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picturesque style which sometimes startles the reader who has done much for pure science and yet has never with its daring.

ceased to say

“ Das Leben ist schön." We cannot do more than refer to a few of the (3) In these three lectures, delivered last year in interesting facts regarding Haeckel to which the Berlin, Prof. Haeckel reiterated with wonted frankauthor gives prominence. “Haeckel's genealogical ness and fearlessness his evolutionist and monistic tree spreads into the legal profession in a curiously convictions. He trounced the theologians and metaipinplex way.” This inheritance was expressed in physicians for ignoring or combating or misrepreHaeckel's imperious craving for clear lines and sys- senting the secure results of science, and he did not tematic arrangement, and in his fondness for formu- refrain from reproving some of his own craft-even lating " laws." Apart from the influence of his his revered master, Virchow-for trying to sit on both teachers, such as Johannes Müller and Virchow, and sides of the fence. He is himself so well satisfied' of his friends, such as Gegenbaur, it was the sea-at with the naturalistic formulation of what goes on, Helgoland, at Nice, at Messina—that really won and has gone on, in the wide world, that he has no Haeckel for zoology. Regarding his pupillary period, patience with those who seek for explanations that

. , the curious fact is mentioned that one of the theses science ex hypothesi can never give. he defended when taking his doctorate at Berlin was The law of evolution and the law of substance (the the impossibility of spontaneous generation. In 1860 conservation of matter and energy) are irreconcilable Haeckel was " profoundly moved " by a first reading with the three central dogmas of metaphysics, which af "The Origin of Species," and conversations with so many educated people still regard as the most Gegenbaur finally confirmed his conviction of the precious treasures of their spiritual life-the belief in truth of Darwinism-a conviction which found its first, a personal God, the personal immortality of the soul though not prominent, expression in his monograph on and the liberty of the human will." Not that these Radiolaria (1862). In 1863, at the Stettin congress, are to be driven out of the world. They merely when Haeckel made his first open confession of the cease to pose as truths in the realm of pure science. faith that was now in him, he won a laurel crown at As imaginative creations, they retain a certain value: the Leipzig athletic festival for the long jump (20 feet),

in the world of poetry.” and the translator justly remarks that we have here To many this will seem a false antithesis, an opposi** the note of much in his character.” What many

tion of incommensurables. It can hardly be pathoecologists, who neither misunderstand Haeckel nor fail logically that the human spirit has so persistently w do him homage, feel, is that the impetuous, daring, attempted to get beyond common sense and empirical pioneering evolutionist of Jena has taken many long science to a formulation of the efficient causes, the jumps which scientific caution makes them refuse. significance, the purpose of all becoming. As a

A fine chapter of the book is devoted to what is matter of fact, Haeckel himself is a worshipper of pashaps Haeckel's best and most lasting work, the “a Monistic god, the all-embracing essence of the "Generelle Morphologie" (1866). It was written, world, the

world, the Nature-god 'of Spinoza and Goethe, parily as a relief from sorrow, in less than a year,

identical with the eternal, all-inspiring energy, one, during which the author lived the life of a hermit, in eternal and infinite substance, with space-filling sleeping barely three or four hours a day, with habits matter,” whose“ will is at work in every falling drop 30 3scetic that he wondered at his survival. But the of rain and every growing crystal, in the scent of the great work was too difficult for the general reader, rose and in the spirit of man. tou philosophical for the biologists, too biological for The lectures have been very successfully translated the philosophers, and thus with a clearly defined by Mr. McCabe. We may note that the date given for mission Haeckel set himself to the task, which he has Weismann's theory of germ-plasm is 1844, which

successfully accomplished, of making monistic seems rather early, while that of Lamarck's Philoevolutionism" understanded of the people.

sophie Zoologique" (1899) is rather late. One of the many interesting incidents related in Bische's appreciation may be quoted.

PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY. A stern theologian presented himself in person at the chateau of Karl Alexander, Grand Duke of Weimar, An Introduction to Practical Geography. By A. T. and begged him to put an end to this scandal of the Simmons and Hugh Richardson. Pp. xi + 380. professorship of Haeckel, the arch-heretic. The Grand

(London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.,

1905.)

