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that the poetry of one age necessarily reproduces the workers. In most cases, unfortunately, the exigences thoughts and modes of expression of previous ages. of space prevent much more than lists of species, but It thus appears that the method of treatment which

it can be safely said that this portion of the handbook undoubtedly was admirably adapted to the study of

forms an epitome of the natural history of the dis

trict. Mr. J. E. Clark brings the voluine to close the Greek and Roman period becomes less and less

by some meteorological notes. satisfactory as the present day is approached. The There are three maps sent with the volume, all of early chapters are, therefore, by far the most interest- which are excellent. It was a happy thought tu rr. ing. They deal with the effects of Christianity in

produce Skaife's archæological map of York, and turning man's thoughts from the things of this world

with the help of the Ordnance Survey department a to spiritual matters, and with the revival of the feeling really charming map of the greater part of Yorkshire

is produced. The third is obviously principally for for nature among the German races, who, living in

the use of the geological section, and is coloured ** a northern climate, were naturally led to appreciate as to show the glacial lakes, moraines, &c. and value the beauties associated with the coming of

T. S. summer. But it may be reasonably urged that Bacteria in Relation to Plant Diseases. By Erwin evidence of later-day developments of the feeling for F. Smith. Vol. i. (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie nature should be sought in science rather than in Institute, 1905.) Pp. xii + 283. art, in the interest taken in the study of natural An authoritative account of bacterial plant diseasts phenomena rather than in the recantation of praises has long been a desideratum, and no investigator of sunshine, sea, and the nightingale's song.

more competent than Mr. Erwin Smith, of the U.S. It is fairly certain that if some readers do not find

Department of Agriculture, who has himself made

important original contributions to the subject, could this book as interesting as they expect, there will be

be found to undertake such a task. The bacterial others who will enjoy its perusal more than this review diseases of plants are, however, only incidentally suggests, and we may safely apply to Prof. Biese the mentioned in this, the first volume of the work, which Yorkshire quotation,

“He did his best and he couldn't is mainly devoted to methods of investigation and to do owt else."

a bibliography of the general literature of bacteriology, exclusive of plant diseases. As a guide to

general bacteriological methods we know no better, OUR BOOK SHELF.

though, as it is a preliminary to plant bacteriology 1 Handbook of York and District. Prepared for the methods specially applicable to pathogenic organisms

Seventy-fifth 'Meeting of the British Association for attacking men and animals are necessarily not to the Advancement of Science, 1906. Edited by Dr.

be found. Sterilisation, the preparation of culture G. A. Auden. Pp. xvi+ 365. (York: J. Sampson, media, methods of infection, the investigation of

chemical products, keeping of records, and equipment 1906.)

of the laboratory are all dealt with very fully, explanThe handbook which has been prepared for the benefit

atory figures being used liberally. A considerable of those attending the forthcoming meeting of the section is also devoted to an account of photomicroBritish Association at York will be found to be exceedgraphy. The difficult question of the nomenclature ingly useful. The volume is neatly bound and printed and classification of bacteria is critically discussed at on suitable paper, is of the size now usually adopted considerable length, and forms an excellent summary by the local committees, and has a most appropriate of the whole subject. It the end of the volume a design on the

Undoubtedly most of the number of useful formulæ for stains, etc., is collected, members attending the York meeting will take an and the bibliography, which extends over sixty-four interest in the relics of the past with which this

pages, and index complete the work. The volume is ancient city abounds. It is natural, therefore, that excellently illustrated with thirty-one plates and 140 by far the greater portion of the book should be de- figures in the text. We congratulate Mr. Smith on voted to a description of the various antiquities from this, the first, though perhaps the easier, portion of prehistoric to mediæval times. The editor, Dr. his task, and shall await the appearance of the next Auden, describes the prehistoric remains, Mr. H. M. volume with considerable interest. Platnauer refers to the relics of the Roman and

R. T. HEWI EIT Danish occupations, and other writers continue the

Outlines of Zoology. By Prof. J. A. Thomson. The second part of the volume, which is restricted

Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. Pp. xis +39 100 pages, contains an account of the geology,

