Page images

be preserved. The fishes collected by the Belgica (2) Yellow fever is transmitted by one particular in the Weddell Sea were all pelagic. One species, a mosquito, known to science as Stegomyia fasciata, Nematonurus, came from a depth of 2800 metres. and by no other mosquito or in any other way. In addition to the account of the first deep-sea fish (3) In order to transmit the infection, the Stegomyia collected within the Antarctic circle, there is an must have sucked the blood of a patient during the account of a larger collection made in the Magellan first three days of the fever, not earlier (during the Archipelago, accompanied by a bibliography and full incubation period), and not later. account of the fish fauna of that area. The fish are (4) The infection is transmitted after an incubation not only described and illustrated with M. Dollo's period in the mosquito of not less than twelve days, usual skill and care, but their significance is discussed and the mosquito may still be infectious fifty-seven in the very interesting chapters devoted to their 200- days after its first infection.

It is a peculiar fact that although there are many species of Stegomyia, so far as is known it is only S. fasciata that is capable of transmitting the disease. If we may accept this as established, it points to a peculiar relationship between the mosquito and yellow fever which is not exactly

paralleled by the case of any other disease-transmitting agent, be it mosquito, fly, or tick.

In the case of malaria, filariasis, and trypanosomiasis there is not this absolutely limited correlation between the disease and the agent that transmits. Malaria we know is transmitted only by mosquitoes of the subfamily Anophelina of the Culicidæ.' This

subfamily is divided into a number of genera, and FIG. 3.-Cryodraco, according to Robertson's sketch made on the Erebus.

not only do different species of the same genus, logical and geographical relations. M. Dollo main

e.g. Mysomyia culicifacies and Mysomyia funesta, tains that the Antarctic fish are of modern develop

transmit malaria, but also species pertaining to difment and highly specialised, and are not, as has been

ferent genera, e.g. Pyretophorus costalis and Anothought, a primitive fauna. He discusses the problem

pheles maculipennis, or, if we do not accept these of bipolarity, which has commanded wide attention

as different genera, and classify them all as belongowing to its advocacy by Sir John Murray. M. Dolloing to a single genus, Anopheles, still we have the maintains that the evidence of the fish gives no

fact of transmission by different species. In filariasis support to this theory. Thus he points out that in still less definite; thus not only various species of

the correlation between Filaria and the mosquito is the Antarctic area the predominant family of fish is Culex, but various species of Anopheles all permit that of the Nototheniidæ, whereas in the Arctic Ocean the dominant group is the Cottidæ. In the wide dis

of the development of the microfilariæ (filarial emtribution of the Nototheniidæ in the Southern Ocean

bryos) in their tissues. (It may be well to say in and the South Pacific M. Dollo sees further support passing that the proof that mosquitoes actually do of the existence of the assumed Miocene Antarctic

transmit Filaria is still wanting.) continent, connected with New Zealand, Australia,

Our knowledge of the correlation of trypanosomes and flies, especially species of Glossina, Tabanus, and Stomoxys, is still incomplete. Ngana, the tsetse-fly disease of Africa, is transmitted by species of Glossina,

but not by Stomoxys or Tabanus. The trypanosome of sleeping sickness is transmitted by Gi. palpalis mainly, but also by other species; but it is not yet known which exactly these are.

Again, in the transmission of various species of Piroplasma by ticks, various genera and species of ticks suffice to transmit the same species of Piroplasma.

As to the transmission of Spirochætes by ticks, our

knowledge is at present incomplete, and it would FIG. 4.-Cryodraco, according to Dollo.

be especially interesting to discover if the relationand South America, but separated from South Africa; fever, for Spirochætes (invisible) have been suggested

ship were as strict as it appears to be in yellow for eleven-twelfths of the Nototheniidæ are littoral | by Schaudinn as the possible cause of yellow fever, species, and, according to Dollo, they can only have The fact, then, that yellow fever appears to be spread along the former shores of this sunken land.

transmitted by only one genus of mosquitoes, and J. W. G.

only one species in that genus, points to some very

peculiar relationship, and would suggest an YELLOW JACK.

ganism as the cause, of a different kind from any of THE main facts established regarding yellow fever

those we have mentioned, and, indeed, this is no

doubt the case, as, if it had not been so, the cause and mosquitoes can be summed up in a few propositions.

would have been already discovered. (i) The cause of yellow fever is unknown.