Price Dukr, educated in the Weimar tradition of Goethe, asked, “Do you think he really believes these things that he publishes?!

, prompt reply. Very good,' said the Grand Duke,

has in many ways been excellently carried out. then the man simply does the same as you do.'"

Its design is to show how to cultivate in the teaching 15 Prof. Bölsche closed his charming biographical of geography the methods of scientific training, the skuish in 1900, the translator, who has done his work methods by which boys and girls are guided to reach admirably, has added a chapter on the crowning years, sound conclusions from their own observations and daling with the controversies over the “ Riddle of the experiments. Cniverse," and other events. The whole work, helped Unfortunately, the execution of this design is by the excellent portraits, leaves one with a grateful marred by the apparent absence from the minds of impression of a remarkable personality who has all the authors of a clear idea of what geography is. his life been a good fighter yet most lovable withal, l Geography, it must be admitted, is a subject which

NO. 1906, vol. 74)

3s. 6d.

Most certainly he does,' was the THIS book is based on an excellent idea, which

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is sadly in want of a generally accepted definition practical importance to the inhabitants of the earth. fitted to give a clear idea of its scope. But though The figures show only the difference in the mean this definition is lacking, the handling of the subject annual range of temperature, and do not indicate is coming to be more and more in accordance with that this difference is brought about in every case in the idea that the governing function of geography a greatly preponderant degree by the varying range is to indicate the nature and relative importance of of the winter temperatures. the influences exercised on the life of the globe, Such defects are worth pointing out, chiefly because especially human life, by local conditions and place the book is on the whole so good that one cannot help relations. It is evident that this idea has been im- earnestly wishing that it were better, and because it plicitly in the minds of the authors in the preparation may be hoped that they will be removed in a future of some parts of the book, but it is equally evident edition. Even as it is, it must be recognised that the that the idea has never been expressly recognised by immense pains taken by the authors have resulted in them, and accordingly it has not been consistently the preparation of a work which is full of suggestive. acted on.

One result is that a good deal is admitted ness, and ought to supply a countless number of into the book which has no place in geography, but useful hints to capable teachers of geography, a still more serious result is that again and again

GEO. G. CHISHOLM. the practical guidance stops short of the goal to which the learners should have been led.

FOLKLORE AND MEDICIVE OF THE ZULL'. Some examples may be given. Inevitably the

KAFIR. work lays stress on mapmaking and the observations

Bantu Folklore Medical and General). By Dr. on which maps are based. Maps being necessary in

Matthew L. Hewat. Pp.

112. (Cape Town : the study of geography, boys and girls must be got to

T. M. Miller; London : J. and A. Churchill, n.d.) understand as clearly as possible how far those records of the facts which have to be studied serve in

"HIS is an interesting little work. It will be of THIS

value to students of primitive races. It deals place of the actual facts, and in what points they are

chiefly with the ideas of the South African Kafir apt to mislead. Now, while there is much that is

tribes on the subject of magie, medicine, diseases, and admirable in what is said, shown, and hinted on

initiation ceremonies. Incidentally it gives a great pp. 51–72 on hachures and contours, there is no hint insight into the extraordinary mixture of superstition, of what hachures and contours respectively fail to

quackery, and practical research in native medicine. represent. The subject of projections is rightly dealt

The Kafirs are nearly always at fault in their guesses with, for within due limits it is not beyond the reach

to the origin of diseases. Some maladies are of school children. But here the failure is more strik

thought to be caused by the supernatural influence of ing. The only reason for taking up this subject is to snakes or of water monsters, half man and half get the learners to understand how inevitably any pro- animal, or by the strange bird called impundulu, which jection must fail to represent the truth in some points, by some is thought to be the origin of lightning. to perceive in each case the chief failures, and to dis

Other diseases are attributed to direct poisoning-the cern the reasons for using certain projections in spite word for poison, ubuti, being a very old Bantu root of their defects. But on these points no hint is given. that means the essence of the tree. This is a word The principle of the construction of what is called that in many Bantu languages means medicine quite Mercator's projection is described, but, strangely as much as poison, all the medicines of primitive man enough, no question is put with the view of getting having been derived from the bark, sap, fruit, or those who use the book to recognise its obvious faults, leaves of trees. Some of the “ snakes" alluded to by and no indication is furnished of its compensating the author as the cause of intestinal diseases in the utilities. This, indeed, would have been impossible, native mind) are evidently distorted accounts of guineaat least in the case of its utility for marine charts, worm or tape-worm. inasmuch as the projection described is not Mercator's, The king or chief of the tribe is theoretically rebut the useless central cylindrical. So, too, the pro- garded as the first amongst the local medicine men. jection described as the conical is not the conical, and Professional doctors, however, may be of either sex. is, in fact, no used projection whatever.

