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This will be a handsome book, with letterpress by a capable ornithologist,"

says The Timesof THE BIRDS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS by Charles Stonham, F.R.C.S., C.M.G., of which I hare just issued the first part; and The Globereviewer says,

The present writer can remember no ornithological publication illustrated in colour that has excelled or even equalled in fidelity of detail and suggestion of life the beautiful drawings of L. M. Medland.

The work will contain orer 300 photogravures, one of which is reproduced above

reduced from a breadth of 8}". It will appear in 20 parts, of which the second will appear rarly in August, price 7/6 net (post free 7/10). A list of Subscribers will appear with the last part. Send for a prospectus with specimen illustration to any bookseller or to the publisher, E. GRANT RICHARDS, 7 Carlton Street,



MARINE WORK, HUNTING, &c. Illustrated Catalogue,"In," Post Free on Application.



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By the Author of THE CHEMISTRY OF CLAY-WORKING." CONTENTS :— The Materials used in Clay-working-Preparation of the Clay-Machinery—Transport, Conveyers, &c. - Drying and Driers-Engobing and Glazing-Setting or Charging-Kilns - Firing - Discharging, Sorting, Packing and Despatcbing-Defects-WasteTests, Analysis and Control --Appendices-Index.

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THURSDAY, JULY 12, 1906.

once have to proceed to formulate a theory if it were desired to carry out an experiment differing in type

from any in such a non-theoretical treatise. Without PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY APPLIED TO

a theory in advance there can be no such thing a. CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY.

intelligent experimentation; after experimentation, Cours de Chimie physique suivi d'Applications à la the theory must be adapted where necessary to ex

Chimie et à la Biologie. By Victor Henri. Cours perimental results, or, if necessary, a new theory libre professê à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris. formulated which will lead to further experimentation. Premier Fascicule. Pp. xii + 336 et seq. (Paris : It is therefore a relief to find that after the first A. Hermann, 1906.) Price 15 francs.

three chapters the author somewhat alters his plan, THIS volume forms a portion of the first part of a accepts the ionic theory, and speaks boldly of ions.

treatise on physical chemistry and its applications. Some of the aspects in which the ionic theory, as at to chemistry and biology, evidently intended for readers present held, fails to account for experimental facts commencing the specialised study of physical chem- are pointed out in the book, and those many experiistry, but possessing some considerable knowledge of mental observations which are accounted for, and chemistry and biology.

correlated, by the theory are justly held up for wellThe subjects described in the thirteen chapters of

deserved admiration. this first part are as follows :-General conditions of

The author is also to be congratulated upon not equilibrium in solutions; electrical conductivity of having too thoroughly carried out the intention exsolutions; ionic theory; conductivity in non-aqueous pressed in his preface of making the mathematics solutions; osmosis and osmotic pressure; diffusion; of physical chemistry problems easy for the noncryoscopy; vapour pressure and boiling-point of solu- mathematical reader. tions; absorption and solution; solubility and co- The authors who invent and perpetuate this style efficient of distribution in solution ; surface tension of mathematics made easy surely forget that a reader and viscosity of solutions; optical properties of solu- who has not a rudimentary notion of how to apply tions; electrical phenomena in solutions, study of the calculus probably has not learnt his more elegalvanic and concentration cells (incomplete).

mentary mathematics well enough to follow the soluThe general scheme of treatment which the author tion of their long and involved series and equations, outlines in his preface consists in describing in each

and if he ever did has probably forgotten it long case (1) the methods of measurement used in study- | ago, and therefore skips the proof and accepts the ing the particular phenomenon under consideration, conclusion much as he would have done had the (2) the experimental results obtained, and (3) the proof been given in the shorter way. hypotheses and general theories which make it pos- As stated above, anything which can be put or sible to connect together the experimental results and proven in mathematical symbols could also be equally also others obtained by different experimental methods. put or proven in ordinary words, provided patience This method of presenting experimental results apart and perseverance could be provided on the part of the from the theory which may have given birth to the author to write it, and of the reader laboriously to observations, or have formed a connecting link for wade through it; but when there is a better method, correlating them with other known facts, may be surely it is much better for the non-mathematical most philosophical, and occasionally most desirable, reader to accept his mathematics ready made for in order to impress upon the mind of the student him, or, if he objects to doing this, take up the that the observed facts exist apart from any theory, as study of mathematics a little longer and then turn has been most ably done by the present author, for to its applications. example, in chapters i., ii., and iii. of his treatise. It It is accordingly a relief to find that the author does the same time it can and does become a

