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than twenty-one specimens—for the description of his first Pearson (Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. Ixix.), and it is suggested species, although in the case of the second he had to be that the interpretation is probably * physiologic rather content with a couple of examples. Mr. Tanaka has than psychologic,” the larger size of head and the greater found that the form and direction of the lateral line afford vigour in mental operations being both the consequences excellent characters for the discrimination of species. of good conditions of nurture.

ACCORDING to the June number of the Museums Journal, A REVISED list of the group of red algæ known as Salford has acquired a natural history museum. Corallinæ is contributed by Mr. K. Yendo to the Journal Photography enters largely into the scheme of arrange- of the College of Science, Tokio (vol. XX., article 12). ment of the galleries, this being employed to illustrate the The writer, after making a careful study of the generic nesting of birds, and likewise to display the contrast pre- distinctions laid down by previous authorities, enumerates sented by deciduous trees in

and in winter. seven genera, of which Cheilosporum is divided into three, Attention is directed in another paragraph to the charge and Amphiroa into four sections. made by the trustees of the British Museum for permission

Writing in the Monthly Review (July) upon the subject to photograph plates and books in the print-room. It is

of instinct in the lower animals, Mr. C. B. Newland urged that since publishers—who are compelled to supply mentions a number of cases illustrating the actions and the museum with a copy of the most expensive edition of

ways of instinct as manifested in animals, birds, and each of their books—are the chief applicants for such per

insects. When the faculty of intelligence is developed the mission, the new charge is inadvisable.

instinctive faculty is diminished. Instinct is perhaps most The rose-breasted grosbeak, of which a coloured plate pronounced in insects, and as an instance of remarkable is given, forms the subject of the latest educational development Mr. Newland describes the systematic method leaflet (No. 2) issued by the U.S. National Association in which a small ichneumon fiy bores into oak-apples with of Audubon Societies. The following statement in favour the purpose of depositing its eggs in the grubs of the gallof this bird is given :-“ The spread of the potato-beetle fly that lie concealed within. pest caused enormous loss to the farmers of the

The second edition of the volume on north Yorkshire, by country, not only by the failure of the potato crops, but also by the cost of insecticides, principally Paris green,

Mr. J. G. Baker, dealing with the botany, geology, climate,

and physical geography, that has been appearing in instalused to destroy this voracious beetle. It is doubtful

ments in the Transactions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' whether the farmers of the country would have been able

Union since November, 1888, is completed with the part pubsuccessfully to contend with the potato-beetle had not Nature interposed one of her powerful checks. As the

lished last April. This part is chiefly devoted to the mosses beetle extended its range and became more numerous, the

and hepatics, that have been revised and brought up to date Rose-breasted Grosbeak developed a newly acquired taste

by Mr. M. B. Slater. The name of Dr. Spence is closely for this pest.”

associated with the early investigations of these plants, and

in Yorkshire he laid the foundations of that knowledge A BEAUTIFUL coloured plate (by Mr. H. Grönvold) of

that was put to advantage during his explorations in hitherto undescribed or unfigured eggs of South African

tropical America. The nomenclature and arrangement of perching-birds forms an attractive feature in the first

the mosses are based on Braithwaite's “British Mocs number of vol. ij. of the Journal of the South African

Flora,” and for the hepatics Mr. Slater adopts the arrangeOrnithologists' Union. The accompanying notes are by

ment given in Pearson's “ Hepaticæ of the British Isles." Messrs. J. A. Bucknill and G. H. Grönvold.

