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bationers of the London Hospital and Medical College. is applied, it ought never to forgo the general scientific During the course of an address he delivered subsequently, teaching which is an essential feature of a university he said the surgeon, the physician, the nurse, require

What is the relation of the universities to the science to-day in a way in which they never required it work of the technical institutes, which, in one form or before, and science has influenced and affected profoundly another, form such a prominent feature in the educational their whole teaching. That is why the standards of a system of municipalities? Sir William Anson thinks it is generation ago are no good to us, and why any dealing, twofold. In the lower stages the schools of science and not merely with the physical organism, but with the great technical institutes attended by boys may give such a organism of the community, is so much more difficult training as will qualify for scholarships at the universities, and far-reaching than used to be the case. Those who

and the universities, being thus the goal of the technical are responsible for dealing with the organisation of society institute in its more rudimentary form, should be the startknow, or ought to know, that unless they have clear prin- ing-point for technology in its more advanced form. The ciples and plain ends before their minds they can make man of science may make discoveries which others may no advance, and they require economic science, and legis- utilise, but the student, if not a man of action himself, lative science, and science of different kinds before they helps and befriends the man of action, and technology, if can get those views in a definite fashion. They would do it is to go on advancing, must go hand in hand with those well, Mr. Haldane continued, to take a lesson from the studies which every university, however situated, is able science of medicine, which has taught that the healing to promote. of the body is absolutely dependent on the understanding of the principles upon which life is governed. There are new ideas which penetrate deeper and deeper as

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. succeeds year. To-day we know that science is the guiding

Paris. star of work. It is in such men and women

as those

Academy of Sciences, July 2.-M. H. Poincaré in the studying in medical colleges that we have the hope of the

chair.-An addition to the notes of May 21 and June ut future, the security that the story of our race may yet

relating to the discontinuity of the specific heats of fluids : be a story of progress, and that in the generation to come

E. H. Amagat.-The action of sulphuretted hydrogen on yet a higher state of things realised than even that which we have realised at the beginning of the

some oxides. Applications to volcanic phenomena and hot twentieth century.

springs : Armand Gautier. At a white heat, sulphuretted

hydrogen reacts with both the magnetic oxide and peroxide The new buildings of Armstrong College, Newcastle-on- of iron, giving iron sulphide and a mixture of hydrogen Tvne, described in NATURE of July 5 (p. 232), were opened and sulphur dioxide. A small quantity of sulphuric acid is by the King, who was accompanied by Queen Alexandra, formed simultaneously, even when oxygen is absent. With on July 11, in the presence of a large and representative alumina, sulphuretted hydrogen gives an oxysulphide of assembly. Addresses to the King were presented by the aluminium, together with a mixture of the same gases as governors and council of the college, the professors, and above. Sulphuretted hydrogen and carbon dioxide at a red the students. In the first-named the president referred to heat give carbon oxysulphide, water, carbon monoxide, and the electrical engineering laboratories, and stated that it hydrogen, the reaction being the same whether the gases is desired to bring this department to as high a level as are initially dry or wet. The bearing of these experiments that of the mechanical engineering of which the college

on the composition of volcanic gases is pointed out.—The is so justly proud. The liberality of the shipbuilders of

lava produced by the recent eruption of Vesuvius : A. the district, it was added, is now being exercised in the

Lacroix. The general phenomena characterising the recent establishment of a school of naval architecture befitting eruption have been described in earlier papers; in the the north-east coast as one of the chief seats in the world

present note the composition of the products corresponding of the shipbuilding industry. In the course of his replies, to each phase of the eruption has been studied.—The earththe King expressed his admiration of the magnificent build

quake in California according to the preliminary official ings : he commended the wisdom of adapting the teaching report : A. de Lapparent. The evidence is distinctly of the college to the practical needs of the students, and,

against the view which has been put forward that there in mentioning the name of Armstrong as identified with

is any connection between the earthquake and volcanic scientific discovery and industrial success,

stated that

phenomena. The Californian earthquake was essentially an scientific principles are now more than ever necessary for orogenic phenomenon, there being signs of dislocation for the mental training of all who hope for success in the

a distance of more than 600 kilometres along the Californian great engineering works for which Newcastle is famous

The connection between the damage done to buildall the world over. The Earl of Carlisle presented the

ings and the nature of the soil upon which they were built Queen with a casket made on the premises by the New

has also been clearly brought out by the preliminary investicastle Handicrafts Company, a practical offshoot of the

gations.--Some synthetical reactions of pinacoline : Louis art department of the college. Afterwards the Dean of

