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SOME SCIENTIFIC CENTRES.
income of 1500l. to provide for the salaries of demonVIII.—THE MACDONALD Physics BUILDING,
strators and to defray the cost of heat, light, upMCGILL UNIVERSITY, MONTREAL.
keep of apparatus, and repairs to the fabric. As
educational property is not subject to taxation in WIS ISE liberality has rarely reaped a richer and Canada, the only rate payable is the water tax. In
, . more immediate harvest than the gift by Sir addition to the preceding gifts, the donor of the William Macdonald of the Physics Building to McGill Physics Building has made special grants from time University at Montreal. This benefaction is but one to time for the purchase of radium, for a liquid-air instance—though a very important instance--of the plant, for two large induction coils, and in particular fact that education, particularly scientific and tech- 1oool. for the purchase of books for the library in nical education, is of enormous practical advantage, the building, and 4001. for a special research fund. and that the most wealthy men in Canada and the It is fortunate that such splendid munificence has United States recognise that it has the first claim | been judiciously expended by Prof. Cox, and that on their generosity. In England money is given the results obtained have been such as to win for with no less lavish hand, but vast sums are devoted the laboratory a place in the foremost rank. to objects less deserving than education, inasmuch A detailed account of the rooms in the building as they afford palliatives, and not preventives, of is unnecessary, but an important item in the estabfailure, suffering, or distress.
lishment is the workshop, with tools and lathes driven The Physics Building, with its accompanying en- by electric motors, sufficient to make a large prodowments and equipment both for instruction and portion of the more simple apparatus required for research, forms but a small fraction of the total instruction or research. A complete plant of this gifts of Sir William Macdonald to McGill University-gifts which exceed in value three and a half million dollars. A brief history of its growth, more particularly as a centre of research work, may be of service to those desirous of emulating a noble example.
In 1891 a chair of physics was endowed by Sir William Macdonald, to which John Cox, formerly Fellow Trinity College, Cambridge, was appointed as the first professor. , He was at once instructed to visit the best laboratories in America, and thus add to his experience of similar institutions in Europe. He received the most cordial assistance in the United States, and learnt both what to acquire and what to avoid. On his return, in conjunction with the architect, Mr. Andrew T. Taylor, he planned a building, beautiful in appearance, and so complete in every detail, that it is scarcely possible, with an intimate knowledge of the internal arrangements, to suggest any
Fig. 1.-Macdonald Physics Building, McGill University, Montreal. material improvements. The general scheme was to provide a building which nature, under a competent mechanic and assistant, would meet the requirements of the ensuing fifty effects a great saving of tinie and money in a city years. The cost of the fabric was 29,000l., being at where skilled labour is often scarce and always costly. the rate of about elevenpence a cubic foot.
It is not within the scope of this article to give an The donor further instructed Prof. Cox to prepare account of the purely educational uses of this buildestimates for equipment and apparatus, and in re- ing, but it is sufficient to state that the lecture sponse for a request of 5000l., the sum of 6000l, was theatres and laboratories are ample in size and placed at his disposal. At this point Sir William equipment, so that all students in the faculties of Nacdonald decided to endow another chair for re- arts and of science receive courses in physics suited search in physics, and the institution was fortunate to the requirements of their future professions. An in obtaining H. L. Callendar, from Trinity College, interesting question arises as to the extent to which Cambridge, as its first occupant. The equipment of professors of research should devote their time to the laboratory continued from 1892 to 1897, when the instruction of ordinary students. On the one the founder was assured that sufficient apparatus hand, it may be regarded as a waste of valuable time, had been obtained; but the first grant had been but from the student's point of view it is a great greatly exceeded, and the total donation for this gain to come into contact, both in laboratory and purpose was 22,000l. This sum has been discreetly lecture room, with the best intellects in his uni. spent, and adequate provision has been made for versity. A research professor must necessarily devote lecture tables, laboratories, and for all branches of some of his time to the instruction of advanced physical research. Sir William Macdonald made a students, and particularly to the assistance of research further gift of 30,000l. in order to secure an annual students. It is therefore undesirable that any large fraction of his time should be absorbed by giving heat of water at various temperatures. Dr. Barnes, lectures to elementary students. This difficult ques- with Dr. Coker, determined the effect of temperature tion of the division of time appears to have been on stream lines and the critical velocity. He has satisfactorily solved in the Physics Building.