The scientific aspect of what has been designated in the on bird-migration in South Africa (originally read at last United States as dry-farming consists in utilising to year's British Association meeting), Mr. W. L. Sclater

the best advantage all the water that falls in semi-arid directs attention to the occasional breeding of the bee-eater regions. An article by Mr. J. L. Cowan in the July during its (northern) winter sojourn at the Cape. The number of the Century Magazine presents the main features evidence is indisputable, but the question as to whether of the system, and explains how it is possible to produce the same individual birds breed in May in the northern,

fine crops in regions where the rainfall averages only about and again in October in the southern, hemisphere has 12 inches in the year. The first essential is thoroughly to to be definitely answered. Possibly there are

break up the subsoil and colle in it all the rain-water: phases of the bird-the one a northern and the other a then, in order to prevent evaporation, the upper layers of southern breeder. Those interested in parasitism among

the soil are kept in a finely pulverised condition, so that birds should read an article by Messrs. Haagner and Ivy the water cannot rise to the surface by capillary action. on the breeding-habits of certain South African cuckoos of

Apart from these physical considerations, dry-farming rethe genus Chrysococcyx.

quires continuous and intelligent husbandry. Another There is an interesting note by Dr. Raymond Pearl in hope of the farmer in dry regions lies in finding or proNo. 3 (1906) of the Journal of Comparative Neurology ducing drought-resistant varieties, and this field of inquiry and Psychology on the correlation between intelligence is yielding a bountiful harvest. In the case of wheat, a and the size of the head. The note is based on the hard wheat, recognised in America as a distinct species, measurements, published last year by Drs. Eyerich and

I viticum durum, has been introduced from Russia; this Loewenfeld, of the head-circumferences of 935 Bavarian gives a better yield in a dry than in a humid climate. soldiers, who were also classified according to intelli- Among other suitable dry-farming " crops gence. These observers

to the conclusion that

corn, emmer (a variety of wheat), dwarf milo maize, and there

relation between the head-circumference varieties of oats and barley. and the grade of intelligence, but Dr. Pearl, using more The valedictory address delivered by Prof. J. G. efficient statistical methods, finds a correlation which, M. Kendrick, at the close of the summer session of the though small, is quite sensible. It is pointed out that the University of Glasgow, on the occasion of his resignation result is in accordance with those obtained by Prof. of the professorship of physiology, provides a striking

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account of the progress of physiological science during the gesimal into decimal values, and the decimal values of past thirty years. In 1861, when Prof. M'Kendrick num-rous astronomical constants

included in the attended a course of lectures at Aberdeen, there was no brochure. attempt at demonstration except by diagrams and i few

Deutsche Arbeit (vol. V., p. 352) contains an account microscopes on a side-table. There were no experiments, of a visit to Vesuvius after the late eruption, by Dr. E. and the only instrument displayed was a sphygmograph. Trojan, illustrated by reproductions of photographs, two But a little later Goodsir, of Edinburgh, brought from

of which are of some interest as representing the mounContinental schools of physiology to the University of

tain from about the same point of view before and after Edinburgh such instruments as myographs, kymographs,

the eruption. By the courtesy of Prof. R. von Lendenfeld, electrical appliances and other apparatus, and the teaching and the editor of Deutsche Arbeit these illustrations are of practical physiology was soon firmly established under given here; they show the changes by which the graceful Argyll Robertson. Prof. M‘Kendrick himself installed similar teaching in the University of Glasgow in 1876, the date of his appointment to the chair of physiology. The requirements of modern physiological teaching are shown by a statement in the address that while Prof. M'Kendrick has worked and taught for thirty years in five roo twenty-five are apportioned to physiological work in the new buildings. Reviewing the progress of physiology, Prof. M.Kendrick detailed the advances made in histo!. and expressed the doubt whether much more progress can be expected. Graphic methods have been elaborated during the same period, and the action of electrical stimuli on muscle and nerve elaborately worked out. The study of

(1) Photograph taken on Apri 4. the functions of living isolated organs, modern vivisectional methods, our knowledge of the nerve paths in the central nervous system, and the subject of internal secretions, ar all among the triumphs of physiological science during the past thirty years, and were each passed in review. In conclusion, Prof. M-Kendrick indicated physiological chemistry as the direction in which progress will be made during 1!. next few decades.