They are often divided into the following classes : To take another subject, under the heading of (1) Witch doctors-diviners, mesmerists, prophets, or isotherms and parallels of latitude we have on pp. secret service agents, “ faith-healers,” and masseurs. 227 and 228 a large number of average mean tempera- The last-named type of witch doctor is the only one tures for the months of January and July, but for that performs any good service. Like most negro different places, thus failing to afford an opportunity races, the Kafirs believe greatly in the efficacy of for comparing ranges of temperature. Then again, massage. (2) The surgeon or bone-setter, who also under the heading of aspect and temperature, pp. 241-3, practises cupping. (3) The physician or herb doctor. the important subject of the difference of temperature | In addition there are two special classes of medicine between the east and west of the northern oceans and men, who attend to the bringing of rain or the preland-masses is dealt with, but is illustrated only by diction and direction of warlike operations. Very certain figures from Hann presenting this difference great misery and loss of life were caused until quite in the least instructive light, in the manner which recently by the witch-hunting practices of the medicine fails to bring out the difference which is of most

These priests often became petty tyrants, in

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troducing a tyranny as hateful as that of the Holy time making the most of the individual. Mr. Galton, Inquisition by their witch-smelling practices.

whose enthusiasm compels admiration, answers the As regards the use of herbs, it is pointed out that main objections forcibly. the natives are in the possession of many valuable

Among the other papers are the following :--Civics,

by Prof. Geddes (he argues for evolutionary sociology drugs. Imongst these they have been for genera

and for a civics exhibition); The school in some of its tians in the habit of using a decoction of the leaves

relations to social organisation and to national life, of the Cape willow for the cure of rheumatic pains, by Prof. M. E. Sadler (he urges that scope be left for thus preceding Europe in an appreciation of the group effort and private enterprise in education”); curitive properties of salicin. A list of all the diseases The inlluence of magic on social relationships, by Dr. in which kafir man, woman, and child are liable is

E. Westermarck; On the relation between sociology

and ethics, by Prof. Höffding; Some guiding pringin, together with their native names, and the remedies which the natives so successfully apply. Bridges; Sociological studies, by Mr. J. S. Stuart

ciples in the philosophy of history, by Dr. J. H. There is a chapter on midwifery and the rearing of Glennie.

F. W. H. irfants, which leaves one surprised that the Kafir race İLas not long since come to an end by indirect infanti- The Heart of a Garden. By Rosamund Marriott

Watson. cide. The extraordinary treatment of newly-born

Pp. 162.

(London: Alexander Moring,

Ltd., The De La More Press, 1906.) Price 75. od. children may act as a kind of spur to the survival of the fillest; it most certainly kills out weakly children.

The title of this book is significant. The reader The newly-born baby is “bled at the point of the

is not led to expect cultural details or botanical fingers for luck; then held in the smoke of a slow

technicalities. To use a vulgarism,“ science is not fire till it sneezes or coughs, to show that it is not in it." What we have is a record of musings, such bewitched. It is then thoroughly rubbed all over with would suggest themselves at each successive a solution of cow-dung," and so forth. Instead of season, to one more concerned with the poetry and

beauty of nature than with its philosophy. Notwithbeing alloned to suck at the breast, it is fed at first on sour cow's milk, which is forced down the throat / standing this, the author shows herself a careful

observer and a skilful delineator. Take, for instance, of the poor little mortal by blowing into its mouth this account of the winter aconite (Eranthis). The and compelling it to swallow."

writer is descanting on the promise of early spring, Votes are given as to the operations performed on

and goes on to say :girls in the initiation schools (the elongation of the

And even flowers are not wanting; multitudes of

small, gold heads have shyly thrust themselves up labia minora), and also in regard to the circumcision

through the dark earth, wrapped closely about in their of the males.

| green hoods which, as the sun grow's warmer, they The introduction to the book contains a useful will fing back to do service as jaunty fringed capes. summary of Kafir history, but is marked, like nearly

This is not a botanical description; nevertheless, will the writing that comes from South Africa, by a

there is no mistaking what flower the writer had in

view. The lady, with most other people, has her curious ignorance of Bantu history north of the

likes and her dislikes, and her ideals are not those of Zambezi.