(Edinburgh and London : Young J. Pentland, 1900.1 hotany, zoology, and meteorology of York and district, and, as might be expected from the space | Tuis book has very great positive merits and very allotted, this part of the work is much more slight defects. Though it is packed with facts, and densed, and is not so readable as the earlier portion. can be recommended to students preparing for ex. The Rev. W. Johnson describes the geology of the aminations, vet it is never dull. Prof. Thomson de district in a chapter exceedingly brief, possibly due scribes animals, not as corpses, but as living creatures to the fact that "the geology of York is, in one with interesting habits that depend largely on their sense, of the simplest kind. Dr. W. G. Smith, of structure. The method leads to expansion, and in the Leeds University, gives an interesting general this excellent zoological text-book is a single roval survey of the botanical features of the district. This octavo of hardly more than eight hundred pages. chapter is particularly appropriate in view of the lead. Though our author,

American term. ing part being played by Dr. Smith and his colleagues enthuses ” his readers, he does not waste words in Yorkshire in reference to botanical survey. Lists

over it. of flowering plants, algæ, fungi, Hepaticæ, Sphag- In his general survey in the first chapter he begins naceæ, Musci Veri; mammals, birds, reptiles, with monkeys, as being the animals most like man amphibians, fishes, beetles, butterflies, moths, and and works down to the Protozoa. In the body of the land and fresh-water shells are given by various York book, reversing the order, he proceeds from the lowest

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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. between two methods each of which has something to recommend it. The early chapters, that deal with

(The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions

expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake the functions of animals, the modern conception of

to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected protoplasm, the elements of structure, reproduction,

manuscripts intended for this or any other part of Nature. the evolution of sex, and heredity are particularly good. No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] The chapter on palæontology is, owing to the necessary limitations, far too short for the subject, but a

Osmotic Pressure. table makes clear the order in which the different Prof. KAHLENBERG's letter published in Nature on classes of animals appeared upon the earth. When we July 5 shows that, as so often happens, the controversy come to the body of the book we notice, as in the about osmotic pressure is based on a difference in meaning opening chapters, the remarkable clearness of the assigned to that term. style; and though morphology is in no way neglected,

We may adopt what now appears to be Prof. Kahlenvet some room is always found for the description of

berg's conception, and regard the osmotic pressure of a the habits of the animals in question. For instance,

solution as a real experimental pressure reached with some

actual membrane in certain practical conditions. Such a there are some eight pages devoted to the habits and

definition gives us a conception of great interest and functions of birds, their modes of flight, their court

importance, especially from a physiological poir of view. ship, their nests, moulting, diet, migrations.

But unfortunately it has no bearing on the thermodynamic One or two minor points may now be mentioned theory of solution-or the allied theories of fusion and that seem to be open to criticism. Plants and animals, evaporation--which apparently Prof. Kahlenberg still Prof, Thomson says, “represent the divergent wishes to attack by its means, after he has insisted that branches of a V-shaped tree of life." But plants the formation of crystals from a solution, or the concenoriginated before animals; the nature of their food iration of a solution by evaporation not osmotic proves this beyond a doubt. Animals we must look

processes.” Of course they are not osmotic processes in upon as a branch from the primitive verretable stem.

Prof. Kahlenberg's sense of the term. But the theory of The account of the Hydromedusæ would be much

fusion and evaporation, which, as I pointed out in my

letter published on May 31, has been verified experimentally better for an illustration—a figure of a hydroid with

in the case of the depression of the freezing point to an the Medusa of the alternating generation or of Tubu

accuracy of nearly one in a thousand, depends on the laria with its Actinula, Such additions would, of hypothetical separation of solvent by some ideal and perfect course, increase the bulk of the book, but the figure semi-permeable process. of a frog (p. 560) is superfluous, since everyone knows It is such considerations as these that demand the other what a frog is like. Again, the process of natural conception of osmotic pressure, which, suggested no doubt selection is easily intelligible without Fig. 378.