not carry his threat of making mathematics easy too cumbrous and space-robbing form of description, and far, and employs the calculus where necessary. much beauty is lost by not placing the facts at once Regarding the subjects treated in the first part in the appropriate setting of the theory which lead so far as they are contained in the present volume, the mind to the planning of the experimental work it may be said that on the whole the style of treatwhich established the facts.

ment is most interesting, and the information usually It is no doubt quite possible that a mathematical full and carried well up to the present date. treatise might be written without the use of any Occasionally it would have been well, as the work symbols or any conventions of any type, or that a is obviously intended specially for biological students treatise on chemistry might be written consisting of

interested in physical chemistry, if the biological bare, dry experimental facts without any reference aspects had been treated at greater length, as, for to the atomic theory. Such treatises would be most example, in the section on the theory of indicators interesting as monuments of human perseverance on p. 110, and that on the study of the fluids of the and industry, and would be literary curiosities of the organism, p. 114; but it is possible that the author hi chest order; but it is questionable if they would may intend to return to these subjects at a later part be very intelligible, and certainly they would be very of the work. lengthy, and most unstimulating to the student or ! The descriptions of how to carry out experimental worker, who could not proceed a step further with work given in the volume are clearly intended to their aid alone in the way of advance, but would at enable the student to carry on experiments, for the



precautions to prevent experimental errors are often primarily to tectonic movements. When relief from given in considerable detail, as, for example, in regard pressure coines, the magma becomes fluid, and corto freezing-point determinations and conductivity rodes the surrounding rocks. The gases contained measurements; yet if this be the intention of these in it operate “like a blowpipe-flame." The results of descriptions they are singularly incomplete in other such corrosion are treated later (p. 116, &c.), and Dr. respects. For example, in describing the dete, nina- Doelter remarks, following Daly's recent papers, that tion of the freezing point the only thing said about basic lavas, coming quickly up broad cracks, reach the thermometer to be used is that it may have either us in a state of greater purity than acid ones, which a fixed or a variable zero. We venture to think that move more slowly, and have greater opportunities for some description of the Beckmann thermometer and affecting the walls that bound them. The acid masses the method of using it would have been of service “exhibit traces of the country-rocks, but not neceshere.

BENJAMIN Moore. sarily near the contact-zone, since, in the case of

deep-seated rocks, the absorbed fragments may

become distributed in the interior of the mass," THE MAKING OF ROCKS.

The author's remarks on the potency of mineralising Petrogenesis. By Dr. C. Doelter. Pp. xii + 262.

agents during the consolidation of igneous rocks are (Brunswick : Vieweg und Sohn, 1906.) Price 7

based upon his own well-known experiments. Mica

thus seems always to require the presence of fluorine. marks.

While water is the greatest mineraliser, we are reIN N this work, which would be valued highly for minded that we are not dealing with pure water in its references to current literature alone, the

the earth, but with water containing chlorides, hydroauthor brings together what is known as to the chloric acid, boric acid, and so forth (p. 24). Certain origin of various types of rocks. Its outlook is that

minerals decompose in their own products of fusion, of the mineralogist and not of the physical geo- and give rise to other minerals, or mere glass, on grapher; but this enables the author, though far too consolidation. In such cases, the crystalline conmodestly, to bring his researches on the construction

dition remains stable only at a lower temperature of minerals and rocks to bear upon broad geological than that of fusion, and the function of a mineraliser problems. As a treatise, the book is elementary and crystalliser" is to reduce the temperature at yet satisfying; in the series of which it forms a

which the substance crystallises out again. If the part, “ Sammlung naturwissenschaftlicher und mathe-right point is reached, the original mineral is rematischer Monographien,” it exactly fills its place covered in its crystalline form. Thus, in the muchas an exposition of prevalent, if not necessarily estab

debated case of quartz, the mineral, at ordinary preslished, views. Very often these views are subjected to

sure, will not separate from its product of fusion at criticism that shows how far we are from finality and temperatures above 950o. Below this temperature its conclusions; but the lucidity of discussion and absence crystals are stable. Above it they are unstable, of bias displayed by Dr. Doelter make us grateful to although their melting-point is not reached until him as a guide. The history of the struggle for the