Yellow fever, then, is transmitted by a particular 1 Report to the Government of British Honduras upon the Outbreak of

and practically world-wide mosquito, Stegomyia Yellow Fever in that Colony in 1905. together with an Account of the Dis: fasciata. The fact still requires emphasis that mostributinn of the Stegomyia fas iata in Belize, and the Measures necessary quitoes only transmit disease from the sick person to stamp out or prevent the Recurrence of Yellow Fever. By Rubert Boyce, M.B., F.R.S. Pp. ix+104+13 Plates. (London : Waterlow and

to the healthy after certain changes have proceeded Sons Ltd., 1906.)

in the tissues of the mosquitoes, and that mosquitoes




do not get malaria, yellow fever, &c., from the water town it is conceivable that the condition of things of pools or marshes.

might be no better than before. For the doing away The author in this report emphasises the necessity with canals, &c., implies drainage and re-levelling, for the knowledge of these facts, for, as he points and is a far more expensive matter than mosquitoout, it is useless to expect an intelligent carrying-out destroying in back-yards. But no considerations of of prophylactic measures by those ignorant of the this kind should restrain us from doing our utmost present state of our knowledge, or by those who have absolutely to free a town of its tub-bred larva, and

that this is possible is shown by experience at Havana and New Orleans.

Not only must the larvæ be proceeded against, but also all adult mosquitoes, and that this is not the impossible task it might at first sight appear has also been shown by the Americans.

By very simple means, by pasting up a house with sheets of paper, and by the use of a suitable fumi. gating mixture (camphor and carbolic acid), not only rooms, but outhouses and sheds can be expeditiously and completely freed from mosquitoes.

By these means the epidemic of yellow fever in New Orleans of 1905 was rapidly, brought to an end. The history of the epidemic shows what can be done by systematised effort supported by the intelligent cooperation of the whole of a city.

The present very able and comprehensive report sets out at length the conditions prevailing in British Honduras, showing how in Belize, the capital, and other towns all those conditions exist which in the light of our present knowledge should not exist. Stegomyia fasciata exists in profusion, and breeds freely, and so far without hindrance, in water vats, tanks, wells, barrels, tins, and a multitude of other receptacles.

In considering the origin of the outbreak of the disease in British Honduras, the author adopts the

view that the disease was imported, and does not Fig. 1.- Operations in yellow fever prophylaxis at New Orleans.

discuss another possibility. It is well known, howouthouse completely closed with paper.

ever, that among the native population in yellow'.

fever areas the children suffer from extremely mild a “conscientious belief” that malaria is due to attacks of fever, and, indeed, many of these cases marshes and yellow fever to digging the soil. are not recognised as such. By this means an en.

The Stegomyia fasciata is essentially a domestic demic supply of yellow fever may always exist, and mosquito, i.e. it'frequents houses, it breeds in it may be only at some years' interval that the disease domestic utensils, pots, cisterns, tubs, tins, cala- breaks out again in epidemic form. bashes, boats, flower-pots, &c., in fact, in any col- Apart from this, however, the outbreak of the lection of water about a house.

epidemic is minutely traced, and the difficulty of The destruction of larvæ is, therefore, a comparatively simple matter, and if the water were emptied out, thousands of potential mosquitoes would be at once destroyed. Where it is impossible to empty any collection of water, then the simple device of covering the receptacle with suitable gauze has the same effect. So that the destruction of larvæ of Stegomyia can readily be effected if only people will or can be compelled to do it!

We may express some doubt, however, as to what would happen supposing Stegomyia suddenly by some governor's edict found all their breeding tubs emptied of water covered

Would they be content to die, or would they now breed in ditches, canals, Fig. 2.-House in Belize with waterlogged yard. Numerous water receptacles consisting of barrels

and kerosene tins. slowly-flowing streams, &c., Anophelinæ do? We think they would choose the latter course, and this point is detection of early cases, and the resulting fatality not solely of academical interest, for the most under such conditions, emphasised. vigorous campaign against tubs and cisterns might The necessity for efficient sanitary survey, especially have been carried out, and yet the Stegomyia in the matter of breeding-places, is pointed out. might now be enforced to breed in drains, canals, Finally, we have a complete account of the influence &c., and if these existed in the midst of the on shipping and disturbance of trade of such an out



[ocr errors]





break, and a full discussion of quarantine regulations the principal triangulation and secondary methods is of various authorities.

well illustrated, and incidentally we are shown the For the administrator and sanitarian in yellow- relative degrees of accuracy of the triangulations of lever zones the report is indispensable. For permis- different countries. Taking the ratio between presion to reproduce the above two plates we are indebted cision and length of the triangulation of Great Britain 10 the courtesy of the Colonial Office.

as a unit, we find that ratio to be 0.6 in Russia and J. W. W. STEPHENS.