by Pfeffer's experiments on osmosis, has now, in accordF. W. H. ance with the usual course of development of the concepts

of physical science, come to possess an ideal significance, Inimal Heroes; being the Histories of a Cat, a Dog, towards which the actual experimentally measured quantity

can but tend as the experimental conditions approach the a Pigeon, a Lynx, two Wolves, and a Reindeer.

ideal state postulated in the theoretical definition. By E. T. Seton. Pp. 362; illustrated. (London :

Defining osmotic pressure as the hydrostatic pressure Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 1906.) Price needed to keep a solution in equilibrium with its solvent 6s. net.

an ideally perfect semi-permeable membrane, we Mr. SETON has always something fresh and interest- logical importance, which nevertheless enables

obtain a conception, possibly of less chemical and physioing to tell his readers, and in the present beautifully develop a thermodynamic theory of solution ; and this illustrated volume breaks new ground in attempting to theory has been verified experimentally in cases where we reveal some aspects of the strenuous side of the lives have reason to suppose that the actual conditions approach of animals, both wild and domesticated. Every one of the ideal. the stories, we are told-although of course amplified I have found that this confusion of ideas as to the conand set out with the picturesque surroundings the ception of osmotic pressure has occasioned trouble in other author knows so well how to portray-is founded on

cases. It would be well if a new name could be applied the actual life of some individual bird or quadruped; to osmotic pressure when used in one or other of its meanthe biography of the lynx being based on the author's ings; but I suppose that each side in the controversy would

insist on the rights of possession and customary usage. own backwood experiences. Where all is so good,

Hence I would suggest that, at the cost of some complexity fresh, and entertaining, it seems almost invidious to

of nomenclature, one of the two meanings should be select one portion of the book for special commenda- emphasised as experimental osmotic pressure and the tion. To our thinking, however, the almost pathetic other as thermodynamic osmotic pressure.' story of “ Arnaux," the. homing-pigeon, is far ahead Prof. Kahlenberg remarks that “in creating the theory of the rest in sustained interest; but some may prefer of electrolytic dissociation, the actual phenomena of electrothe history of the tame wolf, while to others, again, i lysis have played a minor part, and wishes thus to the narrative of the wild reindeer may appeal more

invalidate my statement that “the theory rests on electrical strongly. Alike to young and old the book may be

evidence, and by such evidence it must be tried." I can heartily commended as an excellent example of the

hardly believe that Prof. Kahlenberg would wish seriously best style of animal biography.

R. L.

to commit himself to the opinion that the historical train of ideas by which a given hypothesis may have been

reached necessarily supplies the only (or even the best) Some Facts about the Weather. By William Marriott.

logical basis for its support. We do not always doubt the Pp. 32.

, . (London : Edward Stanford, 1906.) , stability of our houses because it has been necessary or Price 60,

convenient to remove some of the scaffolding used in their This pamphlet supplies just the information about

construction.

It is true that the abnormally great osmotic pressures meteorological phenomena likely to be useful to the general public. The instruments in use in climato

and freezing-point depressions of electrolytic solutions logical stations are enumerated, and the determining originally suggested that the molecules of their solutes

were dissociated ; but such observations clearly can give no factors of climate are explained in order. The information on the electrical state of the dissociated strucbooklet should be the means of stimulating interest

A valid test for an electric ion must depend on some in the scientific study of weather.

electrical property, such as motion in an electric field.

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At the request of Prof. Armstrong, I have summarised I give here just a few instances of the double use of a already what seems to me the electrical evidence for the generic name. Liparis is the nun moth of Europe and an dissociation theory, and I will not repeat what appeared orchid of Europe ; Iris is an insect and the well-known plant, in your columns of May 31; but I wish again to express Lælia is a moth and an orchid ; Adesmia is a beetle and a hope that someone who rejects the theory will put for- a shrub; Castalia is a beetle of India and the water-lily, ward an alternative scheme to explain the mechanism of while Castalius is an Indian butterfly; Graeffea is a Phasmid electrolytic conduction.

