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Chemical Society, June 21.-Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., president, in the chair.-The Cleve memorial lecture: Prof. T. E. Thorpe.--The constituents of the essential oil from the fruit of Pittosporum undulatum: F. B. Power and F. Tutin. The results show that the oil contains d-pinene, d-limonene, esters of valeric, formic and other acids, a sesquiterpene, palmitic acid, and a phenol.-Mobility of substituents in derivatives of B-naphthol J. T. Hewitt and H. V. Mitchell.-The decomposition of nitrocellulose: O. Silberrad and R. C. Farmer. The decomposition products are ethyl nitrate, ethyl nitrite, ethyl alcohol, nitric and nitrous acids, ammonia, formic, acetic, butyric, dihydroxybutyric, oxalic, tartaric, isosaccharinic, and hydroxypyruvic acids. Carbohydrates were also present. Note on gunpowder and bullets made about 1641, recently discovered in Durham Castle: O. Silberrad and W. S, Simpson, The gunpowder was found to approximate closely in composition to the black powder now used in this 'country. The ingredients had been merely ground and mixed together. It seems probable that this powder was of Prussian origin. The constitution of acetone : Miss M. Taylor. The results prove that acetone does not behave either towards sodium or Grignard's reagent as isopropenyl alcohol, CH,.C(OH): CH,.-Diazo-derivatives of the mixed aliphatic aromatic w-benzene-sulphonylaminobenzyl amines G. T. Morgan and Miss F. M. G. Micklethwait.-Influerice of substitution on the formation of diazoamines and aminoazo-compounds, part v.-s-Dimethyl4 6-diamino-m-xylene: G. T. Morgan and A. Clayton. -Improved apparatus for the determination of molecular weights P. Blackman.


Linnean Society, June 21.-Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair.-A contribution to the botany of southern Rhodesia: Miss L. S. Gibbs. The collections on which the report was based were obtained in August to October, 1905, at the end of the dry season. The air is dry and the sun's rays very strong, temperature from 80° to 90°, so that the country presented a burnt-up aspect, and the trees were bare, except a few evergreens. The veld is systematically burnt, to promote young growth for cattle-food, to the detriment or destruction of trees and shrubs. Distribution of species is wide, and the present paper tends to a confirmation, with many new records. Twenty-three new species are described, amongst the more interesting being the grass Erianthus teretifolius, Stapf, and a characteristic Elephantorhiza.-The authentic portraits of Linnæus: W. Carruthers. The author recalled the fact that in 1889 he made the subject the chief topic of his address at the anniversary meeting on May 24 of that year; he subsequently visited Sweden, Germany, and the Netherlands to inspect the originals, and read a paper detailing his results at the general meeting held November 19, 1891; a transcript of his remarks had been prepared, but did not satisfy him, and nothing was published. The approaching bicentenary celebration of the birthday of Linnæus, for which the Swedes have been making extensive preparations, had induced him to revise his old transcript, and add some recently ascertained facts, which he now submitted to the society.-Plantæ novæ Daweane in Uganda lectæ : Dr. Otto Stapf. Mr. M. T. Dawe, officer in charge of the Forestry and Scientific Department of the Uganda Protectorate, made an expedition from Entebbe, through Buddu and the western and Nile provinces of that territory. His collections were transmitted from time to time to Kew, and his report was issued as a Blue-book (1906, Cd. 2904) last April; it gave an account of his journey, with some rough illustrations of specially noteworthy plants. Much new light is thrown on distribution, and new species are described, amongst them the new genus of Rutacea, Balsamocitrus, Stapf, and a new species of Warburgia (Canellaceae). appendix, Mr. Dawe gives a summary of his report on the vegetation of the country traversed.-The genitalia of Diptera: J. Hopkinson. The structure of bamboo leaves : Sir Dietrich Brandis.

As an

Physical Society, June 22.-Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S., president, in the chair.-The effect of radium in facilitating the visible electric discharge in vacuo: 5. A. C. Swinton.

