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NEW SCIENCE SERIES.

Messrs. J. M. Dent & Co. have pleasure in announcing a new series of books, interesting to every reader of “Nature." The series deals with the Lives and Works of famous

English scientists, and is entitled

ENGLISH MEN OF SCIENCE

Edited by Dr. J. REYNOLDS GREEN. Cloth, 2s, 6d. net per volume. With Photogravure

Frontispiece. FIRST VOLUME. NOW READY. HERBERT SPENCER

By J. ARTHUR THOMSON, M.A. A short account (284 pages) of his life, an appreciation of his characteristics and a statement of some of the services he rendered to science.

"After the great Autobiography there is no book in the language wbic gives a better conception of the philosopher and his work, or pives it more pleasantly."- Birmingham Post.

READY THIS WEEK. JOSEPH PRIESTLEY.

By Dr. THORPE, C.B., F.R.S.

Further Volumes in Preparation. HUXLEY. By Prof. AINSWORTH Davis. FLOWER. By R. LYDERKER, F.R.S.

BENTHAM. By B. DAYDON JACKSON, F.L.S. J. M. DENT & CO., 29 Bedford St., London, W.C.

IMPORTANT NEW BOOKS

From ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE'S List. PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.

By I. P. Morat. Translated and Edited by H. W. Syers, M.A.,
M.D. Cantab., Physician to the Great Norihern Central Hospital

With 263 Illustrations, Plain and in Colours. Demy 8vo. 315. 6d. net LECTURES ON TROPICAL DISEASES. By Sir

Patrick Manson, K.C.M.G., M.D., LL.D. (Aber.), F.R.C.P. Wich

many Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 78. 6d. net. Journal of Tropical Medicine. -"Every medical man interested in tropi. cal medicine will welcome this volume. ... The book will remain a classic long after many of the subjects it deals with are further elucidated." ON LEPROSY AND FISH-EATING. By JONATHAN HUTCHINSON, F.R.S., LL.D., F.R.C.S.

This work comprises statements as to the History of Lepr_sy, its nature, its prevalence in different countries, and the conditions under which it has disappeared

from many. Fully Illustrated. Demy Svo 125. 6d. net. THE EUAHLAYI TRIBE: A Study of Abor.

iginal Life in Australia. By Mrs. LANGLOH PARKER. With an Intro

duction by ANDREW LANG. With Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 7s.6d. net. Nature says :-"Boch for the anthropologist who wants well-sifted and trustworthy material and for the ordinary reader who would like to know something about the life of the native Australian, this is a most useful book. There is no other work on the Australians which gives anything like so good a general view; it is clear of superfluous technicalities, eminently readable, and written with so much sympathy that we cease to be surprised at the success of the writer."

Folk Lore says :-"Every anthropologist who studies the work will be grateful for the valuable information she has put together." TUNNEL SHIELDS AND THE USE OF COM.

PRESSED AIR IN SUBAQUEOUS WORKS. By William
CHARLES COPPERTHWAITE, M.Inst.C.E., Bridges Engineer of the
London County Council, sometime Resident Engineer of the Central
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Illustrations and Diagrams. Crown 4to. Price 31s. 6d. net. MODERN TUNNEL PRACTICE, Illustrated

by Examples Taken from Actual Recent Work in Europe and America. By D. MCN. STAUFFER, M. Inst.C.E. Demy 8vo. Price 215. net.

A NEW AND VERY IMPORTANT SERIES : TECHNICAL DICTIONARIES in Six Languages. ENGLISH. GERMAN

FRENCH.
SPANISH. RUSSIAN

ITALIAN.
With many Illustrations, Formulæ, &c.
The following Volumes are in Preparation :
l'olume I.

Volume VI.
THE ELEMENTS OF MACHIN- SMALL TOOLS AND MACHINE

ERY and the Must Frequent TOOLS.
Tools used in working Meial and

l'olume III.
Wood.
l'olume II.

RAILWAY AND RAILWAY

ENGINE CONSTRUCTION. ELECTRICAL PLANTS and the Transmission of Power Electrical

l'olume VIII. Machinery and an Appendix deal- STRUCTURAL IRONWORK, ing with Electric Tramways.

BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION, l'olume III.

etc.

l'olume IX STEAM BOILERS AND STEAM ENGINES.

METALLURGY. l'olume II.

l'olume X HYDRAULIC MACHINERY.

ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, l'olume I'.

etc. HOISTING AND CONVEYING

I'olume X1. MACHINERY.

NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, etc.