1600° or 1700°. The common minerals that require Rhine in no way affects his scientific judgment; and

the help of mineralisers for their formation are albite, once again we feel that Austria holds the balance in the

orthoclase, quartz, garnet, haüyne, epidote, wollasgeological controversies of our time.

tonite, hornblende, and mica. Hence an acid crystalWhen we say that the book is elementary, we

line rock cannot arise without mineralisers, and the mean this in the best of senses. It goes to the root frequent presence of tourmaline, fluorspar, scheelite, of a question, and compels the reader to understand

and so forth, in granite, indicating boric acid, fluorine, it. As an example of the large amount of valuable matter that may be compressed into one paragraph, results of synthetic laboratory work.

tungstic acid, chlorides, &c., bears out in nature the we may take the following (p. 80), from a discussion

On p. 65 it is interestingly pointed out that the on differentiation in igneous magmas :

different items in the chemical analysis of a rock, as * Attempts have been made, as we have seen, to

written down, possess very different values, and that connect differentiation fundamentally with the exist- too large deductions must not be based on small differ. ence of magmas which will not mix with one another. ences in the quantities of magnesia, soda, or potash But this is an improbable supposition, since every stated to be present. Exactitude in these determinmagma can dissolve any other, as I have shown ex

ations is not obtainable with the same degree of perimentally. The solubility of one mineral in another depends only on the temperature; and at a temper

success as in the case of silica and alumina, and the ature varying with each case, the critical temperature

alkalies, unfortunately, usually appear

small of solution, the products of fusion are soluble in one numbers, in which the second place of decimals beanother. Experiment also proves

that no comes of importance for comparison. The American separation takes place in the fluids so long as they school, by the by, has made such headway that the are stirred; it occurs first as cooling goes on; where

word “ salisch" slips in naturally on p. 44. there is no movement, separation can take place according to specific gravity, even in the fluid state.”

We cannot dwell on all the important consider.

ations here put forward as to the processes that go The book opens with a discussion of the causes on during the cooling of igneous rocks. Among of fluidity of magmas within the earth, and their these, the description of “Unterkühlung" on p. 137 occasional appearance at the surface is attributed strikes us as of especial interest. The retention of





a mineral in a state of fusion below its ordinary the older editions, which dealt with thick-walled, melting-point may allow of the previous crystallis- hollow cylinders, has now been incorporated into ation of another, which cannot sustain such con-chap. V., which treats of the more difficult work on ditions, and thus the normal order of crystallisation stress and strain, and undoubtedly it follows more may be reversed. This fact is used to explain the naturally in this position after the discussion of the crystallisation of augite before the felspar in basic general equations of stress. rocks, which, in normal circumstances, so frequently In chap. vii., in dealing with the relation of the show ophitic structure.

neutral plane to the stress at any point in a beam, All through the book the influence of personal ex- Prof. Bovey has incorporated the results of his own periment remains manifest, and we must not com- experimental work, which was carried out with the plain if the genesis of the sedimentary rocks is treated view of determining within the limits of elasticity in a somewhat rapid fashion. Flints thus receive the changes of fibre length at different depths of a far less than their due (p. 232), considering how much beam when loaded transversely. In this chapter there they have been discussed. Guppy's observations on are also additional paragraphs dealing with the design silicified corals in the Fiji Islands raise, for instance, of reinforced concrete beams, the position of the new questions in themselves. But references to recent neutral axis, and the strength of such beams; adwork, such as Linck's on the separation of calcium ditional graphical methods are given for determining carbonate from sea-water, will lead the reader for- the slope and deflection in loaded beams, and in ward; and we turn back contentedly from these connection with the theory of continuous girders scantier pages to the fine account of the problems of fresh matter has been introduced. contact-metamorphism, and thank the author again In chap. viii., which deals with the theory and the and again for his clear and stimulating treatise. bending of struts, the results of the most recent ex