It has been shown by Edison, Fleming, and others that the passage of the electric discharge in vacuo is much facilitated by heating the kathode. More recently it has been shown that the passage of the discharge is still further facilitated by coating the heated kathode with oxides of the alkaline metals. It is generally held that the efficacy of the hot oxides in this direction is due to their giving off negatively-charged ions or corpuscles. The author therefore decided to ascertain whether similar effects could be obtained by painting the kathode with radium, and as radium gives off corpuscles when cold, it was anticipated that it might not be necessary to heat the kathode. Using a continuous current up to 400 volts pressure, this was found not to be the case, the radium having no appreciable effect in producing a visible discharge. When the radium-coated kathode was heated to redness, the radium was found to have a very marked action in facilitating the production of a luminous discharge. Experiments were made which proved that the mere presence of radium in the tube was insufficient to produce the effect, and, furthermore, it was found that the tube would only allow visible discharges to pass in the direction that made the radium-treated electrode the kathode, the tube acting as a unidirectional valve in the same way as do tubes with kathodes coated with oxides.-The effect of the electric spark on the actinity of metals: T. A. Vaughton. It has been pointed out by several observers that some metals. such as aluminium, cadmium, zinc, magnesium, &c.. although not radio-active in the ordinary sense of the word, yet have the power of affecting a photographic plate. The electric spark has a remarkable influence on this "actinity," in some cases causing an increase, and in others apparently diminishing it. The alteration is not merely momentary, but remains for months. It is, however, quite superficial, and may be removed by slightly rubbing the surface of the metal with emery-paper. In the case of aluminium sparked with gold, the direction of the current does not make much difference in the actinity of the sparked plate, but in the case of other couples the difference is very marked. For example, if a cadmium strip is sparked with antimony, the cadmium being connected with the positive terminal, the cadmium becomes very active photographically, not only on the spot sparked. but all over its surface. If, however, the cadmium is connected with the negative terminal and sparked with a positive terminal of antimony, the cadmium remains very slightly more active than if not sparked at all.-The dielectric strength of thin liquid films: Dr. P. E. Shaw. The range of voltage used in the experiments is from 25 to 400, and the corresponding spark-lengths vary from about 0.15 to б.0 μ (μ=0.001 mm.) for the insulating liquids used. The apparatus employed for measuring length is the micrometer designed by the author for measuring gauges (Proc. Roy. Soc., April). The substances used were olive oil, castor oil, linseed oil, rape oil. turpentine, fusel oil, oil of resin, cod-liver oil, neat's-foot oil, paraffin, transformer oil, the homologous series CH, CH, CH, CH,,, and armacell, ohmaline and Sterling varnishes. The best insulators are paraffin and transformer oil, though for these, as for all commercial oils, great care was taken to remove water and acid by prolonged heating to 110° C., and treating with potassium carbonate. No simple connection can be traced between specific inductive capacity and dielectric strength.-The effect of electrical oscillations on iron in a magnetic field: Dr. W. H. Eccles. In attempting to make precise measurements of the effect of high-frequency oscillations on iron held magnetised by a magnetic field, two main difficulties are met. The one is that arising from the fact that the oscillatory currents induced on the surface of the iron investigated shield the inner layers, and thus make the mass of iron affected a variable quantity. The other difficulty arises in the matter of producing oscillations of determinate and invariable character. The author has endeavoured to meet the first difficulty by using oscillations so feeble that they affected only the outermost lavers of the iron wires employed, and these even only slightly. The second difficulty has been met by using the oscillations produced in an open insulated solenoid by a single small measurable spark passed to one end of the solenoid.



Royal Society, June 18.-Dr. Munro, vice-president, in the chair.-A study of the dietaries of students' residences in Edinburgh: Dr. Isabella Cameron. The objects of the investigation were to compare the dietary of the middle classes with that of the working classes, which had already been carefully studied, to ascertain how far this diet conformed to the various standard diets, and to investigate

the question of the reduction of cost through combination. I he dietaries of four men's residences and one women's