H. H. JOHNSTON. her gardener. Still, that functionary is paid to do

certain work, and it is difficult to see how he can

fulfil his duties properly if " milk-white pigeons with OUR BOOK SHELF.

the roseate feet" are allowed to gratify their proSociological Papers. Vol. ii., 1905. Pp. xiii +312. clivities among the sweet peas and the gooseberries,

Published for the Sociological Society. (London : and other culprits are permitted to make havoc with

Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1906.) Price 1os. 6d. the strawberries. Though hardly equal in interest to its precursor, the

Be this as it may, the author contrives to get a present volume contains some valuable contr:butions

continuous feast of pleasure from the garden of which sociology. First, and foremost in interest and

she writes, and by her cheery optimism and the importance,

elegance of her narrative affords the reader a share paper on eugenics by Mr. Francis Galton.

of the gratification she herself experiences. Dainty He argues that man, whether

Even the pug-dog “Momocivilised or barbarian, has submitted to restrictions in lyrics, enliven the text.

taro is immortalised, though the invocation to Tarriage, and, therefore, that a new restriction in

him, accordance with eugenics may be imposed. Mankind strikes us as peculiar. What sort of apricots can

· Hued like the full moon of the apricot," h.s borne the yoke of monogamy, endogamy, exo

they be that possess full moons? In a work of this kimy. He has recognised prohibited degrees of kin

kind, however, allowance must be made for poetic ship. Why cannot a new taboo be started ? Dr.

imaginings. The illustrations are numerous and well Haddon adduces an argument that is much to the

executed. The book throughout is pleasantly written, point: the world is becoming self-conscious and and attractive to the eye. in dern civilisation has at command great resources for bringing about a revolution in men's views and Methods in Vicroscopical Research-Tegetable llispractice. Dr. Max Nordau thinks the proposals un- tology. By İbraham Flatters. Pp. x+10. (Manpractical. Modern restrictions would have no religious chester and London : Sherratt and Hughes.) Price Sanction, and would therefore fail. He would trust 21s. net. more to an improvement of the environment than to

This work is designed to give a course of instruction kuzenics. There are many medical men who, like

in the practical working out of the internal structure Dr Max Nordau, think that environment is every- of a number of higher types belonging to the vegetable thing. Prof. Tonnies fears that mariages de con- kingdom, and should admirably fulfil this purpose. tenance and mariages de passion will continue in The earlier portion deals with the general preparation spite of eugenics. Lady Welby sees the difficulty of of specimens, collection, fixation, and preservation; Corsidering the interests of the race and at the same instruments and section cutting ; staining and mount

comes

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As

ing, and is fully illustrated. Formulæ for reagents, RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU stains, &c., then follow, after which certain types are

OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY." selected and full directions given for demonstrating

E welcome the long-looked for monograph on the root, stem, floral, cell, and other structures. This section is illustrated with twenty-three coloured plates C. Fletcher, the Thaw Fellow of Harvard University,

Hako ceremony of the Pawnee by Miss Alice of the specimens, beautifully executed and with ample descriptions. The author is to be congratulated on

as upon her, so to speak, has fallen the mantle of the success which he has attained in the production of Cushing: Not only has she a long and intimate this work.