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THE Engineering Standards Committee has issued specification for structural steel for bridges and generai building construction (report No. 15). The draft of the specification, drawn up by a sectional committee of which Sir Benjamin Baker is president, was submitted to the

(2) Photograph taken on April 18. science standing committee of the Royal Institute of

Vesuvius before and after the recent eruption. From photographs taken British Architects, and certain modifications have been

by Dr. E. Trojan from Santa Lucia. introduced into the specification as a result of the cooperation of that committee. In view of the authoritative outline of the cone has been destroyed and the mountain positions held by members of the committee, the specifi- converted into a hump-backed mound of distinctly lower cation cannot fail to meet with general adoption.

elevation. The Engineering Review (July) contains a series of

The volumes which have now appeared of the Proceedspecial original articles dealing with the engineering de

ings of the Royal Society of London, as divided about a velopment of several British colonies. The contributions

year ago into two series, are vols. lxxvi.-lxxvii. of series have been limited to Canada, Western Australia, Queens-“ A,” containing papers of a mathematical and physical land, New Zealand, New South Wales, and Natal. Farm

character, and vols. lxxvi. lxxvii. of series “ B," containing and mining no longer constitute the only pursuits

ing papers of a biological character ; each volume runs into

А worthy of notice in these colonies. Railways, roads, and

about 600 pages royal octavo, with illustrations. bridges are being constructed, harbour, river, canal, and

main object of this new arrangement was to render the irrigation schemes are being undertaken, and municipal Proceedings more accessible to workers by placing the two and sanitary engineering projects are everywhere in

groups of subjects on sale separately, at a stated price evidence. All these developments furnish occupation for

attached to each separate part of a volume when it first professional men and skilled labour.

appears. Moreover, with the view of promoting the circu

lation of the complete series, it has been directed that a We have received from the publishers, MM. Gauthier- subscription paid in advance to the publishers at the reVillars, Paris, a set of tables and formulæ compiled by duced price of 155. per volume, for either series, shall M. J. de Rey-Pailhade for the practical use of instruments entitle subscribers to receive the parts as soon as pubgraduated in grades instead of degrees. The compiler lished, or else the volumes when completed, in boards or urges the employment of the decimal system in astro- in paper covers, as they may prefer. With a view to nomical and navigation tables, and points out that errors increase further the accessibility of the various publications constantly occurring in ephemerides, &c., would probably of the Royal Society, each number of Proceedings now be eliminated if the simpler method were employed. contains an announcement on the cover of the more recent Formulæ for obtaining interpolated values and for calcu- memoirs of the Philosophical Transactions as published lating star positions, tables for the conversion of sexa- separately in wrappers, and the prices at which they can

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OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. difficulties which have been found to impede the prompt REFLECTING TELESCOPES OF SHORT Focus.-In No. 5. circulation of the journals of the society, which are of vol. xxiii., of the Istrophysical Journal, Prof. Vogel disnecessity published in a somewhat different manner from cusses the relative efficiency of short-focus reflectors for a regular periodical, may be finally removed.

astrographic work.

Prompted by the discovery of the Nova Persei nebula, An important contribution our knowledge of the

Prof. Vogel turned his attention to the subject of reflectors, liquefaction of gases is contained in a paper on the lique

and finally obtained an excellent parabolic mirror, of 40 (m. faction of air and its application to the manufacture of

effective aperture and 93 cm. focal length, from Mr. B.

Schmidt, of Mittweida, Saxony. oxygen and nitrogen, by M. Georges Claude in part i. of With this instrument numerous problems of practical the Bulletin of the French Physical Society for session interest in reflector work have been investigated, and the 1906. M. Claude adopts the principle of expansion with

results are tabulated in the present paper. Prof. Vogel external work instead of expansion without external work

also compares the efficiency of an instrument of this type

with that obtained from other types of photographic teleas utilised in the plant devised by Linde, Hampson, and

scope.