As is natural in so wide a field, we miss mention periments have been incorporated, and, as the chapter of some memorable work, such as that of Harker on has been rearranged, it is now much more useful to mixed rocks in the Inner Hebrides; on the other hand, engineers engaged in the difficult problem of strut we hail with delight the name of MacGregory (p. 31), design. In chap. ix. the stresses in non-circular who appears to be Prof. J. W. Gregory in the glory shafts are discussed, and there is also much new of a Scottish title. GRENVILLE A. J. COLE. matter in the paragraphs on the efficiency of shaft

ing and the whirling of shafting, and open coil

springs are dealt with, as well as the ordinary helical STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS.

springs. Chap. x., which is devoted to bridges, has

been entirely rewritten and greatly improved. Graphical Theory of Structures and Strength of Materials. By Prof. Henry T. Bovey. Fourth edition. Pp. xiii +

methods are used throughout for the determination 968. (New York : John Wiley and Sons; London :

of stresses in the piers, and the most recent types Chapman and Hall, 1905.) Price il. uis. 6d. net.

of bridges are discussed and explained. Excellent

tables are given of the loads upon, and the weights THIS THIS well-known text-book has been largely re

of, bridges, and several examples of fairly large written and enlarged for the present fourth

bridges are worked out in complete detail. This edition. In the preface Prof. Bovey states that a

chapter is now a most valuable one for those who number of fresh examples, mostly drawn from actual

are concerned with the design of bridges of all practice, have been added to the various chapters, and

classes, and the examples have been made thoroughly that all tables of strengths, elasticities, and weights

practical. We have no hesitation in saying that Prof. of materials have been brought up to date.

Bovey in thus practically rewriting his book has conIn chap. i. a description of Bow's method of nota

siderably improved its value both to the engineering tion is given, and the author has now adopted this

student and to the civil engineer engaged in the system throughout the book when dealing with

design of all classes of structures in steel and iron. stresses developed in framed structures. The treat

T. H. B. ment of the three-hinged braced arch for station roofs and for sheds of wide span is a new piece of work in this chapter. In chap. ii. there is a new

RATIONAL DURYING. series of paragraphs dealing with the graphical determination of the maximum bending moment at any

Dairy Chemistry. By Harry Snyder. Pp. x+ 190. point of an arbitrarily loaded girder, and several

(London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.; New York : examples illustrating the author's methods are worked

The Macmillan Co., 1906.) Price 4s. 6d, net. out in full. Chap. iii. of the older editions has wisely ROF. SNYDER'S work as agricultural chemist been broken up into two chapters, one (chap. jii.) in the University of Minnesota is well known. dealing with momentum, energy, and balancing, and This State, with a population less than that of Kent the other (chap. iv.) with stress. strain, and elas- and Essex, possesses a University Agricultural Deticity. In the older editions this chapter was a very partment in which are 800 students most of whom difficult one for the student to follow, and the author, are attending a three years' course. The majority in writing and dividing it, has brought the various are students who during the summer months have to steps of the work into their true relation one with the work for a living, and at the close of their academic other. The whole of the material in chap. x. of training return to rural employment. Thus Min


if we

nesota, in common with other States of the Middle

OUR BOOK SHELF. West, is year by year producing an army of workers who have learnt to base their work on scientific Gedanken über Vererbung: Dr. Alexander Petrunkeprinciples and to look to the results of scientific re- witsch. Pp. 83. (Freiburg, i. B.: Speyer and

Kaerner, 1904.) Price 1.80 marks. search for the future development of their industry.

The success of the American agricultural colleges The author thinks that clearness is gained if we regard in turning out trained craftsmen (they are not, per- the organism as a continually changing mechanical haps, equally successful in producing highly-trained system with a life-cycle extending from the arbitrarily scientific experts) is to be traced to the intimate asso

chosen moment of oogenesis to the post-mortem death ciation of the practical and the scientific teaching, character is the result of a reaction of the system to

of the last scrap of decaying tissue. An acquired On the one hand science is taught, but the mind of external influences, and presupposes a definite heritthe student is constantly being directed to its in- able structure capable of reacting, so that there is dustrial applications; on the other hand the industry no sharp boundary between acquired and inherited is taught, but with constant reference to underlying characters. What is called a heritable character may scientific principles. Prof. Snyder's book is a capital concept of heredity strictly applies only to the germ