also made a close study of the properties and pecuThe first research professor, H. L. Callendar, was liarities of ice formation in Canadian rivers. Freezan active and able investigator. He invented and ing does not occur merely at the surface, as in most improved his platinum thermometer with an ingeni- English rivers, but, after passing rapids, water may ous compensation method, and applied it to various congeal at the bottom and form anchor ice." Still uses. In conjunction with Prof. J. S. Nicholson, of more remarkable is the formation of “frazil," conthe engineering building, he solved many temperature sisting of minute crystals pervading the whole mass. problems connected with the steam engine. He in- of water. The presence of ice in this state occasions vestigated some important meteorological questions, serious trouble in the turbines of the power stations, determining the temperature at various depths in the and special precautions are necessary to mitigate the earth-a matter of special interest during the severe evil. winters in Canada. He also constructed a self-record- On the appointment of Prof. Callendar to the chair
ing instrument which measured the difference of of physics at University College, London, Prof. Cox temperatures between the top of Mount Royal and again visited the Cavendish Laboratory, and, on the the base near the observatory. Further results have advice of Prof. J. J. Thomson, he selected to fill been obtained by Prof. C. H. McLeod and Dr. H. T. the vacancy E. Rutherford, a young man who had Barnes, using the same instrument. The latter was already distinguished himself for originality, insight, also associated with Prof. Callendar in effecting some and great capacity for work. Soon after M. Becimprovements in the Clark cell as a standard of querel's discovery of the radiations from uranium, electromotive force. But Prof. Callendar's most im- Rutherford had published a paper on that subject, portant work at McGill was the development, in con- and removed some misapprehensions as to the projunction with Dr. Barnes, of the continuous flow perties of the radiations. Moreover, he had served method of calorimetry. This has proved a great a most useful apprenticeship on the investigation of advance, both for simplicity and accuracy, on the the properties of ions, whether produced by Röntgen older methods of calorimetry. Very exact determin- rays, ultra-violet light, or by uranium. This thorough ations have thus been made by Dr. Barnes of the mastery of the indispensable elements served him mechanical equivalent of heat, and of the specific in good stead when he continued at Montreal his researches on radio-activity. At this time Prof. H. B. Ramsay and Soddy in the laboratory of the former. Owens, of the engineering building, had noted the In the meantime Rutherford had proved by magnetic peculiar inconstancy of the radiations from thorium, deflection that the a particles carried a positive and traced it to air currents. Prof. Rutherford then charge. The remarkable heating effects of radium, made an exhaustive examination of the phenomena, three-quarters of the total amount being due to the and he found that thorium emitted a gaseous sub- emanation, were investigated and measured. At a stance, to which he gave the name “ emanation." later date the heat generated by the y rays was He also proved that the emanation had the remark- under observation and found to be very small, a result able property of making other substances active by of importance in estimating the nature of the rays. a material surface deposit due to the emanation. In these heat determinations Prof. Rutherford was Assisted by Miss Brooks, he proceeded to measure assisted by Dr. Barnes. In 1902 Mr. Soddy left the rate of diffusion of the emanation from radium, McGill University, worked for a year with Sir William for he then saw, and saw correctly, that the emana- Ramsay, and was then appointed lecturer in physical tion was a gas and a distinct form of matter.
chemistry at Glasgow L'niversity. Prof. Rutherford At this point Mr. Soddy came from Oxford to continued his research work with unabated energy McGill University and worked with Prof. Rutherford. and success.
