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tainly it looks as if the influence of electricity in radio- originally stated, F/M, the value of F in an actual piece active change, and its importance generally in its relation of iron being 271? +HI. to matter, could be overestimated.

Sometimes there may presumably also be a longitudinal

FREDERICK Soddy. tension, as in the case of an iron rod placed along the The University, Glasgow, July 29.

lines of force in a uniform field, when the tension would

be Hi. In a ring electromagnet this would not exist. Stress in Magnetised Iron.

As to what effect would be produced in magnetised iron

by Maxwell's distribution of stress in the ether, I cannot The important question whether there is any mechanical venture an opinion. But if there is a tension, it can hardly stress in an iron rod or ring when magnetised, and, if so, have the familiar value B2/87, which is possible only whether the stress is compressive or tensile, was discussed when B is equal to H, and there is no magnetisation in SAIRE ten years ago (vol. liii., pp. 269, 316, 365, 462, (“ Electricity and Magnetism, § 643). My point is that 513), but has not yet, so far as I know, received any an important component of the stress in magnetised iron generally accepted answer. That a magnetised rod must is a compression which can be calculated and allowed for. necessarily be in the

condition as if under a

The question whether or not this view is tenable is of the mechanically applied compressive stress tending to shorten highest interest in connection with the possible correlation the iron, was, I believe, first suggested by myself (Phil. 1 of magnetic phenomena, and urgently needs an answer. Trans., vol. clxxix., p. 216, 1888). Those who support this

SHELFORD BIDWELL. view generally speak of the stress as ** Maxwell's stress, and assume its value to be B2/87. The stress in question

The Mixed Transformation of Lagrange's Equations. seems, however, to be quite unconnected with the in the medium proposed by Maxwell, and its value is not I SHOULD fancy from the review by “G. H. B." in in general exactly Bo/87, but (B* -- HP)/87. I have lately NATURE of July 19 (p. 265) that the papers of Prof. Levi had occasion to consider the problem again, and perhaps Civita relate largely to the mixed transformation of I may be allowed to re-state my argument in a slightly Lagrange's equations, the complete theory (Proc. Camb. altered form, and illustrate it by means of an imaginary

Phil. Soc., vol. vi., p. 117; Hydrodynamics, vol. i., model.

p. 171) of which was first given by myself so far back If a uniformly magnetised rod is divided transversely, as 1887. But what I wish to point out is this, that this and the cut faces are brought close together, the magnetic theory depends no

any so-called theory of force inside the narrow gap will be B=H+41.

The

“ignored " coordinates (or kinosthenic coordinates force acting on the magnetism of one of the faces, and

Prof. J. J. Thomson [Phil. Trans., 1885, part ii.) calls urging this face towards the other, will be less than them) than it does on the existence of the hypothetical B by 271, the part of the total force due to the first face personage known as the Man in the Moon. itself ; hence the force per unit of area with which the The theory is merely the result of a piece of eliminfaces would press against each other if in contact is

ation, and is as follows :-Let the coordinates of a P=(B-271)1 = 2#1? + HI =(B2-H%)/87. (In the case of dynamical system be divided into two groups and x; an endless permanent magnet, H=0, and P=B*/87.) The let® and k be the momenta of types 0 and x; and let width of the gap may be diminished until it is no greater T be the Lagrangean expression for the kinetic energy. than the distance between two neighbouring molecules,

Then it can be shown that when it will cease to be distinguishable; but, assuming T=1+R

(1) the molecular theory of magnetism to be true, the above

ат statement will still hold good for the intermolecular gap.

(2) The same pressure P will be exerted across any imaginary

дх section of a magnetised rod, the stress being sustained by at ƏT

+ the intermolecular springs, whatever their physical nature

(3)

ai ai may be, to which the elasticity of the metal is due. The whole of the rod, therefore, will be subject to a where I is a homogeneous quadratic function of the pressive longitudinal stress P, the resulting contraction, velocities 0, R is a similar function of the momenta x, and expressed as a fraction of the original length, being P/M, ő is a linear function of the k's. where M is Young's modulus for the metal.

By means of (2) all the velocities and accelerations of Let a magnetic molecule of iron be represented by a type ï can be eliminated from Lagrange's equations, and rigid steel sphere, uniformly magnetised and covered with the result is expressed by means of the modified Lagrangean a closely fitting shell of india-rubber, to play the part of function the “intermolecular springs.” Imagine a straight row of

L=T+ (O') - N-V.. these spheres in contact with one another, and kept in and place by a force analogous to cohesion, which, while bind

ƏR .ao ing the spheres together, leaves them free to turn on their

i=

(6)

ак This arrangement would, for present purposes, serve as a model of a filament of iron one molecule in Equations (5) and (6) constitute the mixed transformdiameter. If the magnetic axes of the spheres pointed ation of Lagrange's equations, and include the equations indifferently in all directions, the attractions would be of Hamilton as well as those of Lagrange. balanced by the repulsions, and the length of the filament When the coordinates X are kinosthenic coordinates, would be the same as if the spheres were unmagnetised. that is to say, coordinates which enter into expression for If, however, the magnetic axis of every sphere pointed in the energy of the system only through their differential the same direction along the filament, as would be the case coefficients with respect to the time, all the k's are conwhen the filament was magnetised, the india-rubber be- stants, and (5) is sufficient to determine the motion. tween all the pairs of unlike poles would be compressed In § 173 of my “ Hydrodynamics,” the words “ the latter and the filament would be shortened. Let F be the com- of which does not enter into the expression for the energy pressive stress across the rubber between a single pair of of the systemi

should be omitted. poles, and s the amount, expressed as a fraction of a centi

A. B. BASSET. metre, by which the rubber is contracted ; then, if there are 1 spheres, the total contraction will be (n being