Henry. A study of the products of the reactions between Durham and Mrs. Kitchin, Sir Isambard and Lady Owen,

pinacoline and magnesium-methyl bromide and hydrocyanic attended their Majesties in a visit to the electrical engineer- acid. Both the reactions are normal.-Families of Lamé ing laboratory, where Prof. Thornton had arranged several

with plane trajectories, the planes passing through a fixed interesting demonstrations.

point: S. Carrus.-H. C. Vogel was elected a The summer meeting of the Association of Technical spondant for the section of astronomy in the place of the Institutions was opened at Oxford on July 13, with Sir late Prof. Langlev.-The classification of irrationals : Ed. William Inson, president, in the chair. In his presidential Maillet.-Researches armoured

and the address, Sir William Anson said technical associations are influence of the removal of the charge : F. Schüle.---The komparatively new in our educational system, and an in- influence of surface tension on the propagation of waves cprasing endeavour should be made to accommodate the parallel to the surface of a liquid plate : M. Alliaume.-old to the new, and to find a place for that which is new An optical arrangement generalising the use of the telewithout dispossessing the old, where that which is old scope of i metre diameter at the Observatory of Meudon : is not worn out, where it combines, as the ancient uni- G. Millochau. The arrangement consists of an objective yersities combine, vitality and the promise of the future of three divergent lenses, placed between the telescope with the stability which comes of great traditions drawn mirror and its focus. By varying the position of the from the past. The two elder universities are sometimes lenses, images can be obtained having the dimensions of thought. Sir William Anson continued, to be aloof from those which would be produced by a mirror of a metre thr activities of modern life, and Oxford perhaps more diameter and a focal distance capable of variation from * than Cambridge, because of the devotion which Cam- | 15

metres.--The colorations of fringes bridge has always shown to mathematics. Though a localised in a thin plate limited by a grating: Georges university may legitimately specialise in the direction of Meslin. - Phosphorus chloronitride : MM, Besson and irftain studies, where it can develop those studies in close Rosset. An advantageous method of preparing this subcontact with the operation to which scientific investigation stance is described, and details given of its reactions with

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water, ozone, sulphur trioxide, and nitrogen peroxide.-- Hottentot household utensils, he never said anything about The isomorphism of mercuric iodide with the iodides of the perforated stone being used. Sparrmann, however, zinc and cadmium : A. Duboin. Iodide of mercury is does so. Then follows Burchell, who figures the tiko and capable of crystallising in all proportions with the iodides the kibi. Livingstone, in his last Journal, gives evidence of zinc and cadmium.—The non-existence of phosphorus on the subject, but quotes from memory. In the figures trisulphide : R. Boulouch. Definite sulphides of phos- given in that work the stone is a flat disc. That the phorus having formulæ between P,S, and P,S, do not stones

used for the alleged purpose by exist, and the latter is not necessarily a definite compound. aborigines is, however, made more clear by Bushman –The crystallography of iron : É. Osmond and G. paintings, tracings of which were exhibited by permission Cartaud.—The determination of the transformation points of Prof. Young, of Johannesburg. of some steels by the electrical resistance method: P. May 30.—Dr. J. C. Beattie, president, in the chair.Fournel. The wire under examination (0.3 mm. diameter) Rock etchings of animals, &c., the work of South African was wound on mica and heated in a vacuum by an electric aborigines, and their relation to similar ones found in furnace, the temperature being measured by a thermo- Northern Africa : L. Peringuey. These etchings are not couple, and the resistance measured by the potentiometer uncommon along the Orange River, also the Vaal River, method. Previous researches in which the same method in the Asbestos Mountains, and other parts of the colony, was used have only shown clearly the point called A, by Beaufort West, Clanwilliam, Humansdorp, &c., also in Osmond. In the present research the additional points the Transvaal, and the author proceeded to compare these A, and A, were also clearly defined.—The solubility of with etchings of a similar nature discovered and repmcarbon in calcium carbide : H. Morel Kahn. The amount duced by the Geological Survey of Algeria.-Observations of graphite recoverable from calcium carbide increases with on the functions of the ethereal oils of serophytic plants : the temperature to which the carbide has been subjected Dr. R. Marloth. Since the observations of Tyndall on in the presence of an excess of carbon. It also increases the great diathermancy of the vapours of ethereal oils, with the duration of the heating.–The action of urethane many biologists think that the main function of these and urea on ethylglyoxylate. A new synthesis of allantoin : oils is to produce a protective atmosphere around the L. J. Simon and G. Chavanne.—The formation of plants, thereby reducing their transpiration. If that were indazyl derivatives starting with o-hydrazobenzoic acid : the case, one would rxpect that the excretion of oils would P. Carré.—Ethyl dioximidosuccinate : A. Wahl.-A mode be largest in the driest season and the hottest part of the of reaction of some acid anhydrides : R. Fosse-A new day. But just the reverse is the case, for many aromatic method of estimating casein in cheese : A. Trillat and M. plants do not betray their presence at such times, while Sauton. The method is based on thr fact that the casein the atmosphere becomes filled with their aroma during is rendered insoluble by the addition of formaldehyde. foggy weather. Such plants are many Rutacee, CompoDetails of the control experiments are given.—The com