For instance, he found that with an exposure of others. The result, it is contended, is to effect surprising thirty minutes on the Pleiades nebula he obtained a photoeconomy, while it becomes possible to employ very much graph showing all the detail seen on Keeler's plates with smaller pressures than those hitherto considered necessary

four hours' exposure using the Crossley reflector. The and to dispense with auxiliary cooling. The liquid air,

nebulæ around y Cassiopeire appear quite as distinctly in obtained in this way at very small cost, can be used as a

forty minutes as on the plates taken by Dr. Roberts with

ninety minutes' exposure on October 25, 1895. commercial

of oxygen and nitrogen. The clements are separated by a process of fractional dis

The ASTRONOMICAL Society OF CANADA.—The Transtillation ; in the apparatus devised for this object, M. Claude

actions, for 1905, of the Royal Astronomical Society of

Canada contain a number of papers of astronomical interest, displays remarkable ingenuity. The principle of " recuper- a few of which are mentioned below. In the presidential ative cooling" is adopted, liquid air in one vessel being address Mr. C. A. Chant made a summary review of the caused to evaporate by means of gaseous air compressed

progress of astronomy during 1905, referring, among other at 2 to 3 atmospheres circulating in pipes surrounded by

things, to the spectroheliograph work which is being the cold liquid. The nitrogen distils off more readily than Kensington, and

systematically prosecuted at the Yerkes, Meudon, South Potsdam observatories, and

to the the oxygen from the liquid air in the one vessel, whilst in important results which these researches in solar physics the other oxygen is liquefied before nitrogen during the may lead us in the study of terrestrial meteorology. Other condensation of the air. Finally, nearly pure oxygen and

papers selected for publication deal with sun-spots and nearly pure nitrogen are obtained. A machine has been

magnetic storms, colour photography of the corona, stellar constructed capable of supplying 1000 cubic metres of

classification, and the new problem in solar physics recently

enunciated by Dr. C. L. Poor. oxygen, containing 96 per cent. to 98 per cent. of the pure element, per day, with the expenditure of an

MAGNITUDES AND PLACES OF 251 PLEIADES STARS.--At the amount of

desire of Prof. Wolf, Herr K. Schiller has continued the energy equal to only 1/2oth or 1/3oth that required in the researches of Dr. Dugan on the photographic magnitudes processes based on the electrolysis of water. It is contended and mean places of the fainter stars of the Pleiades group. that the results obtained invalidate the assumption made

and now publishes his results for 251 stars in No. 4102 of by Dewar and confirmed by Linde that in the liquefaction

the Astronomische Nachrichten. The places for 1900, and of air the two component gases condense simultaneously ;

a formula connecting the magnitude scale of the present in reality, the more volatile nitrogen is condensed after the

series with that employed by Dr. Dugan, are given in the

paper. oxygen, and the process of liquefaction is strictly the inverse of vaporisation.

ELEMENTS AND EPHEMERIS OF JUPITER'S SEVENTH SATEL

LITE.-In No. 4101 of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Dr. The fourteenth volume of the Bulletin of the Philo- F. E. Ross publishes the following elements of the orbit of sophical Society of Washington has now been completed by during the two most recent oppositions, and corrected for

Jupiter's seventh satellite, derived from observations made the publication of the brochure entitled “ Organisation and Proceedings." This volume contains abstracts of papers

the principal perturbations :and other communications brought before the society during

1906 January 0.0 G.M.T. Elements referred to Earth's the sessions 1900-1904.

Equator. 8= 18° :9

e=0.208 A SECOND edition of the Class List and Index of the

T=118°

386 O = 291°

log a=8.8946 periodical publications in the Patent Office library has been

i=25° 28'

Period = 2597 days published, price 6d., at the Patent Office, 25 Southampton

This satellite is only about 2 per ceni., or 170.000 Buildings, Chancery Lane.

miles, more distant from Jupiter than the sixth, but, on MR. EDWIN ANTHONY has issued through Messrs. George

account of their large eccentricities, they do not approach Routledge and Sons, Ltd., a pamphlet, price sixpence, on

within two million miles of each other. The inclination

of their orbits to each other is 28° 1'. decimal coinage, weights, and measures, in which he dis- In addition to the foregoing elements, Dr. Ross also cusses the question as to whether this country should publishes an ephemeris, corrected for perturbations and adopt them, and passes in review the various arguments giving the position angle and distance of the seventh for and against the use of decimal coinage and weights satellite, for every fifth day between August 15, 1906, and and measures.