residency were studied for one week, which was equivalent to 1129 men for one day. The average amount consumed per man per diem was:-proteids, 143 grams; fats, 138 grams; carbohydrates, 511 grams; fuel value, 3973 calories. The expenditure came to fully is. 2d. per day per man, nearly double the cost of the average labouring man's diet. When compared with similar institutions in America, the Edinburgh residences were found to consume more proteid and carbohydrate, but less fat. There was also less waste. The theory of epidemics: Dr. John Brownlee. The growth and decay of an epidemic seemed to depend on the acquisition of a high degree of infectivity at the start, this infectivity being then lost at a rate expressible mathematically as an exponential. This truth was realised by Dr. Farr, but the subject did not seem to have been pursued with any definite scientific aim. Dr. Brownlee had subjected various epidemic statistics to mathematical analysis, and had found that the curves representing their growth and decay could be well represented by Prof. Karl Pearson's curve of type iv. The correspondence was very close, except in the neighbourhood of the vertex. The general conclusion was that the condition of the germ had much more to do with the causation of an epidemic than the constitutional peculiarity of the persons affected at the moment. There was no evidence in favour of the idea that the epidemic ended because of the lack of susceptible persons. The plant remains in the Scottish peat mosses, part ii. Francis J. Lewis. This part had to do with the Scottish Highlands, the preceding part having discussed the peats of the Lowland Uplands. These Highland peat mosses began later than the Lowland mosses, and did not show the intercalated Arctic condition after the retreat of the ice-sheet. The bottom layers in the mosses in Caithness and Inverness had Arctic plants, but these were lacking in the Skye mosses, which accordingly were shown to have begun still later. The succession of layers was broadly similar to the succession already made out in the Lowland mosses, but in the Highland peats of recent age there were two distinct dry woodland mosses full of trunks of Pinus sylvestris, separated by a layer of sphagnum moss. The peat deposits over Scotland thus showed a definite succession of changes which could be correlated with the later stages of the Glacial epoch.


Academy of Sciences, June 25.-M. H. Poincaré in the chair. The formation of endothermic compounds at high temperatures: M. Berthelot. According to the current thermodynamical theories, endothermic compounds can be formed and are stable at high temperatures. The author criticises the experimental observations adduced in support of this view, and concludes that no exact observation has been brought forward establishing, either in principle or in fact, that very high temperatures can cause a reversal of chemiral affinity by directly forming endothermic compounds by simple heating.-The generalised problem of Dirichlet and Fredholm's equation: Emile Picard.-The radio-activity of gases evolved from the water of thermal springs: P. Curie and A. Laborde. The data given in a previous paper are corrected, and some additional determinations given for some new springs.-The action of steam upon sulphides at a red heat. The production of native metals: Armand Gautier. The sulphides of iron give rise to magnetic iron oxide, sulphuretted hydrogen and hydrogen. In the case of lead sulphide, taken as a type of the sulphide of a metal which does not decompose water, the primary products would appear to be lead, sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphur dioxide, the two latter substances reacting to give free sulphur. Copper sulphide gave copper, sulphur dioxide, and

hydrogen. These experimental facts are applied to the consideration of volcanic phenomena.-The condensation of BB-dimethylglycidic ester with sodio-malonic ester. Syntheses of terebic and pyroterebic acids: A. Haller and G. Blanc. Dimethyl-glycidic ester, heated on the water bath with olide-4, and this, boiled with hydrochloric acid, gives terebic sodio-malonic ester, gives 4-methyl-2: 3-dicarboxyl-pentanacid, the latter being characterised by its conversion into