Radio-tellurium and polonium were reTogether they tried the effect of varying the physical legated to their proper places among the products of conditions, such as temperature, upon the emanating radium, now grown to a family of six, the successive power of radio-active substances, and in the course of offspring of the emanation. The theory of rayless this work it was found that the emanation came changes was advanced, and the complicated cases from thorium X, a substance which could be separated arising therefrom were thoroughly explored, and the from thorium. When they realised and clearly proved results published in the Bakerian lecture delivered that the emanation was produced from thorium X, before the Royal Society in 1904. The brilliant work that thorium X constantly appeared from thorium, of Rutherford received recognition by the award to and as constantly decayed, that the curves of decay him of the Rumford medal. More recently he has and of recovery were strictly complementary, and again directed his attention to the a particles, followed with exactitude simple exponential laws, deflecting in electric and magnetic fields the rays that the rate of change was proportional to the from radium C and other substances, thus determinamount of material still unchanged, then for the ing the charge and mass of the particles, and enfirst time a most clear conception of the sequence deavouring to account for their abrupt disappearance of production of matter in fresh forms, with distinct whilst their velocities are still very great. chemical properties, was attained. The substances! So much work and such novel theories have naturthus discovered were in quantities too minute to be ally called forth criticism, but the discussions have detected by the balance or spectroscope. The new always been chivalrous, buttons have been on the theory of radio-activity was published in two papers foils, and Rutherford's extreme care in verifying every by Rutherford and Soddy in the Philosophical step by thorough experimental evidence has saved Magazine of September and November, 1902. In him from error to a degree quite exceptional. A these papers the experimental evidence was first re- prominent physicist in the early days of radio-activity viewed, and then the theory was stated that radio- remarked that the subject was such a tangled skein activity is an atomic phenomenon accompanied by that it was almost hopeless to unravel it. This suffichemical changes in which new types of matter are ciently indicates the difficulty of the subject in the produced, that the changes must occur within the initial stages. It is fortunate that so much of the atom, and that the radio-active substances must be development centred in a man to whom the remarkundergoing transformation. This theory on its first able instinct is given of rarely following side-issues. appearance was regarded by many as a mere flight | As a result of this concentration a uniform system of the imagination, and efforts were made to detect of nomenclature has been adopted, and experimenters a cause exterior to the atom. The theory was stoutly are saved much time and trouble in following the championed by Rutherford in the face of doubt and work of others. Apart from such concentration, it criticism, and it is now so thoroughly accepted by is not difficult to imagine the state of chaos into all who have investigated the subject that the initial which the whole subject would have lapsed. Rutheropposition is almost forgotten. It is remarkable that ford's work, “Radio-activity." has passed rapidly a new subject should have reached the position of an through two editions, has kept pace with discoveries, exact science with such great rapidity.
and is the encyclopædia of the subject. Experimental research continued at McGill with
At the physics building Prof. Rutherford inspires speed which was almost feverish. Having estab- research students with some of his own enthusiasm lished the fact that the highest temperatures obtain- and energy. He follows their results closely, is ready able had no effect on the rate of transformation of with advice and criticism, and is as delighted with any the emanation of radium, it was desired to try the of their discoveries as with his own. He is generosity effect of extreme cold. Again the good genius of itself in giving a full measure of credit to those who the Physics Building was invoked, and a complete do research work under his guidance. plant for making liquid air was presented. Within Reference may be made to some of the work done a quarter of an hour after the first 100 c.c. of liquid air by research students. Miss Brooks has published were prepared the emanation had been condensed, several papers on various radio-active phenomena, and and the material nature of this gas had been proved this lady was one of the most successful and indusbeyond question.