0.7 in India, the only two countries which can claim a superior degree of accuracy; while in France and Prussia it rises to 2.5 and 2.6 respectively, and we

are told that South Africa and the United States are SCIENTIFIC WORK OF THE SURVEY of equal in precision to France and Prussia. This is INDIA.

something of a surprise, for we were always under

the impression that the triangulations of these two IF F any apology were needed for the maintenance of last countries was of a very high degree of accuracy

the scientific work of the Indian survey it will as compared with that of older systems. be found in No. 9 of the series of professional papers Colonel Burrard proceeds to show that we have of that department, which has been especially prepared by no means arrived at an ideally accurate framefor the use of the Survey Committee of 1905 by work for the basis of our mapping even yet. Accurate Lieut.-Colonel S. G. Burrard, R.E., F.R.S., the as the process of measurement may be, inaccuracies Superintendent of Trigonometrical Surveys in India. in the data for reducing observations introduce very Thar committee was appointed for the purpose of considerable and very practical errors. The deflection examining into the existing system of the Indian of the plumb line, the deformation of the earth's Survey Department with the view of rendering it more figure (which has upset the original calculations of efficient as a topographical institution, having regard the earth's size, giving it a diameter which is two to the increasing demand for more accurate military miles too short), and other physical causes of initial mapping in India, and the necessity for more perfect error have this effect, amongst others, viz., that we revision of those maps which are gradually falling 1000 feet too far north with our position of out of date with the advance of public works de- Peshawar in northern India, and two and threevelopments. India is an unscientific country. The quarter miles too far east with our position of the scientific members of the Anglo-Indian community Salween River in Burma. This is of little consewould hardly fill a first-class carriage on any railway quence until we come to an international junction line, and they exist only as paid servants of the with other surveys. It has already had a certain Government, living in constant fear of “reduction” effect in the junction of the geographical surveys when any financial crisis occurs. They have to justify of Afghanistan and Russia, which (after making due their existence from time to time, and Colonel allowance for these errors) was fairly satisfactory. Burrard is to be congratulated on the very effective When, however, a connection between the principal justification which he has given to the public for triangulations of these two countries is effected, it the maintenance of the scientific branches of his may become necessary to revise our Indian data; but, own department. It is all the more valuable for as Colonel Burrard wisely points out, unless we are the reasons that the booklet which contains his to continue systematically to combine with other opinions is written in clear and simple language, countries (notably South Africa and America) in the intelligible even to the most unscientific reader, and elucidation of those scientific problems which form that it appeals directly to a far wider circle of men of the basis of the world's mapping, we shall never science than can be found in any one department. reach the possibility of a final revision, which will The various sections of the scientific work which place our international boundary pillars in the same Colonel Burrard superintends are principal triangula- terms regards their position on the earth's tion, levelling, astronomical, pendulum, magnetic and tidal observations, and solar photography. He deals No practical surveyor will quarrel with Colonel with them all in turn concisely, showing their relative Burrard's conclusions, or be disposed to criticise his interdependence and their practical utility.

plea for extending the principal triangulation of India No distinction is drawn by Colonel Burrard between far enough to cover the Indian borderlands, where scientific and practical work. He maintains rightly it is of almost paramount importance that we should that their relations constant. “The primary possess a substantially accurate basis for topography. object of a national survey is the making of maps, After all, this preliminary work of the most scientific and all operations are subordinated to that end. It class only adds 10 per cent. to the final cost of the is for topographical purposes that a national survey

survey. measures its allotted portion of the earth's surface. The interdependence of astronomical, pendulum (for Is, however, these measurements be combined wit:: nvestigating the eccentricities of the force of gravity), astronomical determinations, the size and shape of and levelling operations is duly emphasised, and in the earth can be deduced, and a knowledge of this connection with the latter some interesting details. are size and shape is essential to astronomers, geo- given regarding the probable heights of the highest graphers, geologists and meteorologists, all of whom