W. C. D. WHETHAM. of Fiji and a plant of Fiji; Empusa is an insect and an Trinity College, Cambridge, July 13.

insect-killing fungus; Prosopis is a bee and a plant. Stilbum is a Chrysid and å fungus; Acrocephalus is d bird and a herb; Taphria is an insect and the legitimised

form of Taphrina, a fungus. To emphasise my point it The Fertilisation of Pieris.

will be my endeavour to ascertain if a fungus of the genus On May 20, near Chindi, in the State of Sukét, North. Empusa can destroy the insect Empusa, il Castalius visits Western Himalaya, I was able to make notes on the Castalia, and if Acrocephalus eats the seed of Acrocephalus pollination of Pieris ovalifolia by Pieris brassicae, Pieris

1. HENRY BURKILL. soracta, and other insects. Pieris ovalifolia, D. Don, at

Indian Museum, Calcutta. Chindi, grows to be a small tree in forests of Pinus longifolia and Pinus excelsa on hill-sides about 6000 feet, where in May thousands of Pieris soracta, and hundreds of Pieris brassicae, flit through the trees.

AUSTRALIAN ORIGINS.' My first observations were made about 6 a.m., before the sun was fully on the hill-side ; and then the Pieris IF

F the enthusiasm which leads a man of science flowers were visited by Bombus haemorrhoidalis, Smith,

to travel at midsummer to one of the hottest in a very diligent way. Later, after the sun was well regions of the world may be taken as evidence, up, came Pieris brassicae, Schrank, to the flowers, and geology will soon have much to say on Australian then many individuals of Pieris soracta, F. Moore, which anthropological problems. Prof. Gregory, at the is in May a most abundant butterfly. With the butter- instigation of Dr. Howitt, visited the Lake Eyre flies a large steel-blue and orange wasp came to the region, with a prospect of encountering a temperature Pieris bushes, and bit holes in the corollas, which later of some 120° F., in order to throw light on the little Aphids also used for stealing the honey.

legends of the aborigines and the problem of their Pieris branches stand horizontal, with the leaves on a plane original home. All over Australia are found stories above the racemes of flowers. There are twenty to thirty of monsters like the Bunyip; but in the Lake Eyre flowers on a raceme, and the topmost open as the lowest region they present peculiar features; the animals, die. Each flower is a bell, like that of one of our common

called Kadimakara, are said to be extinct, and are English Ericas, 10 mm. long, and very slightly constricted at the middle; the mouth is only 2 mm. in

represented as arboreal in their habits according to diameter. Pierids and Bombus suck honey hanging under

one form of the legend, aquatic in another. The the bells, except where some fortuitous circumstance brings

latter is of no special interest, but it is difficult to the flowers of one branch close to the leaves of another ;

see how the idea of sky people and animals could and then the butterflies are very ready to try to get the have originated in Australia, the vegetation of which honey without having to hang back downwards to reach is not apt to suggest the idea. Prof. Gregory sees in into the bells. When once back downwards they walk it evidence of migration, either of legends or of their as on a causeway along the long, regular racemes, gener-narrators, from tropical parts. ally from younger to older flowers, i.e. towards the base. It is certain that at the present day transmission

Pieris anthers are two-horned, as are so many of the of the dramatic performances known as corroborees anthers in the Ericaceæ, and with the help of their fila

is very common. The expedition saw on the Peak ments make an entanglement at the constriction of the Station, west of Lake Eyre, a corroboree known to bell. The filaments are much more bent into an S than is usual in the Ericaceæ, and form a spring which, by since the year 1893. From a photograph in the

have travelled from North-west Central Queensland pressing with the lower curve of the letter against the corolla, holds the anther pores against the style, in such

possession of the present writer it is certain that the a firm manner that they can only fre: the powdery pollen

dance called Molongo in Queensland and Tji-tjiwhen the pressure of the spring is interfered with. This ngalla near Lake Eyre was known to the Arunia at the visiting insects do, and receive a shower of pollen on