April 27, 1907.

OBSERVATIONS OF MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS.-The rpm MESSRS. CHARLES GRIFFIN AND CO., LTD., have pub- sults of a large number of observations of minor planets, lished a fifth, revised edition of Prof. G. A. J. Cole's “ Aids comets, and comparison stars, made by Dr. J. Palisa with to Practical Geology." The work has been brought up to

a wire micrometer attached to the 27-inch refractor of the

Vienna Observatory, are given in Nos. 4009 and 4100 of date without increasing its size, so that it will maintain

the Astronomische Vachrichten, by Prof. E. Weiss. The the leading position it has gained among manuals of list of objects includes comets 1904 i and ii, and 1003 ii. determinative geology.

ii, v and c, and 296 comparison stars.

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OPENING OF A NEIV LABORATORY AT THE

further sum of gol. a year toward its working expenses. RUTHAJSTED EXPERIMENTAL STATION.

The building contains a main laboratory looking north,

25 feet by 15 feet, fitted with teak-topped working tables Earl Carrington opened the James and slate slabs to carry the incubators; a preparation room, Mason " laboratory for agricultural bacteriology at where the working tables are covered with lead; a darkthe Rothamsted Experimental Station. Sir John Evans, room for photography, polariscope work, &c.; and a room chairman of the Lawes Agricultural Trust Committee, pre- for the director. The whole is floored with pitch-pine sided, and among those also present were Mr. J. F. blocks, and heated by steam from the old laboratory Mason, M.P., the donor of the laboratory, Sir T. H. adjoining Elliott, Sir Michael Foster, Sir R. P. Cooper, Mr. Laurence Hardy, M.P., Mr. F. A. Channing, M.P., Mr. Abul Smith, M.P., Mr. Phipson Beale, M.P., Prof. R.

RECENT RESEARCHES IN REGIONAL Meldola, president of the Chemical Society, Sir Charles

GEOLOGY.
Lawes Wittewronge, Dr. Hugo Müller, Dr. H. E. Arm-
strung, Dr. J. A. Voelcker, and Mr. J. Bowen Jones.
Sir John Evans, in his introductory remarks

, explained THE Geological Survey of Great Britain has issued

a memoir (price is.) by Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne, to that the building they were asking Lord Carrington to accompany the colour-printed geological map, Sh-et 282. declare open was the gift of Mr. J. F. Mason, and was to

The country dealt with lies south and east of Devizes, and be devoted to a class of work that had grown up since contains exposures of almost horizontal strata, from the the original Rothamsted experiments were started, but Middle Jurassic to the Lower Eocene. The author refers which had become of cardinal importance in the study of the superficial

clay with Aints” to the weathering of the growth of crops. The difficulty of the Lawes Agri- Eocene material, and urges that its presence at any parcultural Trust Committee, carrying out as it was by private ticular point shows that we are “not far below the ancient benefactions the work which in every other country was plane of erosion on which the lowest Eocene deposits were regarded as the duty of the State, was to find funds for

laid down." He has sustained this position more recently such new developments, and he trusted that the President in an important paper (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 1900, of the Board of Agriculture might soon be able to obtain p. 159). Notes are given on economic geology, including a grant for the proposed council of agricultural research, the general character of the soils. and so furnish some assistance to themselves and other

Another memoir of the survey, also issued in 1905, is by bodies concerned in similar investigations.