be due to a coincidence of successive reactions. The example of the method of industrial teaching. It is cells; it is simply “the process which leads to the a text-book of dairying, but there is no rule-of- formation of germ-cells whose structure is the same thumb; an appeal is made to reason; processes are as or like the parental germ-cells." Development is advocated because found by experiment to be sound;

the expression of this structure, and the formative the impression left on the student's mind is, “ This

causes of development lie in the relation between the

system and its environment. An animate system can is the best to-day; there may be a better to-morrow."

only exist in definite conditions, which can only To take from the book two examples of the effect oscillate within definite limits. Life is an adjusi. of this method of training on industrial develop- ment between the amplitudes of variation in the ment:—The advantages of the cold curing of Cheddar animate system and in the environment, and involves cheese were established by Babcock and Russell at

a progressive limitation of the organismal variability.

Those variations the causes of which lie in the osthe Wisconsin Experiment Station. It is a rational

cillations of the germ-cell structure may be called process based on recent investigations on the action

gametogenous or endogenous as contrasted with ex. of the natural enzymes in milk. The results were ogenous variations (modifications) which are acquired only published in 1901, but already cold-curing fac- in the course of life. This distinction will hold even tories have risen throughout Ontario and the cheese

abandon the theory of the continuity of producing States of the Union, showing a readiness to

the germ-plasm, and simply suppose that the germaccept the results of scientific investigation, although have attained the same structure as the parental germ

cells are those cells which through chemical reactions involving a large capital outlay, to which it is diffi

cells. When this sameness is not attained variations cult to find a parallel in British agriculture. As the result, the amplitude of which may be trivial or fatal, second illustration, take the percentage of fat and total or it may be that a new pattern of system results solids in milk, 31 and 12 respectively, enforced as

which we call a mutation. So far as we can see, the the legal standard in Minnesota. To obtain such

author simply re-states familiar facts and ideas in

a slightly novel way, and we do not share his conmilk, cattle must be bred up to this high standard.

fidence that clearness is gained by so doing. The agricultural community is far-sighted enough

J. A. T. to see that, although it may involve hardship on individuals, the high standard is an advantage to a Giordano Bruno. In Memoriam of the 17th February, State where butter and cheese production is an im- 1600. By Alois Riehl. Translated by Agnes Fry. portant industry.

Pp. 112. (Edinburgh and London : T. N. Foulis, The book should prove almost as useful to dairy

1905.) Price 2s. 6d. net. men in this country as in America. There are few The life of Giordano Bruno is not altogether unAmericanisms either in spelling or phraseology, and familiar to readers of reviews in NATURE. A larger throughout there is an insistence on the importance

volume on this subject was reviewed about two years of proper hygienic conditions in dairying, with several

ago (March 31, 1904, vol. lxix., p. 505). Still earlier,

in May, 1900, the original of the present translation useful suggestions as to how cleanliness can be

was reviewed, and the reviewer expressed the wish secured, which should be invaluable, for it is on account that Prof. Alois Riehl's essay could be presented in of the neglect of such conditions in this country that English. This suggestion has led to the appearance dairymen's troubles are generally due. The method of of the present volume. calculating dividends in dairying is also worthy of

The first account of Giordano Bruno coming from particular attention here. There are,

the pen of Prof. Alois Riehl dates from 1889. the unfortunately,

year in which the present monument was erected a few misprints and inaccuracies, together with curious

to Bruno on the site of his martyrdom. The terrepetitions of the same statements, suggesting that the centenary of Bruno's death on February 17. 1900, book has been edited from lecture notes compiled in formed the occasion for a second edition, in which card-catalogue form. As usual in American works, the account of Bruno's philosophy was revised. Withthe whole of the nitrogen compounds in foods are con

out entering into minute detail, the present trans

lation bears the impress of being a good one, and sidered as proteids. The bibliography containing re

when the small size of the book is taken into account ferences to American, German, and British scientific

the description of Bruno's life will be found to be papers is an excellent feature.

T. S. D. as full and complete as could be possibly expected.

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