trious workers in the early days of the investigation It is noteworthy that in the paper on the cause of the subject. H. L. Cooke discovered penetrating and nature of radio-activity in the Philosophical rays from the earth, and made contributions on the Magazine of November, 1902, the speculation was activity of ordinary matter. R. K. McClung deter: advanced that the presence of helium in minerals mined the coefficient of re-combination of ions, and associated with uranium and thorium might be con- worked with Rutherford on the energy required to nected with their radio-activity: In 1904 this forecast produce an ion, and on allied problems. S. J. Allan was verified by the observation of the presence of worked at the active deposit derived from the atmohelium in the spectrum of the radium emanation by sphere and from falling snow. Miss Gates ascer. tained the true nature of the discharge due to quinine The neighbourhood of York affords many objects of sulphale. A. G. Grier detected the magnetic devia- interest, archæological, botanical, and geological, and tion of the B rays of thorium.
many of these are more readily accessible by road than Others have come to Montreal from afar, attracted | railway. Cyclists are therefore recommended to by the magnetic influence of Rutherford, such as bring their machines with them, as the roads are Dr. Godlewski, of Lemberg, in Poland, who investi- | mostly good and level. Hotel and lodging list can, gated in Montreal the products of actinium and some as usual, be obtained of the local secretaries, Davy notable properties of actinium and uranium. From Hall Chambers, York. The following provisional proFrankfurt came Dr. Hahn, discoverer of radio- grammes have been arranged by the committees of thorium in the laboratory of Sir William Ramsay. Dr. the various sections : Hahn, whilst working at McGill, also discovered radio
SECTION A (MATHEMATICAL AND Physical SCIENCE).actinium and a new product of thorium. Dr. Levin, This section will, as usual in recent years, meet in three from Göttingen, and Dr. Bronson, from Yale, have departments. In the chief department a series of discusalso done research work whilst at McGill, and the sions has been arranged. Prof. Soddy will open one on latter has increased our accurate knowledge of various
the evolution of the elements, and a number of leadradio-active constants by his modification of the elec- ing workers in radio-activity, including Sir Wm. Ramsay, trometer giving direct and immediate readings. All
are expected to follow. Mr. J. Swinburne will discuss these workers testify warmly to the inspiration kindled
the nature of the radiation from incandescent mantles ; by Rutherford.
and Dr. H. Rubens, of Charlottenburg, will expound his
views, and His own success as an investigator may be traced
illustrate them experimentally. Representa
tives of the Chemical Section will be deputed to attend to a few well-marked characteristics. The first is the a
both these discussions. It is expected that they will prove pertinacious and reiterated assault on the particular
of great value as well as of great interest. The Hon. problem in hand. He does not grope in the dark for R. J. Strutt has consented to give an account of his recent chance results, but bombards the particular point work on the internal structure of the earth as indicated which he wishes to attack. He has also an instinc- by the phenomena of radio-activity, and Prof. J. Milne tive insight which often makes his initial point of will also speak on it. It is probable that the Geological view more trustworthy than the deliberate conclusions Section will collaborate in this discussion; hence it will of some befogged experimenter. He is not only an be treated from various points of view. There will be a industrious, he is also a very rapid worker, but his
paper by the Earl of Berkeley on osmotic pressure, which experimental conditions are varied sufficiently to
will lead probably to renewed debate on the ever-interesteliminate error, and his observations are repeated
ing subject of the nature of solutions. Sir Wm. Ramsay until he has perfect confidence in his results. Most
and J. F. Spencer have presented a paper on chemical
and electrical changes induced by ultra-violet light, noteworthy of all is the extreme simplicity and direct