Mr. Fox-Strangways and Prof. Watts (price 2s.), on the Lord Carrington expressed the pleasure it gave him to country between Derby, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, and Loughfind himself at Rothamsted, which had been the pioneer borough, included in Sheet 141. The description of Charnof agricultural research, not only in England, but in the wood Forest will probably attract most attention, and world. Agriculture was rapidly ceasing to be a rule-of

it is to be supplemented in a forthcoming memoir. Prof. thumb business, and as a highly skilled industry was more Watts, from mapping the ground, finds that the famous and more requiring the assistance of such scientific investi- “ porphyroids ” of the region are not lava-flows, but are gations as were being carried out at Rothamsted. He intrusive (p. 9); they have, however, shared in the general sincerely hoped that some money might be found for the cleavage and shearing, and thus were in place before the proposed council of agricultural research, but he felt bound Charnwood

became a mountainous knot in the to remind them that the income tax still stood at a shilling Carboniferous sea. We find the term “ fjord hardly a in the pound; but both he and the Government of which

happy one when applied to the inlet of a Triassic lake he was a member had every sympathy with the work (p. u)which has become revealed by latter-day denudarepresented by Rothamsted.

tion.

But Prof. Watts's reconstruction of the Charnwood Sir Michael Foster then expressed the thanks of the landscapes of Triassic times has already afforded us pictures Lawes Trust Committee to Mr. Mason for his munificent for which we should be warmly grateful (see Geographical gift of the laboratory, and explained how the bacteria, the Journal, 1903). On p. 33, Mr. Fox-Strangways refers to an existence of which almost was unsuspected when the interesting puzzle as to the origin of certain Foraminifera Rochamsted laboratory was built, were year by year being once stated to be from the Keuper Marl. The suggestion found to be of fundamental importance, not only to our- is made that similar forms occur, as derived Liassic selves directly, but to the crops and to the soil. Sir material, in the drift, and thence became erroneously reThomas Elliott, the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture, corded from the Keuper. With so many good geologists seconded the expression of thanks, and declared that gists in the neighbourhood, this question ought not to be left like Mr. Mason's were the best argument he could have long in uncertainty. The point suggests itself, moreover, in approaching the Treasury for assistance for the work that the local Boulder-clay, like that of the low ground of Rothamsted.

of Lancashire, may possibly contain Foraminifera of its Mr. Mason then replied, and explained how he was led own, imported from some neighbouring sea. On this to establish this laboratory as the best means of securing matter, by the by, a paper has reached us from Mr. Mellard the continuance of the work to which his father had Reade (Proc. Liverpool Geological Society, vol. X., part i., devoted so many years and had so much at heart. He

1905), who believes that the abundance of Foraminifera in also trusted that it might be a means of stirring public the Lancashire Boulder-clay points strongly to the probpinion, both generally and in the House of Commons, to ability of the whole of the low-level deposit having been recognise the necessity of research if agriculture was laid down in marine waters under fairly quiet conditions. maintain its position in this country.

Mr. W. Edwards, on the other hand (ibid.), in a paper liter the meeting the company was shown round the

on the glacial geology of Anglesey, urges that the island laboratories, and afterwards visited the experimental plots, was not submerged beneath the sea at the epoch of the where the wheat and barley in particular were showing formation of the well-known shell-bearing beds at Moel-yviri interesting results.

Tryfan in Caernarvonshire. The new laboratory takes the form of a wing added on A pleasant addition to the publications of the Geological 10 the Lawes Testimonial Laboratory, which was built in Survey of Great Britain is the “ Guide to the Geological 1855: it is built of brick from the designs of Vr. V. T. Model of the Isle of Purbeck," by Mr. A. Strahan, F.R.S. Horgson. It owes its origin to Mr. James Mason, of (1906, price 6d.). The model, on the horizontal scale of Ernsham Hall, Oson, who for many years carried out on six inches to one mile, was made by Mr. J. B. Jordan, and his own estate extensive experiments on such questions as is accessible in the museum of the survey in Jermyn, the utilisation of leguminous plants in increasing the Street, Londen. Copies have also been acquired by the fertility of the soil, and the unlocking of fertility stored up Government museums in Edinburgh and Dublin. The in the subsoil, a summary of which may be read in the purpose of the model is educational, and the guide, by lournal of the Royal Agricultural Society for 1904. Mr.

marginal notes, points out how it illustrates an Masoo died in 1902, and in his memory Mr. J. F. Mason,

ment, “anticline," a "trough-fault," and so forth, M.P., presented the trust with 1000l, for the building and

so that it serves as a companion to the ordinary text-book. "quipment of a bacteriological laboratory, together with a For those unable to consult one of the copies of the mode!