R. T. Hewlett.

acquaintance with certain tribes of the Plains Indians, but her affection for and sympathy with the Indians

is so marked that the old and prominent natives have LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

confided to her their sacred lore; and she was even able

to induce Tahirussawichi to come to Washington, he [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions being the keeper of the old and sacred objects, whose

expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake life has been devoted to the acquisition and maintento return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected

ance of certain sacred rites. In 1898 he was taken to manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE.

the Capitol and the Library of Congress. While the No notice is taken of anonymous communications.)

vastness and beauty of these structures gave him The San Francisco Earthquake of April 18.

pleasure, they did not appeal to him, for such buildThis disastrous earthquake was remarkable for its long of the religion of his ancestors, in the service of which

ings, he said, were unfitted to contain sacred symbols duration and the rotatory character of the movement. observed at Mare Island the first sign was a very faint,

he had spent his long life. He admired at a distance gentle rustling, the waves being the merest tremors; but

the Washington Monument, and when he visited it he after about a minute's duration they had grown to such

measured the base by pacing, but he would not go up, proportions as to be felt by everyone. The violent phase saying, “I will not go up. The white man likes io lasted about forty seconds, and then the shocks died out, pile up stones, and he may go to the top of them; I the last feeble tremors vanishing about three and a half will not. I have ascended the mountains made by minutes from the time of the first perception. The writer Tira'wa." was favourably situated for noting the slightest disturb- The purpose of the ceremony was twofold: (1) to ance, and had been awake some time before the first

benefit particular individuals by bringing to them the tremors were felt, and he could see the clock face at the

promise of children, long life, and plenty ; (2) to estabbeginning and end of the disturbance, which read about 5h. um. and 5h. 14m. 30s. Two of the four astronomical

lish a bond of friendship and peace between two clocks at the Mare Island Observatory were stopped by

distinct groups of people. It is intertribal, and not having their pendulums thrown upon the ledge which only serves as a means for the interchange of ideas carries the scale for measuring the amplitude of the swing. through contact and through gifts, but represents one The time of the violent oscillation thus automatically re- of the many powerful agencies which, by spreading corded was 5h. 12m. 378., Pacific Standard Time, eight tolerance and friendly feeling, tend to weld scattered hours slow of Greenwich. The waves were mainly from warlike bands of men into great, peaceful nations. A the south and south-south-west, and they seemed to turn desire for offspring was probably the original idea. to the west, giving the movement an elliptical, clockwise The ceremony is very old, and has been modified in rotation. The pendulums of the two clocks which kept the process of time to adapt it to changed conditions moving had their points rubbed against the swing index

of environment. For example, the substitution of the of the ledge so violently that the metal of the index was

buffalo for the deer, and the transference of songs; brightened by the friction of the pendulum points, and the

thus one formerly sung while on a journey to the mesa time thereby deranged more than twenty seconds. Except for the disturbance of objects on the ground, the earth

is now sung within the lodge. quake seemed to be essentially noiseless. Other slight

" Each ritual contains one general thought, which shocks have continued at irregular intervals for the past is elaborated by songs and attendant acts. These five days.

T. J. J. See. songs and acts are so closely related to the central U.S. Naval Observatory, Mare Island, California, thought that one helps to keep the other in mind, and April 23.

they all form a sequence that, in the mind of the

Pawnee, can not logically be broken. The compact Interpretation of Meteorological Records. structure of the Hako ceremony bears testimony to

the mental grasp of the people who formulated it. I REGRET that, owing to absence from home, I have only now seen Mr. Lander's letter in NATURE of April 19; I

As we note the balancing of the various parts, and have to apologise for my inexcusable carelessness in writing

the steady progression from the opening song of the of the storm as being accompanied by rain in place of

first ritual to the closing prayer in the twentieth, and snow and hail. However, accepting Mr. Lander's correc- recall the fact that the ceremony was constructed withtion, it does not appear that the change will produce any out the steadying force of the written record, we alteration in the interpretation of the records, as it does not matter whether the water fell in the liquid or the

1 "Hopi Katcinas." Drawn by Native Artists. By Jesse Walter

Fewkes. solid state ; its presence in either form would check any

"Iroquoian Cosmology." First Part. By J. N. B. Hewitt. Twenty. rise of temperature due to compression in the downward first Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 1899-1900. moving air. Any difference in the effect of snow compared (Washington, 1902)

"Two Summers' Work in Pueblo Ruins." By Jesse Walter Fewkes. with rain in producing a downward movement of the air

"Mayan Calendar Systems, 11." By Cyrus Thomas. Twenty-second would be to make the current stronger, because the air Annual Report. Parti., 1900-igor (1904). offers greater resistance to the fall of snow than to rain. “The Hako: a Pawnee Ceremony." By Alice C. Fletcher, assisted by It is very interesting to know that at the place where

James R. Murie. Music transcribed by E. S. Tracy. Nid.