isocaprolactone and pyroterebic acid. The external work created by the statical and dynamical actions of the internal work of the motor muscle: A. Chauveau.-The treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis by serotherapy: MM. Lannelongue, Achard, and Gaillard. The identification of pathogenic Trypanosomes: attempts at diagnosis: A. Laveran and F. Mesnil. The serum of an animal which frequently possesses to a high degree specific properties has acquired immunity against a particular trypanosome which can be utilised for the identification of trypanosomes. The authors give a detailed account of experiments made in this connection, and show that the application of this method is not without difficulties.-The indication for the anti-tuberculous vaccination of young ruminants by the alimentary canal: S. Arloing. Details of experiments on young goats are given from which the author concludes that complete immunisation can be effected by the aid of human or bovine tubercle bacilli, suitably modified, introduced into the alimentary canal.-M. Gernez was elected a member in the section of physics in the place of the late M. Pierre Curie.-The deformation of certain tetrahedral surfaces G. Tzitzéica.-A theorem of algebraic surfaces of the nth order: G. B. Guccia.-Differential equations of the second order and first degree the general integral of which is uniform: M. Gambier.-Diminution of velocity and change of trim of ships by the reflex action of water on the bottom: E. Fournier.-A simplified study of the effects of capacity of alternating current cables : A. Blondel.-Interferential photography: the variation of the incidence polarised light: M. Ponsot.-An arrangement permitting of placing simultaneously several prisms in the position of minimum deviation: P. Lambert.-A simple method for the study of the movements of metallic vapours in the oscillating spark: G. A. Hemsalech, The sparks are blown on one side by a current of air of known velocity, resulting in curved lines in the spectrum, from measurements of which the tangential velocities of the metallic vapours can be determined.-The methods of photographing the absorption lines of the colouring matters of the blood: Louis Lewin, A. Miethe, and E. Stenger. Details of the apparatus used are given. The present note contains no results. The heat of formation of carbonyl-hydroferrocyanic acid J. A. Muller. The heat of combustion, determined in the calorimetric bomb, was 3444 calories per gram, from which the heat of formation was calculated as - 122 cal. The kathodic phosphorescence of europium diluted with lime. Study of the ternary system lime-gadolina-europia: G. Urbain. The refractive index of substances dissolved in other solvents than water: C. Chéneveau. Results are given for solutions of lithium chloride in water, methyl and ethyl alcohols, and in glycerol.The variations in state undergone by amorphous carbon under the influence of a sudden variation of temperature: O. Manville. The variation in state was measured by the alteration in the temperature at which the carbon commenced to give carbon dioxide in a current of oxygen.-The double sulphate of iridium and potassium, Ir,(SO1),. 3K,SO, Marcel Delépine. The properties of the substances formed by the action of hydrochloric acid upon certain metallic silicides: M. Boudouard. These substances contain hydrogen, and may be regarded as mixtures in variable proportions of silicoformic anhydride and silico-oxalic hydrate.-The crystallography of iron: F. Osmond and G. Cartaud.-The action of oxygen on rubidium-ammonia : E. Rengade. The three metals potassium, cæsium, and rubidium, dissolved in liquid ammonia, give in presence of oxygen a white dioxide and a yellow tetroxide. Potassium and cæsium give in addition a dark trioxide, but there is no evidence of the formation of an analogous oxide of rubidium.--Researches on the pyrazolones: new methods of synthesis: Ch. Moureu and J. Lazennec. The reaction between the arylpropiolic esters and hydrazine, forming

pyrazolones has been extended to the alkylpropiolic esters. The pyrazolones can also be obtained when the ester is replaced by the amide or by the B-oxyalkylacrylic esters obtained from the acetylene compounds by a method described in a previous paper. The theory of the reactions is discussed.-Phenyl migrations in the halohydrins and in the a-glycols: M. Tiffeneau.—Cinnamenyl-paraconic acid : J. Bougault.-Researches on the relations of functional groups in distant positions: cyclic amines: E. E. Blaise and M. Houillon. Octamethylene diamine chlorhydrate gives by the action of heat an unsaturated hydrocarbon and a secondary cyclic base. This has been proved to be identical with a synthetically prepared specimen of butylpyrrolidene. -The basicity of the xanthyl oxygen: R. Fosse and L. Lesage. A description of a series of double salts, of which xanthyl-lead bromide, CH(C ̧H ̧),O.Br+2PbBг,, may be given as a type. The production of Ascidia by traumatisms: L. Blaringhem.-The origin of the materials utilised by the ovary: Jean Friedel. The assimilating power possessed by the green carpels of many plants is well known. From experiments on Ranunculus acris the author concludes that the ovary utilises both its own products of assimilation and the reserves of the peduncle. If the conditions in which it is placed suppress one of these two modes of nutrition, the ovary can arrive at complete development from the other. The longevity of seeds: Paul Becquerel. Experiments were carried out on 550 species belonging to fifty families, the age of which varied from twenty-five to 135 years. The only seeds preserving their vitality for more than eighty years were those protected by a thick skin and possessing slightly oxidisable reserves.-A disease of the plane tree due to Gnomonia veneta : J. Beauverie. Some new Madagascan Asclepiadaceae producing caoutchouc; J. Costantin and I. Gallaud.-The biology of the Virgularia: Ch. Gravier.-A new form of operculated Cirripede, Pyrgopsis Annandalei : A. Gruvel. Prehistoric remains in the neighbourhood of Kayes, Soudan: Fr. de Zeltner. The deposits of stone instruments are large, and formed out of rocks still existing in the district. The instruments cannot be classified with any of the usual European types, are highly polished, and show considerable skill in their manufacture. It is impossible at present to fix their age.-A method of isolating the hæmatablasts of the blood in a state of purity: L. Le Sourd and Ph. Pagniez.-Researches on animal electricity: MM. Girard and Victor Henri. The role of the cellular elements in the transformation of certain carbohydrates by the intestinal juice H. Bierry and A. Frouin.-The problem of statical work: Ernest Solvay. A criticism on a paper of M. Chauveau on the same subject.-The sensibility of the retina for luminous radiations: Milan Štefánik. Using a spectroscope with glass prisms and a suitable coloured screen the red end of the spectrum is visible with sufficient clearness for measuring the lines down to à 3830. The photographic results obtained by M. Millochau with the same apparatus give the same limit. It follows that the retina is sensible for all the radiations which pass the spectroscope.-The use of sodium chloride in the histological impregnation of tissues by silver: Ch. Achard and M. Aynaud. An experimental proof of the view recently put forward by M. Quinton that the results are due to the presence of sodium chloride in the intercellular spaces, the chloride of silver thus formed darkening in the light.-A method of detecting iron in living tissues: A. Mouneyrat. -Study of the transmissibility of tuberculosis by alimentary casein: Marcel Guédras. Food products for infants containing dried casein as a base may transmit tuberculosis. Casein dried at a low temperature may still contain the tubercle bacillus. The extension of the marine invasion of the upper Sparnacian in the neighbourhood of Paris Paul Combes, jun.-The existence of the Cretacean in the Oran schists: MM. Ficheur and Doumergue.The Yprés clays of the department of Aisne and the climatic conditions at the Lutetian epoch: Paul Fritel.— The trajectory of electric corpuscles in space under the influence of terrestrial magnetism, with applications to the aurora borealis and to magnetic disturbances: Carl Störmer. Two relief maps of Paringu and Soarbele (Southern Carpathians) executed from unpublished topographical sketches: E. de Martonne.