which contains important new matter, as well as a sumness of his experimental methods. Some observers
mary of what is at present known on this subject. appear to grow happier as their apparatus becomes There will also be papers by H. Stansfield on photomore complex, Rutherford selects some ingenious, graphs of thin liquid films (with experiments); Prof. straightforward attack, but the simplicity is supple- E. H. Barton and J. Penzer on photographic records of mented by the genius which has enabled him to make a string's vibrations and responsive motions in the air ; such great contributions to our knowledge of the Mr. C. E. S. Phillips on the production of an electrically mutability of matter and of the atom in evolution. conductive glass; and Prof. W. F. Barretton entoptic
In conclusion, the writer, who is an Englishman vision. In the Department of Astronomy and Cosmical resident in Canada, ventures to emphasise the im- Physics, a joint discussion has been arranged with Section portance of research laboratories, so well equipped
E (Geography) on the necessity for the re-measurement and so distributed that able men in Great Britain
of the British geodetic arc. This will be opened by Major may not find themselves hampered through want of
E. H. Hills, R.E. In the Department of Mathematics,
Prof. A. R. Forsyth will read a paper on the different means and opportunity to pursue their work. The
kinds of integrals of partial differential equations. gift of the Cavendish Laboratory to the University Papers will also be read on a test for the convergence of of Cambridge by the late Duke of Devonshire has multiple series, by Mr. T. J. Bromwich ; on some notes produced results which are recognised as holding on finite groups, by Harold Hilton; on Aleph numbers, the first place in recent advances in physical science. by Dr. E. W. Hobson ; and on the residues of hyperThe Macdonald Physics Building has brilliantly even numbers, by Lieut.-Colonel A. Cunningham. Prof. started on its career. But there are other universities Henrici will open a discussion on the notation and use less fortunate, and there are other wealthy men.
of vectors. A. S. Eve.
SECTION C (GEOLOGY).—The following are among the principal papers promised for this section : The problems
of the Palæozoic glaciations of Australia and South Africa, THE YORK MEETING OF THE BRITISH
Prof. J. W. Gregory; On criterion of the glacial
erosion of lake-basins, R. D. Oldham; Notes on recent ASSOCIATION.
earthquakes, Prof. J. Milne; On anthropods from the CoalPROVISIONAL PROGRAMMES OF THE SECTIONS. measures, Dr. Hy. Woodward ; On the Jurassic flora of HE local arrangements for this meeting, which
Yorkshire, A. C. Seward ; Discussion on the origin of the THE will be held at York from August i to 8, are pro
trias, opened by Prof. Bonney and Mr. J. Lomas ; On an
artesian boring at Lincoln, Prof. Hull; On the post-Cregressing extremely satisfactorily, and a large assembly taceous stratigraphy of Southern Nigeria, J. Parkinson ; is expected, as nearly 1200 persons from a distance On a peculiar variety of sodalite showing colour-change, have already signified their intention to be present. T. H. Holland. Prof. P. F. Kendall will give a lecture The evening meetings will be held in the large hall on the geology of the country round York. The presiof the Exhibition Building; 2200 numbered seats are dent's address will deal with the interglacial problem as it already arranged, while there is space behind, making applies to the British Is'es. A number of other papers up a total accommodation of at least 5000 if neces
have also been promised-relating mainly to the geology of sary. All these will have a full view of the speaker,
the Yorkshire district. The following are among the and the lantern screen, though, of course, those
number : On the limestone knolls of Craven, and on an behind will be a considerable distance away.
intrusive rock near Grindleton in the West Riding, A. be well, therefore, for visitors to bring their opera Valleys, Rev. W Lower Carter : On faults as a predis
It will Wilmore: Notes on the glaciation of the Usk and Wre glasses with them.
posing cause of the potholes on Ingleborough, H. Brod
rick; On a section in a post-glacial deposit at Hornsea, power purposes, A. J. Martin ; Experiments illustrating the T. Sheppard.