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extremes

the photograph and coloured geological map included in Prof. Tanakadate has recently found that a Japanese paper the guide will give a clear impression of its features.

called Yoshinogami," made from fibres of a species of Signor Luigi de Marchi has published, through the Reale mulberry tree, was most suited for a cover for the wetIstituto Veneto (1905), a folio memoir on L'Idrografia bulb both for temperatures above and below freezing dei Colli Euganei, in which much attention is paid to point, and, being quite easy in manipulation, can be the question of the change of slope in the bed of a stream changed even daily without the slightest trouble. Mr. according to the grouping of the rocks successively Okada's experiments show that the bulb covered with encountered by it. An interesting result (p. 46), borne out paper is more sensitive than one with the usual muslim by other evidence, is that the trachytic masses round the covering, and that in frosty weather its indications give central tuff-cone of the Venda are found, not to lie, as the humidity more in accordance with that shown by the Suess and Reyer have supposed, upon fragmental deposits hair-hygrometer. The paper is said to be suitable for all as relics of great viscid lava-flows, but represent indepen-climates. dent volcanic necks rising through a mantle of softer The Proceedings of the Rhodesia Scientific Association rocks. Observations are added on the limitation of human (vol. v., part ii.) contains monthly and annual means of activity on the mountain-sides by the progress of denuda- meteorological observations inade at Bulawayo (altitude tion.

about 4469 feet) from 1897 to 1904 by the Jesuit Fathers In the Verhandlungen der k.k geologischen Reichsanstalt Barthélemy and Nicot. As the observations mostly refer for 1905 Dr. Kerner (p. 127) gives the results of five to gh. a.m., the results can only be taken as approximate, weeks' study of the Neogene deposits of Sinj, in central but the discussion by the Rev. E. Goetz, S.J., is nevertheDalmatia, and (p. 593) describes the fossil plants collected.

less very useful. The absolute highest reading of the Dr. Franz Baron Nopcsa (Jahrbuch, ibid., 1905, p. 85) barometer was 26.171 inches (in July), and the lowest leads us farther south, having been able, with the aid of 25.397 inches (in January); the daily range rarely exceeds the Turkish authorities, to study the geology of Albania. 0.1 inch. The temperature shows one minimum, in June, He gives a pleasant account of the country that should and two maxima, in October and January; the means attract other travellers. Not every geologist can be an of maximum and minimum readings for these months artist, and we feel that some of the drawings, made by are 57°5, 73°:7, and 7206 respectively. The absolute the author from his photographs, might have been well

were 105° in November and 33° in June (in entrusted to other hands. The author believes that the June, 1905, not included in the tables, the temperature so-called Flysch of Albania and Bosnia is at latest of in the screen fell to 30°). The rainfall has two maximia, Middle Mesozoic age, and has nothing to do with the

one in the beginning of December, followed by a serious Flysch of the Dalmatian coast-ranges and of the Wiener break, and a second in the middle of January. Mr. Goetz Wald. Baron Nopcsa writes very modestly of his results ; states that this break in the rainfall is a very disastrous but he has clearly felt the fascination of working, within the feature of the climate, as the crops are either destroyed bounds of Europe, in a virgin field. The bibliography or stunted by the burning sun. The annual rainfall provided should help explorers of various tastes.