peaks in the Himalayas. These details have already look to surveys for information.” Here, then, is the

been referred to in the pages of NATURE. Investigaprinciple of geodetic triangulation enunciated, and

tions into magnetic phenomena and solar physics the wholesome doctrine recalled to mind that it is speak for themselves. They cost little, and add the measurement of “ areas," and not“ arcs,” which greatly to the sum of our scientific knowledge of will be found most useful for the geodesist as for

the data surrounding certain most obscure and elusive the practical topographer. The connection between

natural forces.

As a unit in the series of professional papers of I Survey of India, Professional Papers, Serial No. 9, 1905:-An Account nf the Scientific Work of the Survey of India, and a Comparison of its

the Indian survey, this is perhaps the most imProgress with that of Foreign Surveys prepared for use of the Survey portant that has yet appeared, and it is one which Committee, 1095. A ,

world-wide community of practical Calcutta : Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, *1906.) appeals to Price 1s. 6.









[ocr errors]



Essex Field Club for the systematic study of these interest.

ing relics of antiquity, generally known as “ red hills," The knighthood just conferred upon Dr. W. H. Perkin, and the settlement, if possible, of the many questions reF.R.S., has given much satisfaction in scientific circles.

lating to them. Among the members of the committee are The great interest being shown in his services to science

Mr. Miller Christy, Mr. William Cole, Mr. T. V. Holmes, and industry, on account of the celebration of the coal-tar

Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., Mr. F. W. Rudler, and Mr. H. colour jubilee to-day and to-morrow, makes this official

Wilmer, hon. sec. and treasurer. The chairman of the mark of recognition of his work particularly welcome. It committee is Mr. I. Chalkley Gould. was fifty years ago when Sir William Perkin discovered the first anilin dye-mauve-and so founded the coal-tar colour

The well-known balloon journey made by Comte industry, which has been profitably developed in

de Lavaux, the French aëronaut, at the time of the Paris Germany. His knighthood, with the other honours and Exhibition in 1900, when the distance from Paris to addresses which will be presented to him at the Royal

Moscow was traversed in forty-one hours, was recently Institution today, thus form an appropriate crown to his surpassed by the brothers Wegener, of the German sëro. successful career.

nautical observatory at Lindenberg. The details of their

ascent have now been published in the Strassburg 1ero. The University of Oxford has recently taken

nautische Mittheilungen. The balloon, of 36,000 cubic feet departure in scientific teaching. Under the energetic con

capacity, and infiated with hydrogen, started from Berlin duct of Prof. Sollas, a contingent from the geological

at 9 a.m. on April 5 last, and descended at 9, on class started to spend a week among the Alps for the pur

April 7 six and half miles east of Aschaffenburg. pose of studying on the ground the structures which have

During their journey of at least 900 miles, the Wegeners in recent years been so keenly studied and discussed, crossed the Baltic Sea and Jutland twice, once travelling especially the recumbent folds that are claimed to play north and again on the return journey. The route was a large part in the architecture of the mountains. At determined by astronomical observations at night and by Lausanne on June 30 they were met by the enthusiastic

visual and photographic observations during the day. The explorer of Alpine geology Prof. Lugeon, who took charge altitudes at which the journey was performed were of the excursion, and enabled the members of the party to follows :-during the day of April 5, 1200 metres ; on the see with their own eyes some of the gigantic disturbances night of April 5-6, from 200 metres to 800 metres; from to which the region has been subjected. They followed one sunrise to midday on April 6, up to 2900 metres; from after the other the folds and internal structure of the midday to sunset of the same day, 300 metres to Préalpes médianes, and finished up with a glimpse of the metres; during the next night, from 100 metres to 800 successive vast folds of the central crystalline region. metres, except when in the vicinity of Hamburg, where the Starting sometimes as early as 5 a.m., they spent long days balloon was taken to a height of 2900 metres.