balancing of engines, Prof. W. E. Dalby; An indicator for Section D (Zoology).- President's address by Mr. J. J. high speed engines, Proi. B. Hopkinson ; A new form! Lister, F.R.S. Papers.--Conjugation of Paramaecium cau- transmission dynamometer, Prof. B. Hopkinson and L. (.. datus, Prof. Gary N. Calkins (Columbia Univ.); Breeding P. Thring; The new engineering laboratories, Edinburgh experiments in canaries-an exception to Mendel's law, University, and their equipment, Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Noorduijn ; Preliminary note on a new conception of Waterproof roads as a solution of the dust problem, segregation, A. D. Darbyshire; On epigamic and apose- Douglas Mackenzie ; The central technical college lecture matic scents in rhopalocera, Dr. F. A. Dixey; Outline table testing machine, Prof. Ashcroft; The teaching of sketch of what appears to be a periodic law in organic mechanics by experiment (with illustrations), C. E. Ashford. evolution, with a re-estimation of the cell, H. M. Bernard ; Section H (ANTHROPOLOGY).-In this section the proMaturation of parthenogenetic eggs, L. Doncaster ; The ceedings promise to prove as interesting as usual, and milk dentition of the primitive elephants, Dr. C. W. An- quite a large number of the communications are likely to drews; Habits of galatheidæ in relation to their structure, give rise to considerable discussion. One of the most Dr. Herbert J. Fleure and Miss E. F. Galloway ; Some important items in the programme will be a discussion points of interest with reference to the mandible in mam- on the head-form of the prehistoric and early historic mals, and Some remarks on the manus of the dolphin, races in Britain which has been arranged to take place in Prof. R. J. Anderson; Title not communicated, but deal- connection with an exhibit of British crania, now in the ing with the zoology of the Scottish Antarctic Expedition, possession of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, and W. F. Lanchester. Discussions.-Halolimnic faunas and crania from Laver Hill. The discussion will be opened the Tanganyika problems, J. E. S. Moore; it is hoped by Mr. J. Gray with a paper surveying the evidence, the following will speak : Prof. Pilseneer, Dr. Bordenger, anthropological and collateral, bearing on the affinities Prof. Gregory, Mr. Cunnington, Mr. Hudleston, Dr. and probable origin of the prehistoric and early historii Calman, Mr. R. T. Gunther. Melanism in Lepidoptera, races which have settled in Britain. Dr. F. C. Shrubsall G. T. Porritt; the following will speak : Mr. J. Arkle, has also promised to contribute, and Dr. W. Wright and Dr. Dixey, Mr. W. Hewitt, and others. Prof. Gary N. others will take part in the discussion. In this connection Calkins will introduce a discussion on Protozoan life- considerable interest attaches to a paper on the relations histories. Spicule formation, Prof. E. A. Minchin ; it is between archæological and anthropographical data in the hoped the following will speak : Prof. Yves Delage, Prof. ethnology of Scotland by Dr. T. H. Bryce, and a paper by Sollas, Prof. Dendy, Mr. W. Woodland. Suggestions for Mr. J. R. Mortimer on the relation between stature and the more systematic study of oceanic plankton, Dr. G. head-form in the skeletal remains found in the round Herbert Fowler: probable
; probable speakers : Prof. Gibson barrows of Yorkshire, based on data obtained from his (Louvain), Dr. Norris Wolffenden, Mr. Stanley Gardiner.
own collections at Driffield. Mr. H. Brodrick will describe On the relations of scientific marine investigations to prac- a skeleton recently discovered in Scoska Cave, Littondale. tical fishery problems, Dr. E. J. Allen ; it is hoped that in Two communications by Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth will addition to men of science a number of persons practically deal respectively with a rare anomaly in human crania interested in the fishing industry at Hull and Grimsby from Kawiawata Island, New Guinea, and observations og will take part in the discussion. On Monday morning a eunuchoid subject in the Cambridge Anatomy School. (August 6) there will be a joint meeting with Section K Dr. C. S. Myers contributes, as an addendum to the report (Botany) for the discussion of several cytological papers, of the committee on anthropometric investigations among among which will be Mr. Doncaster's (vide supra). There the native troops of the Egyptian Army, and notes on the will also be two afternoon lectures illustrated with lantern distribution of cephalic and nasal indices in different slides (semi-popular), namely: The habits of tube-building provinces of Egypt. worms, Arnold T. Watson; Birds and mammals of York- In general ethnography communications are hardly as shire, Oxley Grabham (local secretary).