Alice Springs in 1903 or 1904; but whether it came their heads or probosces. A, it is impossible to slit

við the Peak or from the north-east cannot be deterthe corolla without causing pollen to fall, the part mined. From Dr. Howitt and others we learn that it plays in keeping closed the anther por is evident ; new songs are passed from tribe to tribe, their meanand it is also impossible to push a needle past the ringings being forgotten; and the tendency seems to have of anthers without liberating pollen. The stigma is close existed in the 'thirties of the last century, so that it to the mouth of the flower, and is bound to be touched

cannot be put down to European influence and easier by an insect's tongue before it touches the anthers. When

communication. There is, however, no similar mature it is 4.5 mm. beyond the anther-ring. The stigma

evidence of transmission of myths; prima facie, there. matures after the opening of the flower, and the style

fore, there is no ground for supposing that the grows 1.5 mm. between the opening of the bud and its maturity, but the anther-pores appear in the bud. Honey

Kadimakara story is of foreign origin; to raise the is secreted very abundantly behind the slightly broadened presumption it would be necessary to find its analogue bases of the filaments. The duration of the flowers is

elsewhere. several days. After the fall of the corolla, the sepals close

The argument for the foreign origin of this myth over the ovary, and the pedicel ultimately turns upwards. rests in part on the assumption that the geographical

I have communicated the above actual observations to conditions of the region have been unchanged since Nature in the hope that both zoologists and botanists may its present, or rather, in only too many cases, late read them, and be reminded of the possible inconveniences occupiers reached it. In proof of this Prof. Gregory resulting from using the same generic name for two even quotes legends explaining the origin of natural very distinct organisms. I admit that we are not at pre- features and representing them as the same when sent at all likely to rule that a previous use of a name they were first known as they are at the present day. in zoology or botany precludes its use in botany or But it is clear that we are not entitled to assume the zoology; but it is desirable to do what one can to avoid using used names, and to forward that end indexes like 1 "The Dead Heart of Australia ; a Journey round Lake Eyre in the Durand's “ Index Generum Phanerogamarum become

Summer of 1901-2, with some Account of the Lake Eyre Basin and use the more and more wanted, especially from the zoologists.

Flowing Wells of Central Australia." By Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S

Pp. xvi+ 384. (London: John Murray, 1906.) Price 16s. net.

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same age for all items in a stock of folk-tales; and that there is no evidence of intermixture, and points in any case the evidence of myths is untrustworthy to the singular uniformity of type in Australia as in matters of history. It seems possible that man was evidence of racial purity. Against this it may be in the area before the great climatic changes described said that there is considerable variation in hair, as in the work before us; the failure to find worked stones may be seen by comparing Taplin's South Australian associated with the extinct marsupials cannot be types with Spencer and Gillen's Central tribesmen. regarded as decisive until a wider search has been As Prof. Gregory points out, the skull is more varimade.

able than hair; similarity of physical conditions may Unfortunately, Prof. Gregory was unable to see more have more to do with similarity of skull-type than than a portion of the Tji-tji-ngalla corroboree. Its any original uniformity of physical type. transmission raises interesting problems; in Queens- The latter half of the book is devoted to a discussion land the Molongo is a kind of evil spirit, and it would of how the dead heart of Australia can be revived, be interesting to know whether it is in this light and of the origin of the water supply of the so-called that the principal performer is regarded in Central artesian well in Australia. It appears that the scheme Australia. Some of the words are recorded, and the for an inland sea, to be formed by supplying Lake author is disposed to see in the fact that they are Eyre with water from the Southern Ocean, is imuntranslatable by the performers evidence of rapid practicable. It would cost little less than the amount

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changes in language. But it is the unintelligibility of our national debt. Prof. Gregory protests against which causes the changes, and not vice versa. The the waste of water from the wells, justifiable only song passes from tribe to tribe, and is unintelligible on the supposition that they will never cease to flow. a few miles from its centre of origin. The change Experience shows that they are already diminishing in corroboree words is therefore comparable to the their supplies, not from any choking of the bores, variations introduced by children into counting-out but from more radical causes, and it is suggested rhymes, &c., which they have learnt, parrot fashion, in the work before us that the real source of the from a foreigner; these changes would not be evid- supply is not meteoric, but plutonic; in other words, ence of modifications in European languages. Australia is recklessly drawing on a banking account