The greatest in climbing and viewing the disposition of the rocks from altitude, of 3700 metres, was reached on April 7. The favourable points of view, and, thanks to the clear exposi- lowest temperature recorded was -- 16° C. tions of the eminent Swiss professor, learnt more in a few days on the ground than they could have acquired by

THE seventh International Zoological Congress will be months of sedulous reading.

held in America in August or September, 1907, under the

presidency of Mr. Alexander Agassiz. The arrangements The Matteucci medal for 1906 of the Società Italiana for the congress are in charge of a committee of the della Scienze, the president of which is Prof. Cannizzaro, American Society of Zoologists. The meetings will open in has been conferred upon Sir James Dewar.

Boston, where the scientific sessions will be held, and from The Paris correspondent of the Times announces the

which excursions will be made to Harvard University and death, at the age of sixty-nine, of Dr. Brouardel, for

to other points of interest. At the close of the Boston many years professor of legal medicine at the University meeting the members will proceed to Woods Hole, Massaof Paris and president of the consultative committee of

chusetts, visiting the station of the United States Bureau hygiene.

of Fisheries, the Marine Biological Laboratory, and the

collecting grounds of the adjacent seacoast. The journey to WE regret to

that Sir Walter L. Buller, New York will be by sea through Long Island Sound. In K.C.M.G., F.R.S., distinguished by his work on “ The New York the congress will be entertained by Columbia Birds of New Zealand ” and other contributions to science, University, the American Museum of Natural History, and died on July 19 at sixty-eight years of age.

the New York Zoological Society, and excursions will be The death is announced of Mr. J. A. Wanklyn, at the

made to Yale University, to Princeton University, and to laboratory, New Malden, Surrey, in his seventy-third year.

the Carnegie Station for Experimental Evolution. From Mr. Wanklyn was a member of the Bavarian Academy, Washington. The first formal circular announcing the pre

New York the members will proceed to Philadelphia and and was well known as an analytical chemist.

liminary programme of the congress will be issued in A MESSAGE from Danes Island reports that Mr. Wellman October next. All inquiries should be addressed to Mr. has now established wireless communication from within G. H. Parker, Seventh International Zoological Congress, 600 miles of the Pole viâ Hammerfest. Everything is Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. progressing favourably at the camp. The construction of

Wiru the recent motor-bus accident on Handcross Hill the balloon-house is being continued. It is hoped that the

fresh in our memories, and the discussion that has arisen expedition will start on its aërial voyage toward the Pole in the middle of August.

in the Press in consequence, it is satisfactory to find that

at least one note of improvement has been struck, accordOn the east coast patches of burnt earth occur scattered | ing to the description of an electrically controlled petrol along the margin of many crecks and saltmarshes, motor-bus given in the Standard of July 21. The depionespecially in Essex. A committee has been formed under stration referred to was given on the scene of the recent the auspices of the Essex Archæological Society and the disaster, and the descent was made in perfect safety with




out the use of any brakes whatever, the driver keeping his MR. G. A. Hight, writing from Audisques, Pas de feet above the splash board to prove that no pedal brake Calais, states that among the peasantry of that district was in use, and the side hand-brake was tied and sealed

there is a universal belief that the magpie is a dangerous before starting the descent. The omnibus in question was enemy to poultry, and it is shot by the farmers as vermin. driven by an ordinary four-cylinder petrol engine, but was His own observation seems to show that the stories of practically under electrical control. The engine is started the magpie's depredations are unfounded, or at least greatly by an electrical device, and the variations of speed are exaggerated, and he would be glad to know whether there under electrical control, the clutch and foot-brake being is any authority for the belief. electromagnetic and controlled by one pedal. The speed

In the Proceedings of the United States National control is obtained by shunt regulation of the dynamo in combination with the ignition and carburation, and gives

Museum, vol. xxx., Mr. T. W. Vaughan describes three the driver-it is claimed-perfect control without the use

new species of corals belonging to the genus Fungia, the of brakes. Various tests for pulling up and starting were

a fossil species from Japan, the others being recent

forms. made and proved satisfactory, and the steepest portion of the hill was taken at a snail's pace without the use of New or rare scombriform fishes form the subject of a brakes. We can only hope that, should this new method

paper by Mr. H. W. Fowler in the March issue of the of control continue to prove so satisfactory, it will be Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy, in the course of adopted by the motor omnibus companies, and thus help which several forms are described as new, while the genus to re-establish public confidence in one of the most useful Lepodus of Rafinesque is made the type of a new family. innovations of recent years.