NOW READY. l'ol. 1.-THE ELEMENTS OF MACHINERY and the Most Frequent

Tools used in working Metal and Wood.
Price 55. net, Cloth ; 78. 6d. net, Leather, per volume.
THE SEVEN FOLLIES OF SCIENCE: A Popu-

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Attempts which have been made to Solve Them, to which is added a
Small Budget of Interesting Paradoxes, Illusions and Marvels. By
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numerous Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 55. net. MECKANICAL APPLIANCES, MECHANICAL

MOVEMENTS AND NOVELTIES OF CONSTRUCTION. An Encyclopedia of Mechanical Movements and Mechanical Appliances, including many Novelties of Construction used in the practical opera. tion of the Arts, Manufactures, and in Engineering. For Engineers, Draughtsmen, Inventors, Patent Attorneys and all others interested in Mechanical Operations. By GARDNER D). HiscoX, M.E., Author of

Gas, Gasolene, and Oil Engines, " &c. 400 pages. 'About 1000 Illus.

trations. 125. od. net MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS, POWERS, DE

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ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & Co., Ltd., 16 James St., Haymarket,

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Lecture Tables,
Chemical Benches,

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LIVING SPECIMENS FOR

THE MICROSCOPE. Volvox, Spirogyra, Desmids, Diatoms, Amoeba, Arcella, Actinospbærium, Vorticella, Stentor, Hydra, Floscularia, Stephanoceros, Melicerta, and many other specimens of Pond Life. Price is. per Tube, Post Free. Helix pomatia, Astacus, Ampbioxus, Rana, Anodon, &c., for Dissection purposes.

THOMAS BOLTON, 25 BALSALL HEATH ROAD, BIRMINGHAM.

BECKER,
Hatton Wall,
LONDON.

MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.

THE LABORATORY, PLYMOUTH, The following animals can always be supplied, either living or preserved by the best methods :

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For prices and more detailed lists apply to
Biological Laboratory, Plymouth.

THE DIRECTOR.

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THE IRISH NATURALIST.
A Monthly Magazine of Irish Zoology, Botany, and

Geology. Price 6d.
Edited by GEO. H. CARPENTER, B.Sc., and R. LLOYD

PRAEGER, B.A.
Annual Subscription, 5s. Post Free to any Address.
Dublin : EASON & SON, LTD., 40 Lower Sackville Street

(to which Address Subscriptions should be sent).
Lo idon : SIMPKIN,MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO., Lid

NOW READY.

A HANDBOOK OF BRITISH INLAND BIRDS.

By ANTHONY COLLETT. With Coloured and Outline Plates of Eggs by ERIC PARKER. Crown 8vo. 65.

T HE SO HOOL W ORL D.

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF EDUCATIONAL WORK AND PROGRESS.
SixPENCE MONTHLY. YEARLY VOLUME 7s, 6d. Net.

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS FOR MAY.
The Education Bill, 1906.-The Principles of Promotion. By J. L. Paton, M.A.-Is School Science Worth Having?
By Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.-The Phonograph in the Class-room. (Illustrated.) By W. H. D.
Rouse, Litt.D. - Accidents in Chemical Laboratories. By R. L. Taylor, F.I.C.-

George Buchanan as an Educationist. By William Murison, M. A.-Sports without Prizes. By Arthur Pickles, A.R.C.Sc. - Cambridge Local Examinations, 1905. Hints for Teachers from the Examiners' Reports.—The Inspection of Secondary Schools. By the Rev. Arthur J. Cooper, LL.D., M. A., B.Sc.-New Science Rooms at Cheltenham Grammar School. (Illustrated.). A Contribution to the Geography of the Spanish Armada. (Illustrated.). --Correspondence : Equipment for Shooting in Schools. By H. W. Cousins, M.Sc.-Solubility Curves-a School Laboratory Experiment. By Hugh Richardson, M.A. National League of Workers with Buys. By Chas. E. B. Russell and J. H. Whitehouse. —Sir Edwin Cornwall on the Role of the City. By A Lover of Historical Truth.–Production of Artificial Speech Sounds. By W. H. D. Rouse, Litt. D.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. WATKINS & DONCASTER,

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Naturalists and Manufacturers of Our New Catalogue, XIX., with many illustrations, has just come out (post free on application).

CABINETS AND APPARATUS The following are included :

FOR ENTOMOLOGY. BIRDS' EGGS AND SKINS, AND ALL

BRANCHES OF NATURAL HISTORY. 1. New Collection of 416 Crystal-models of wood, containing all the crystal forms and combinations represented by illustrations in the

SPECIAL SHOW-ROOM FOR CABINETS. ab ed. of the "Physikalische Kristallographie," by Prof. P. Giroh (1995) at Munich

£27 10 0

N.B.-For Excellence and Superiority of Cabinets and Apparatus, refer. 2. Large Collection of 916 Crystal-models of wood to illustrate

ences are permitted to distinguished patrons, Museums, Colleges, &c. the arystal forms of the minerals, by Prof. C. Hintze at Breslau.