(1004). Mr. Lander made his observations the barometer began "The Zuñi Indians; their Mythology, Esoteric Fraternities, and Cereto rise before the first hail arrived. But if the interpret-monies." By Matilda Coxe Stevenson Twenty-tbird Annual Report, ation offered of the records be correct, this would only seem 1901-1902 (1904).

** Mexican and Central American Antiquities, Calendar Systems, and to indicate that his place of observation was not directly

History." Twenty-four Papers. By E. Seler, E. Förstmann, P. Schellbas, under the area where the storm began, and that the com- C. Sapper, and E. P. Dieseldorff. Translated from the German under pression produced by the falling hail and snow travelled the supervision of C. P. Bowditch. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of outwards and caused a rise in his barometer before the

American Sthnology Bulletin 23 (pp. 682). (Washington : Government

Printing Office, 1904.) storm cloud brought the hail to him.

" Haida Texts and Myths ; Skidegate Dialect." Recorded by, John R. Baveno, Italy, May 7.

JOHN AITKEN. Swanton. Ibid.

Bulletin 29, 1905.

Part ii.

are impressed, on the one hand, by the intellectual obvious that it would be very difficult to give anypower displayed in the construction, and, on the other, thing like an adequate account of this storehouse of by the sharply defined belief fundamental to the cere- data. The ceremonies are described with that commony."

mendable wealth of detail which characterises the Miss Fletcher gives the music and exact transla- work done by the best American students, and the tion of the songs, with a native explanation of their book is a worthy extension of earlier studies of the meaning. The ritual objects are illustrated by several Zuñi by the lamented Cushing and by Dr. J. W. coloured plates. This sympathetic interpretation of an Fewkes. The Pueblo Indians are the most interestancient ritual deserves the careful study of those ing of North American aborigines, owing to the effects interested in comparative religion or in the beginnings the wonderful desert-land has upon the social conof literary expression.

dition of the people, and to the intricate and symbolic Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt gives the first part of a careful ritual they have evolved, which also may in a real study of Iroquoian cosmology; three texts, with literal sense be said to be a direct result of their environand free translations, are given of Onondaga, Mohawk, ment. It is therefore with great satisfaction that we and Seneca variants. A fact of great importance in welcome additions to the already voluminous literature these texts is that man-beings were in Iroquoian concerning these charming people. Mrs. Stevenson thought the primal beings; they belonged to a rather says : vague class of which man was the characteristic type. “The philosophy of the Indian, as of man wherBeast gods appear later. In the development of

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FIG. 1.—The Kurahus in ceremonial dress. A Kurahus is the director of the Hako Ceremony; the name means an old

FIG. 2.- Hopi Katcinas drawn by native artists. Panwû is repreman wbo is venerated for his knowledge and experience.

sented by the two top figures. The figure Tiwenu carries a tablet on the head and a pine branch in each hand. The

Kwew û picture bas a well-drawn wolf's head with projecting Iroquoian thought animals, plants, rocks, and streams,

mouth. "The kilt is made of borse-hair stained red. having human or other effective attributes or properties in a paramount measure, were regarded as the con- ever found, is the result of his desire and his efforts. trollers of those attributes or properties, which could to understand the mysteries of nature. These be made available by orenda or magic power. Thus children of the human family are highly imaginative. began the reign of beast gods, tree gods, and their The soul of the Zuñi expands with adoration toward kind, but the native term usually translated into the supreme mysterious power that controls all English as “ god ” really signifies disposer” or things, and toward the gods, whose forms are

controller,” and each received worship and prayers. visible in the heavens above, in the earth beneath, In a profusely and beautifully illustrated memoir and in the waters under the earth, who are only less of over six hundred pages Mrs. Matilda Coxe mighty than the supreme power, and who bless the Stevenson has given us an elaborate account of the good and punish the wicked.” mythology, esoteric fraternities, and the ceremonies She admits it is yet to be determined what part of the Zuñis, as well as brief sketches describing the clanship played in the dawn of the ritualistic life of everyday life, arts, and customs of the people. It is the Zuñi.

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