numerous as usual. Dr. Haddon will contribute a paper Section E (GEOGRAPHY).—Discussions.-Proposed mea- on the ethnology of South Africa, based principally on surement of geodetic arcs in Great Britain, opened by material collected during the visit of the association to Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., R.E.; Changes on the coast South Africa last year, and Mr. S. Dornan, a South of England, especially at the mouth of the Humber, opened African member, sends a communication dealing with the by Mr. Clement Reid. Papers.--The scientific results of Bushmen of Basutoland. Messrs. T. A. Joyce and E. the Scottish Loch survey, James Murray; The Chagos Torday jointly will contribute a paper on the Ba-Yakka, a Islands, Indian Ocean, J. Stanley Gardiner ; A journey tribe in the Congo Free State. Among papers dealing with across the Sahara, M. E. F. Gautier (not quite certain); points of a more detailed character, Dr. Rivers offers, as The structure of Southern Nigeria, John Parkinson; The a possible explanation, alternative, at least in India, of study of Social Geography, Prof. G. W. Hoke, of Ohio the importance of the maternal uncle among primitive State Normal College ; A journey in the Central Himalaya,
à survival in the marriage customs of southern T. G. Longstaff ; The future of wheat-growing in Canada, India, and an account of the astronomy of the Torres Prof. L. W. Lyde; Geographical photography, John Thom- Straits islanders. Mr. H. A. Rose will contribute a paper
Afternoon Lectures.- Past and present in Asia on the custom of female infanticide in India, and Prof. Minor, Prof. W. M. Ramsay ; The visit of the Association Ridgeway_will deal with the origin of the fiddle and to S. Africa, H. Yule Oldham; A tour in South-East guitar. Dr. T. H. Bryce and Mr. Newberry, of the Persia, Major P. M. Sykes.
Glasgow School of Art, will exhibit a number of examples SECTION G (ENGINEERING). —Address by Prof. J. A. Ewing, of the door-step art-designs used by peasants 10 president of the Section; Modern armour and its attack, decorate their door-steps and dairy and kitchen floors in Major W. E. Edwards; The deformation and fracture of Scotland, which present many interesting features. iron and steel, W. Rosenhain: Segregation in steel ingots, In archaeology, Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie will give and its effect in modifying the mechanical properties of an account of a Hyksos fortress and other discoveries in steel, J. E. Stead: Structural changes in nickel wire at Egypt in 1906; Dr. R. C. Bosanquet will describe his high temperatures, H. C. H. Carpenter : Standardisation in excavations in Sparta, and a communication from Mr. J.L. British engineering practice, Sir John Wolse Barry, K.C.B. ; Myres will deal with early traces of human types in the Recent advances in our knowledge of radiation phenomena, Ægean. Mr. D. G. Hogarth hopes to communicate an and their bearing on the optical measurement of tempera- account of the treasures of the primitive Artemisia of ture, J. B. Henderson; The removal of dust and smoke Ephesus, should the interval before the meeting be sufficient from chimney gases, S. H. Davies and F. G. Frver : Glow to allow an examination of the objects from the site, which lamps up-to-date, and the grading of voltages, Sir W. H. have only just arrived in England. Major P. M. Sikes Preece, K.C.B.; The advent of single phase electric trac- will exhibit' a collection of bronze weapons and implements tion on railways, C. F. Jenkin ; Some recent developments from Persia, which are discussed in a communication by of the steam turbine. G. Gerald Stoney: Some recent ex- the Rev. Canon Greenwell, Dr. T. Ashby will read perimental results with internal combustion engines, Prof. papers on the recent excavations in the Forum, and the W. E. Dalby; A general supply of gas for heat, light, and excavations at Caerwent in 1904-6. Prof. R. S. Conway