averages 22.2 inches, and the rainy days seventy-four. In the same Jahrbuch (p. 349) Mr. W. A. Humphrey, Very little rain falls between May and September; it is aus York, England," reports on the ore-deposits of the

very heavy during thunderstorms, and for some minutes Stangalp. His remarks on the so-called Urgebirge of falls at the rate of from 2 inches to 6 inches an hour. Styria and Carinthia are of general interest, since he finds Sir Charles Todd has recently published the metecr. that the gneiss and the mica-schist vary, inversely in ological observations made at the Adelaide Observatory and importance on the margin of a mass of alpine granite, other places in South Australia during 1902 and 1903. This granite has affected even the interstitial material of He states that the year 1902 must be classed as one of the the Carboniferous conglomerate, while tourmaline has been driest on record, particularly during the winter season formed among the sediments far beyond the zone where

(April to October). The returns for 1903 show a general they are injecte with actual granite-veins. Mr. Humphrey improvement; on the average, the agricultural areas had therefore (pp. 363-5) regards the whole sedimentary and about 3 inches above the normal rainfall. A marked schistose mass as a continuous series, which became highly feature of this year was that during every month, excep! metamorphosed in its lower portions. Here we once more September to November, the mean temperature at Adelaide recognise the change of opinion, forced upon field-observers

was below the average ; the lowest air temperature on in very diverse areas, with regard to the alleged antiquity record at that place, 32o.2, was observed on July 11. The of schists in mountain-cores.

highest shade-temperature was 105o6, in February. Dr. Ampferer's extensive paper (ibid., pp. 451-562) on The report of the Government astronomer of Natal for the Wettersteingebirge, among his favourite limestone

the year 1905 has been condensed; in the case of the Alps, introduces questions of torsional movement combined subsidiary stations, meteorological summaries only are with thrust-planes. In Spelunca, Nos. 42 and 43 (1905), given, and the daily results are only published for the M. Martel deals with the subterranean aspects of lime- observatory at Durban. The rainfall for the year at that stones, in continuing his immensely valuable abstracts of

place was 44.95 inches, which is 5.6 inches above the recent papers upon caves. These two numbers, which are

average of the previous twenty-one years. This result was issued as one, cover the whole area outside France, and

owing to one of the most remarkable hurricanes that have even contain references to Kerguelen Island and the Fijis. occurred in Natal during the last thirty years, which

G. A. J. C. swept over the entire colony with extraordinary severity

on May 31 and June 1. The rainfall on these two dars

amounted to nearly in inches at Durban and to 17 inches METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS.

at Umzinto. The mean temperature of the year was IN the Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan exceptionally low; the mean of the maxima was 78°.1 and

of the minima 61°4, and the extremes were 90°, and for February, Mr. H. Mukasa gives a summary of the temperature conditions at Chemulpo (Korea) for the years

45°:4 respectively. The only year of lower mean tempera

ture was 1887. 1893-1903, from four observations daily. The mean of the daily maxima in summer is 80°.6, in winter 3709, and

Captain H. G. Lyons, director-general of the Survey

Department, Egypt, nas published his report on the rain the mean of the minima 670:3 and 22°.8 respectively. The absolute maximum was 99°:5, in August, 1901, and the

of the Nile basin in 1905. The Egyptian and Soudan

stations at which rainfall is measured only number thirtyminimum -1°3, in February, 1895; the greatest daily range, 40°3, also occurred in the latter month. The

one, but a good many other returns showing the days on

which rain fell are received, and are to some extent useful Journal for April contains an interesting contribution on

in supplementing the information supplied by the recording the management of the wet-bulb thermometer, by Mr. T.

stations: observations are also given for neighbouring Okada. It was pointed out by Dr. Edelmann in the

territories. On the whole, the rainfall is said to have Meteorologische Zeitschrift for 1896, p. 334, that the kind

been everywhere deficient; the volume of the Nile food of covering used for conveying moisture to the bulb had

considered as the volume passing Aswan between July considerable influence on the readings of the thermometer.

and October 31, was only 0.ng of the average for thir!

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