sites (wormwood), l'mbelliferze (Bubon), Pelargonium, and position of the soils of French Guinea : Alex. Hébert.- even the rhenosterbush. These facts are, however, in The malacological fauna of the lakes of Rodolphe, perfect accordance with the view that the oils are a proStéphanie, and Marguerite : R. Anthony and H. Neuville. tection against the attacks of herbivorous animals, -The development of the egg of Ascaris vitulorum in an especially also against snails and slugs, which appear onli artificial medium: L. Jammes and A. Martin.—The during wet weather. seminal apparatus of Helix : A. Popovici-Baznosanu. The action of the leguminose on the excretion of uric acid : Pierre Fauvel.—The utilisation of carbohydrates in arthritic

CONTENTS. diabetes : René Laufer.-The auto-adaption of abnormal Some Recent Mathematical Works. By G. H. B. , 265 embryos and the tendency to anomaly : Etienne Rabaud. A Treatise on Chemistry.

267 -New attempts on the maturation of the egg in Rana

Popular Evolutionary Theory. By F. A. D.

268 fusca.-Parthenogenesic segmentation provoked by freezing and distilled water : E. Bataillon.—The fundamental unit

Our Book Shelf :of the black the radio-pelvic index: Louis

Orlich : “Aufnahme und Analyse von Wechselstrom. Lapicque.-Fibrillary structure in the Bacteriacex : J.

kurven.”—Dr. J. A. Harker

268 Kunstler and

" Cultures du Midi de l'Algérie Ch. Gineste.-Thyroid grafts : MM.

Rivière and Lecq: Charrin and Cristiani.-Radium in gynæcology: MM.

et de la Tunisie"

269 Oudin and Verchere Details are given of the use of

Baur and Jahn : “Tabulae Botanicae”

269 radium in nine cases, three of which were cured and the

“Reports of the Expedition to the Congo, 1903-5 269 remainder improved.

Bell: “Ten Years' Record of the Treatment of
CAPE TOWN.
Cancer without Operation."-R. T. H..

269 South African Philosophical Society, March 28.--Dr.

Van Dyke : “ The Opal Sea"

260 J. C. Beattie, president, in the chair. -- Morphological re

Letters to the Editor:search on the surviving members of the ancient group, the The Stability of Submarines. - J. H. Jeans ; Sir cycads : Prof. H. H. W. Pearson. The relationship of W. H. White, K.C.B., F.R.S.

270 the group to the Pteridophyta was discussed, and micro- The Action of "a" Radiation on Diamonds.scopic slides showing (a) pollen tubes. (b) the ciliated C. W. R.. spermatozoid, (c) the karvokinesis of the nucleus of the The Day of Week for any Date:-w. e. Johnson : 231 central cell of the archegonium prior to the formation of Some Scientific Centres. VIII. - The Macdonald the canal-cell-nucleus, of Encephalartos Alstensteinii were Physics Building, McGill University, Montreal. exhibited. A specimen of Stangeria paradoxa with an (Illustrated) By A, S. Eve .

272 apogeotropic root and a microscopic section showing the .The York Meeting of the British Association. Proendophystic were also shown.-The nature of visional Programmes of the Sections

275 effect of the sun-spot frequency on the variation of the

Notes. (Illustrated.) inagnetic elements at the Cape of Good Hope : G. 11. H.

277 Fincham. By a consideration of Sabine's observations at

Our Astronomical Column:the Cape of Good Hope obtained in 1842-6, it is shown

Rediscovery of Finlay's Comet (1906d)

282 that the sum of the sun-spot effect on the declination is The Orbit of Castor

282 a maximum in winter; the same result was found for the Planets and Planetary Observations horizontal intensity.

The Sanitary Congress at Bristol .

282 April 25.—Dr. J. C. Beattie, president, in the chair.-

Migrations into Nearer and Further India, By Dr. The round perforated stones (tiko) alleged to have been G. A. Grierson .

28; made by Bushmen for the purpose of giving weight to the “kibi" or digging stick : L. Peringuey.

Research in Terrestrial Magnetism. (Illustrated.). 284

That some aborigines, Bushmen or Hottentots, made use of these Report upon the Californian Earthquake of April 18 285 stones for the aforesaid purpose was now proved. Although

University and Educational Intelligence

286 Kolben did mention the digging stick as a part of the Societies and Academies . .

287

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