Asiatic Society of Bengal, June 6.-Indian meteorites recently acquired by the Geological Survey: L. L. Fermor. The crusts of some of them show interesting Blow-structures. (1) Notes on a rare Indo-Pacific barnacle. Remarks on Conchoderma hunteri, Owen, which the author, agreeing with Hoek, regards as a variety of C. virgatum (Spengler). (2) Contributions to Oriental herpetology. No. 4. Notes on the Indian tortoises. Remarks on some obscure species, with a list of the Indian Chelonia (3) Notes on the common Hydra of Bengal: Dr. N. Annandale. The systematic position of Hydra orientalis is discussed, with a description of its anatomy. As the result of two years' investigation, the author concludes that the species is dioecious, but that sexual reproduction plays an unimportant part in the life cycle.-Rawats and Merats of Rajputana: R. C. Bramley.-An old reference to the Bhotias H. Beveridge.-Parasites from the Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus, Géoffr.): Dr. von Linstow. Two new nematodes, each representing a new genus, and a new linguatulid are described. The former were found in the stomach and on the mesentery; the latter in the lungs and trachea.


Royal Society, May 2.-Mr. H. A. Lenehan, presi dent, in the chair.-Annual general meeting. An address was delivered by the president.-A specimen of diamond in the matrix: E. F. Pittman. The specimen was found by Messrs. Pike and O'Donnell in their claim at Oakey Creek, near Inverell. The diamond is a small one, weighing about one-third carat, and the material in which it is embedded is an igneous rock known as dolerite. The dolerite occurs at Oakey Creek as a pipe or dyke, and the specimen is of special interest as throwing some light upon the question of the origin of the diamond."

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ERNEST WARREN, D.Sc. (Lond.), Director.

Contents of No. 1 (June). 10s. net.


Descriptions of new or little-known Fishes from the Coast of Natal. By C. Tate Regan, B.A. (With Plates I-V.)

On Bertramia kirkmani sp. nov.; a Myxosporidium occurring in a South African Rotifer. By Ernest Warren, D.Sc. Lond., Director of the Natal Government Museum. (With Plate VI.) On South African Marine Mollusca, with Descriptions of New Species. By Edgar A. Smith, I.S.O., F.Z.S. (With Plates VII, Vill.)

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Note on Convoluta roscoffensis Graff. collected on the Natal Coast. By Ernest Warren, D.Sc. Lond., Director of the Natal Government Museum. (With Plate XIII.)

Note on the Abnormal Hoofs of a Sheep. By Ernest Warren, D.Sc. Lond., Director of the Natal Government Museum. (With Plate XIV.)



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