A LARGE STOCK OF INSECTS, BIRDS' EUGS AND SKINS.

£90 00 SPECIALITY.-Objects for Nature Study, Drawing 3. New Collection of 8 Trigonal-Glass-models of Calcite, with!

Classes, &c. the crystallographic axes according to Bravais (Weiss) and with the

Birds, Mammals, &c., Preserved and Mounted by First-class axes according to Miller, constructed by Prof. J. Beckenkamp at Wurzburg ...

Workmen true to Nature. £1 15 0

All Books and Publications on Natural History supplied. 4. New Collection of 450 Crystal-models of pasteboard, sys. tematically arranged according to the 32 classes of symmetry. by

36 STRAND, LONDON, W.C. Prof. K. Vyba at Prague

£48 00

(Five Doors from Charing Cross.) 5. The Planes of Symmetry, 5 models constructed by Prof. K. Vrba at Prague

I CATALOGUE (102 pp.) POST FREE.

£5 15 0 & The Optical Wave Surfaces, 4 wire-models constructed by Prof. K. Vrba at Prague ...

£6 8 0 The Optical Indicatrix, 3 wire-models by Prof. K. Vrba at Prague

£2 5 0 The Sciodromes, 5 coloured plaster-models constructed by Prof. F.

SPECIAL SLIDES. USEFUL AND INTERESTING. Becke at Vienna

£5 0 0 Llanynynech Limestone, beautiful fossils (a unique specimen), 1/4. Oldham Stands for Crystal models, various constructions and in various Coal, showing spures, &c., 1/4. Volcanic Dust, Mt. Soufrière (1902), 1/1. sets.

Leaf Sections, 1. and L. Pineapple, 1/1. L. and T. Young Date Fruit,

D.S., 1/4. Section Leaf of Colissoot, showing atiachinent of Micro. Dr. F. KRANTZ,

Fungi, 1/1, Bud Lilium, all parts in situ, 1/7.

All Post Free. RHENISH MINERAL OFFICE, BONN-ON-RHINE, GERMANY.

R. G. MASON, 69 Clapham Park Rd., London, S.W. ESTABLISHED 1833.

MASON'S MICRO. MOUNTS.

Collections and Single Specimens of MINERALS, NATURAL CRYSTALS,

PRECIOUS STONES, ROCKS & FOSSILS. Cabinets, Geologists' Hammers, Card Trays, Glass Capped Boxes, Wood and Glass Models of Crystals and Precious

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CLARKE & PAGE, Specialists in Microscopy,

104 LEADENHALL STREET, LONDON.
SECOND-HAND MICROSCOPES.
Van Heurck (Watson), Monocular and Binocular bodies, &c, £20.
Edinburgh F.. Crouch Student, 2 oculars, 2 objectives, £4 10s.

Baker D.P.H., £6 6s. Johnson Student, £3. Also others
NEW LOW and MEDIUM POWER OBJECTIVES. Large aperture,

flat field, semi-apochromatic, corrected for Photography,
For MICRO-SLIDES (actual preparers) and all accessories, see New

Catalogue gratis. Enquiries invited.
I See “Nature," Jan. 4, '06, page 231.

NEW CATALOGUES POST FREE.

THOMAS D. RUSSELL, 78 Newgate Street, LONDON, E.C.

NOTICE OF REMOVAL. JAMES R. GREGORY & Co.,

MINERALOGISTS, &C., of KELSO PLACE, KENSINGTON, beg to announce that they have removed to more convenient

and commodious Premises at 139 FULHAM ROAD, SOUTH KENSINCTON, S.W.

Physical

Apparatus.

CALCIUM METAL

BECKER,
Hatton Wall,
LONDON.

98.6 We now supply as wire in 2 gauges, 1 and 2 millimeters.

ARMBRECHT, NELSON & Co., 71 & 73 Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, London, W.

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NOTICE.-Advertisements and business letters for NATURE should be addressed to the Publishers; Editorial Communications to the Editor. The telegraphic address of NATURB is “ Phusis," LONDON. SUBSCRIPTIONS TO " "NATURE."

CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS. £ s. d. TO ALL PLACES ABROAD:- ks. d.

£ s. d.

6 s. d. Yearly I 80 Yearly

*Three Lipes in Column

6 Quarter Page, or Half
Per Line after

a Column
O 14 6
Half-yearly

One Sixteenth Page,or Eighth Col. 10
Cautely

Halla Page, or a Columd 3
• 7 6
Quarterly

8 o One Eighth Page, or Quarter
Column
018 6 | Whole Page.

6 6
• The first line being in heavy type is charged for as Two Lines.
Cheques and Money Orders payable to MACMILLAN & Co., Limited.