By discovering dingo bones in association with which has been steadily piled up for tens or hundreds those of the Thylacinus, now found alive only in Tas- of thousands of years. Unless measures are taken mania, Dr. Gregory has added force to the argument to check youthful extravagance, future generations that the dingo was not introduced by man. He also of colonists will have cause to regret that no heed argues that the Tasmanians must have been in is paid to the warnings of geologists. Australia before the dingo if, as Dr. Howitt argues, The work is excellently illustrated by numerous they passed into Tasmania by land. On the relation maps, plans, and plates. Anthropologists will look of the Tasmanians and Australians Prof. Gregory forward to the other work on the aborigines which has seen reason to change his view. He now holds Prof. Gregory promises in the preface. N. W. T.

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SOME RESULTS OF THE BELGICA"

Strait and of the drift in the ice contain most new EXPEDITION.'

information. The text is illustrated by twenty-nine

photographs and plates, many of which are of THE

HE voyage of the Belgica is an important land- unusual merit. Most of the photographs were taken

mark in Antarctic exploration, for, in addition by Dr. Cook, others by M. Lecointe, and some by to its adventurous journey and its

valuable geo

M. Arctowski. graphical discoveries, it was the first expedition to M. É, de Wildeman's report on the phanerogams

of the Magellan Archipelago is based upon the material collected by M. Racovitza, during a short stay there, before the departure of the expedition to the south. The report begins with a description of M. Racovitza's collection, and, as many of the species were imperfectly known, the author has taken this opportunity of giving a detailed account of them, illustrated by a series of fine plates, Then follows a systematic enumer. ation of the phanerogamic flora of the southern part of Patagonia and of the adjacent archipelago, and a detailed table of distribution. The author concludes that the new collections show that the Alora of Tierra del Fuego is less primitive and distinct from that of the mainland of South America than had been thought. All the species are found on the American continent, and some of them have a wide distribution. Amongst other

British species there are Rumex Fig. 1.—The stream falling into Torrent Bay, Beagle Channel. -Magellan Stralt.

maritimus, on Tierra del Fuego,

while Urtica dioica and l'eronica make deep-sea collections within the Antarctic circle. arvensis occur on the mainland. The scientific results of the expedition are in process The memoir by M. Dollo on the fish collected by the of publication in a fine series of volumes which will | Belgica discusses problems of more general interest long be an indispensable work of reference on Antarctic geography and biology. The three memoirs the titles of which given below contain further instalments of the geographical, botanical, and zoological contributions.

The second part of the first volume of the Rapports scientifiques" of the expedition gives the technical geographical observations, and some account of the methods. Every effort has been made to remove uncertainty as to the geographical positions attained, as the calculations for some of them are repeated at length. The text is mainly devoted to detailed descriptions of the harbours and coasts visited in the Magellan Archipelago, and in the subsequent journey past Graham's Land and through Gerlache Strait, and there is a full account of the long drift of the Belgica

Fig. 2.-Sierra Du Fief (Wiencke Island). in the ice, from February 19, 1898, to March 15, 1899. The volume is accompanied than those of the two other reports. It includes a by an atlas of seven charts, of which those of Gerlache systematic description of the fish collected by the ex1 “Expédition Antarctique Belge. Résultats du Voyage du S. Y.

pedition, including three new genera-Cryodraco, Belgica en 1897-99 sous le Commandement de A. de Gerlache de Gomery Gerlachia, and Racovitzaia. The Cryodraco is of Rapports scientifiques. Travaux hydrographiques et Instructions nau.

some historic interest, as a specimen no doubt betiques. Vol. i., part i. By G. Lecointe. Pp. no, xxix plates, with a portfolio of 7 charts. (Antwerp, 1905.)

longing to this genus was caught frozen against Botanique-Les Phanerogames des Terres Magellaniques.” By É. de the bow of the Erebus during Ross's expedition. Wildeman. Pp. 222, xxiii plates. (Antwerp, 1905.) Zoologie-Poissons." By L. Dollo. Pp. 239, xii plates. (Antwerp,

The fish was sketched at the time by Robertson, but 1905.)

it was devoured by the ship's cat before it could

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