

Sjögren

7 Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.- The Relation between Absorption Spectra

Lightning Flashes. (Illustrated.)-R. T. A. I. and Chemical Constitution, part v.: The iso Nitroso-compounds: E C.C. Diurnal Variation of Ionisation in Closed Vessels. Kaly, E. G. Marsden, and A W. Stewart.-The Action of Tribromo

George G. Simpson propane on the Sodium Derivative of Ethyl Malonate, part ii. : W. H.

August Rainfall.-Alex, B. MacDowell .

8 Perkin, jun., and J. L. Simonsen.- Brazilin and Hæmatoxylin, part vii., Some Derivatives of Brazilein: P. Engels, and W. H. Perkin,

At the Head of Loch Fyne. (Illustrated.) jun.-- Pipitzahoic Acid : J. M. Sanders. - The Constitution of the The Egyptian Heaven and Hell. (Illustrated.) Hydroxides and Cyanides obtained from Acridine, Methyl.acridine and Ancient Eclipses. By P. H. Cowell .

11 Phenanthridine Methiodides: C. K. Tinkler.-- The Constitution of Am. inonium Amalgam: E. M. Rich and M. W. Travers. -Action of Light

Variations of Domestic Poultry. (Illustrated.) By on Potassium Ferrocyanide : G. W. A. Foster.

W. B. Tegetmeier .

13 LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-Origin of Gymnosperms (Continuation of Dis. Notes

14 cussion): Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S.

Our Astronomical Column :
CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS' Society, at 8.-Some Observations
on Bacterial Tank Operations : Dr. W.O. Travis.

Astronomical Occurrences in May
FRIDAY, May 4.

Comets 1906 and 1906
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-The Steam Turbine on Land and at Sea:

The Total Solar Eclipse of January, 1908 Hon. Charles A. Parsons, C.B., F.R.S.

Radiant Point of a Bright Meteor
GEOLOGISTS' ASSOCIATION, at 8.- 'The Erosion of the Batoka Gorge of the Luminous Particles in the Chromosphere
Zambesi : G, W. Lamplugh, F.R.S.

New Catalogue of Double Stars
MONDAY, MAY 7.

Explorations in the Himalayas. (illustra'ed.) 19 Royal GeoGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.- From the Victoria Nyanza to Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

19 Kilimanjaro : Col. G. E. Smith, R.E. S CIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.-Some Notes on the Gutzeit Test

Marine Biology on the West Coast.

By Frank for Arsenic : J. Goode and Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin. - The Separation of

Balfour Browne

19 Brucine and Strychnine. Influence of Nitrous Acid in Oxidation by Physiological Effects of Mental Actions Nitric Acid : W. C. Reynolds and R. Sutcliffe. ---Absorption of Gallic Acid by Organic Colloids : W. P. Dreaper and A. Wilson.

Discovery of Seven Thousand Roman Coins. By VICTORIA INSTITUTE, at 4.30.– The Zodiac: its History and Biblical

Aquila Dodgson .

20 References : Rev. A. B. Grimaldi.

University and Educational Intelligence

20 Societies and Academies

22 TUESDAY, MAY 8. S ciety of Arts, at 8.-Damascening, and the Inlaying and Ornamenting

Diary of Societies .. of Metallic Surfaces : Sherard Cowper.Coles. UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, at 5.-The Atmospheric Circulation and its

SUPPLEMENT TO “NATURE." Relation to Weather: Dr. W. N. Shaw, ER.S.

Localisation of Cerebral Functions. By F. W. M.. KOYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Glands and their Products : Prof. W. Stirling. Pioneers of Geology. WEDNESDAY, MAY 9.

Electrochemistry. By F. M. P.
SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 8.- Bridge Building by Means of Caissons, including The Vanishing East. By Archibald R. Colquhoun. rii
Remarks upon Compressed Air Illness: Prof. Thomas Oliver.

Elementary Mathematics
GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.--The Eruption of Vesuvius in April, 1906 : Tropical Medicine. By Dr. J. w. w. Stephens

Prof. Giuseppe de Lorenzo.-The Ordovician Rocks of Western Caer.
marthenshire : D. C. Evans.

Progressive Teaching in Physiology. By W. D. H..

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