The same issue contains the second portion of a paper by The provisional programme of Section B (Chemistry) of

Messrs. Pilsbry and Ferriss on the land-molluscs of the the British Association meeting at York has just reached

south-western United States. us; it is as follows :-Tugust 2.—Presidential address, Prof. The Natural History Museum has just received W. R. Dunstan; chemical research in the Dutch East important collection of bird and mammal skins from Indies, Dr. Greshoff ; utilisation of nitrogen in air by

Mount Ruwenzori, East Central Africa, obtained with the plants, T. Jamieson ; the electrical discharge in air and its aid of subscriptions from a number of persons interested commercial application, Sidney Leetham and William

in natural history. The collection, we believe, includes a Cramp: the action of ammonium salts upon clay and number of new forms, or of forms previously known only kindred substances, A. D. Hall; oxidation in soils and its by a single specimen or so of each. relation to productiveness, Dr. F. V. Darbishire and Dr. E. J. Russel. August 3.-Report, present position of the

We are indebted to Prof. K. Heider for a copy of an chemistry of gum, H. H. Robinson ; on a gum (Cochlo-obituary notice of the late Dr. Fritz Schaudinn, published spemum gosipium) which produces acetic acid on exposure

at Innsbruck, and reprinted from the Innsbrucker Nachto air, H. H. Robinson; report, hydrolysis of sugars,

richten for June 26. Dr. Schaudinn's career, although brief (1871-1906),

memorable and active R. J. Caldwell; papers by the president and Dr. T. A. Henry and by Dr. Greshoff. Joint discussion with

Among the subjects to which Schaudinn specially devoted Section K, the production of hydrocyanic acid by plants.

his attention was the study of blood-parasites, his last August 6.—Report, present position of the chemistry of

achievement in this line being the discovery of Spirochaeta rubber, S. S. Pickles; the constitution of caoutchouc, Prof.

pallida, which he believed to be the bacterium of syphilis. Carl Harries (Kiel); paper by Prof. W. A. Tilden; report, A COPY of an illustrated guide to the German section the study of hydroaromatic compounds, Prof. A. W. of the International Exhibition at Marseilles devoted to Crossley. August 7.-Joint discussion with Section I, the the illustration of subjects connected with the study of factors which determine minimal diet values, opened by the ocean and sea-fisheries has reached

In the Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins.

German section, a prominent place is occupied by exhibits A SPELL of the hottest weather this summer has been connected with the recent deep-sea and South Polar exexperienced since the middle of the month over the Midland peditions, and also by others displayed by the German and south-eastern districts of England. At Greenwich the Sea-fisheries Union of Hanover. The frontispiece to the thermometer in the shade has exceeded 80° on four days guide represents a reproduction of an Antarctic scene, with since July 17, while there was only one day previously seals and penguins on the ice. this summer, June 20, with a temperature above 80°. On

In the summer number (vol. ii., No. 2) of Bird Notes July 18 the thermometer in the screen registered 86°:2,

and News attention is directed to the wholesale collecting and on July 23 it registered 84°:7. On three days this

of eggs of the great skua in Iceland, as demonstrated by month the thermometer in the sun's rays at Greenwich has exceeded 1450. In the northern and western portions

a photograph in a German ornithological serial, in which

a collector is represented with no less than 240 eggs of of the kingdom the temperature has been generally below the average. At Greenwich the total rainfall this month,

that species. If egg-hunting is permitted on such a scale, to July 24, only measured 0.22 inch, which is about one

it seems scarcely probable that the skua will long survive

in the island. In another article gratification is expressed tenth of the average. The weekly weather report issued

at the support accorded by Her Majesty the Queen to the by the Meteorological Office shows that on July 17 and 18

crusade against the wearing of “ osprey plumes. an exceedingly heavy fall of rain occurred in the northwpst of Scotland, the aggregate amount for the two days At the date of publication (1880) of Dr. Günther's measuring 4-9 inches at Fort William and 4:4 inches at Study of Fishes,” but three representatives of the genus Glencarron. An exceptionally important storm area for Chimæra were known to science. By the description in the time of year had its centre near the Shetlands on the Journal of the College of Science of Tokyo University July 19, and strong westerly gales were experienced on (vol. XX., art. 2) of two new Japanese forms, Mr. S. the northern coasts of Ireland and Scotland and in the Tanaka has brought up the number to no less than ten. North Sea.

The author seems to have had abundant material--no less






« PreviousContinue »