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THE NEW MERCURY VAPOUR LAMP FOR X-RAY WORK

USE THE

FOR

ULTRA-VIOLET RAYS
Made of UVIOL GLASS for Physical and

Medical Purposes.
CURRENT CONSUMPTION ONLY 2 to 3 AMPERES per 300 C.P.

See Article in NATURE, Sept. 21, 1905, page 513.

TUDSBURY Pneumatic Electric Machine

THE

NEW VACUUM TUBE OSCILLOGRAPH.

No. 2. (GEHRCKE'S TYPE.)

This machine has cylinders 15 inches diameter and is, AN IDEALLY SIMPLE, EFFICIENT, AND CHEAP INSTRUMENT. in power, equal to an ordinary Wimshurst having 10 Will show High Potential Discharge Curves, such as

plates 28 inches diameter.
from Coils, Condensers, &c.
Price £2: 5:0

It will produce a good negative, through the thorax,
Ir Send for Descriptive Circular.

of the ribs and spinal column with an exposure of five

minutes, and will show the bones in various parts of LABORATORY RHEOSTATS.

the body distinctly, on the fluorescent screen, when a CHEAPEST AND MOST USEFUL FORM OF suitable tube is used. RESISTANCE FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON THE

MARKET.
To regulate PRESSURE and CURRENT, series or shunt,

SOLE AGENTS-
and a variety of other laboratory resistances.
Dr SUPPLEMENTARY LIST on request.

TOWNSON & MERCER. ISENTHAL & CO.,

85 MORTIMER STREET,
LONDON, W.

34 CAMOMILE STREET, Contractors to the Admiralty, War, India, & Colonial Offices, & c.

LONDON, E.C. THE

(PATENT APPLIED FOR).

FLOW” EXTRACTORS

A NEW PRISM BINOCULAR

THE STEREOSCOPIC COMPANY'S NEW “ PRISMA” BINOCULAR is undoubtedly the finest glass ever produced, and has approximately double the illumination of other glasses of equal magnification.

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A

B
THESE Simple Extractors are much more

effective than Soxhlets for many purposes, as the substance is kept covered by the solvent in use and a flow of clean solvent is continu. ously moving directly through the substance, whereby the extraction is greatly facilitated.

PRISMS CAN BE CLEANED BY THE USER. Price-A, 7/- doz. ; B, 8/- doz. C, Complete apparatus, with Condenser (Bur. gess's Patent), all stoppered together, 7/6.

Write for Całalogue No. 12B, Free from

THE
Sole Makers -

LONDON STEREOSCOPIC COMPANY, Scientific Glass Blowers

and Manufacturers of Chemical and

106 & 108 RECENT ST., W., or 54 CHEAPSIDE, Physical Apparatus,

LONDON, E.C. 148 HICH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C. CONTRACTORS TO H M. GOVERNMENT.

с Printed by Richard CLAY AND Sons, LIMITED, at 7 & 8 Bread Street Hill, Queen Victoria Street, in the City of London, and published by MACMILLAN

AND Co., LIMITED, a1 St. Martin's Street, London, W.C., and The MACMILLAN COMPANY, 66 Fifth Avenue, New York. — THURSDAY, May 3, 1906.

C. E. MÜLLER, ORME & CO., Ltd.,

.

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A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

To the solid ground
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye. - WORDS WORTII.
No. 1906, VOL. 741
THURSDAY, MAY 10. 1906

PRICE 15 CENTS
Registered as a Newspaper at the General Post Office.)

(All Rights are Reserved,
REYNOLDS & BRANSON, Ltd.,
Chemical and Scientific Instrument Makers to His Majesty's

Government (Indian, Home, and Colonial).
LABORATORY FURNISHERS and MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS.

GOOLD'S VORTEX PLATES.

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These are steel plates about 84" long and 4" wide, which when set in vibration by suitable generators show most interesting vibration figures and nodal vortices

Loose chains laid on the plates follow along the nodal lines and coll themselves up on the vortices.

As shown on Wednesday night at the Royal
Soelety's Soirée
These can be obtained only from

NEWTON & CO.,
Sorentific Instrument Makers to H.M. The King, H.R.H. The

Prince of Wales, and the Government, 3 FLEET STREET, LONDON, where they can be seen at work.

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CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL BENCH, illustrated above, as supplie
to National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, fitted for Gas, Water

and Electricity.
Catalogue of Chemical and Physical Apparatus, 350 pp. and 1200

Illustrations, free on application.
DESIGNS OF BENCHES AND FITTINGS TO SUIT ALL REQUIREMENTS.

14 COMMERCIAL STREET, LEEDS.

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PRACTICAL NOTES ON
TELEPHOTOGRAPHY.

Free on application to
R. & J. BECK, Ltd., 68 CORNHILL, LONDON.

38 HOLBORN VIADUCT, LONDON.

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