Two Modifications of the Quartz Wedge. assumed so great that it is sensibly equal to n1), which is the same as would be caused by an equal compressive

Some little time ago I wished to make a quartz wedge stress F applied at the two ends of the unmagnetised for producing interference colours with the polarising filament. The whole filament when magnetised may there- microscope. The usual wedge supplied by optical instrufore be regarded as under compressive stress due to the ment makers seldom gives colours lower than “ clearer magnetic forces, and since Young's modulus M=F1!ns, gray of Newton's colour-scale according to Quincke, where I is the length of the unmagnetised filament, the while the lower colours are often particularly valuable in contraction espressed as a fraction of the length is, as petrological work. The quartz wedge is described in the

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text-books on the subject (e.g. Rosenbusch's “ Microscopical set free from red blood cells, and presumably this body Physiography '') as being cut so that one of its faces is or its derivatives are abnormally abundant in the body exactly parallel to the principal axis (optic axis, axis of fluids. Is there any known organic iron-containing body least elasticity).” The difficulty in getting, say, iron-grey capable of being responsible for these quick-change effects? of the first order depends on the extreme thinness of the

EDGAR TREVITHICK. quartz required at the thin end of the wedge.

Now the interference colour given by plates of equal thickness of the same mineral depends on the direction in

Strength of a Beetle. which they are cut, varying from a maximum when the Last night a small beetle (Aphodius fossor), the length plate is parallel to the optic axis to zero when the plate of which is } inch, flew in at my window and alighied is perpendicular to that direction (assuming the mineral on a table next to me. As it buzzed about I put a lid of to be uniaxial). If, then, a wedge be made having one face a tin box over it, but to my surprise the beetle walked parallel to some such direction as, say, an r or z face of about bearing the lid on its back. I then put the tin bor the quartz crystal and its length in the direction of the on the top of the lid, and was absolutely amazed to find trace of the vertical plane of symmetry through that face, that the insect tilted up a corner of the combined box ari it will give the same results as the ordinary quartz wedge, lid, and nearly escaped. The weight of the beetle when but, for the same thickness, will give a lower colour, so dead was grain, alive I suppose it was a little more: that the colours at its thin end may be got very low. On but the box and lid weighed 1758 grains! Assuming that trial a wedge made in this way gave very satisfactory the living insect weighed i grain, it must have tilted up results.

1758 times its own weight! Of course, the strength reThe compound wedge described below, which, so far as quired to tilt up a box on edge is nothing like so great as I know, is also new, was found to be still better. Suppose that required actually to lift the weight, but nevertheless a sheet of muscovite be taken, its axes of elasticity deter- the feat

sufficiently astounding. The mined, and a strip cut of the same size and shape as the dimensions of the box are 38 X 25 X 15 inches. quartz wedge with the axis of greatest elasticity parallel

CHARLES R. KEYSER to its greatest length. If the wedge is covered with the The Gables, Hayward's Heath, July 26. mica plate and examined between crossed Nicols, there will, of course, be a black compensation band in some position, and by cleaving the mica thinner this band can be THE INTERNATIONAL CELEBRATION OF made to move towards the thin end of the wedge, and

THE JUBILEE OF THE COAL-TAR IN. finally to coincide with it. The mica is now cemented to

DUSTRY. the quartz, and a wedge is produced which gives all the colours of the first order. By the use of this compensation DUR

URING the last century no discovery, perhaps, mica plate a very poor wedge may be converted into a first- has led to such far-reaching and important de class instrument, or one broken at its thin end restored to velopments as that of mauve, the first aniline dve, by usefulness.

DANIEL JAMES MAHONY. William Henry Perkin. Not only was the door The Grand Hotel, Melbourne, Victoria, June 25.

thrown open

to the never-ending procession of artificial colouring matters, but the raw materials

necessary for their production were also the raw Colour Phenomena in “Boletus cærulescens.” materials for the synthesis of whole series of entirely One day recently in the woods at Lynton (where the different substances, which have now assumed most soil is red) I found and gathered two very beautiful toad- | important positions in the world's daily requirements. stools, with vermilion stem and bright, sulphur-coloured It cannot be too often repeated that Perkin's dishymenium. In these individuals the striking colour pheno-covery was the result of true scientific devotion to mena peculiar to their family were remarkably in evidence; pure research. The synthetic preparation of quinine in the brilliant sunlight on the bright yellow under-surface was the goal aimed at--a sufficiently ambitious one of the pileus I found my name when traced in the most

for a lad of seventeen, for the problem is yet unsolved. gentle way shine out almost immediately in the most

Perkin did not state, as is perhaps too often done magnificent of blues. Will any of your readers kindly refer me to any recent

nowadays, that “only a black mass was obtained." papers concerning the chemical or physical processes which

His persevering and scientific habit of mind led him underlie this fascinating demonstration? From my own

to investigate the “ black mass," with the result that superficial observations it is evident, I think, that light by extraction with alcohol was isolated the violet dve plays an important part. The energy liberated by the very

which is so closely associated with his name. gentlest friction appears to be a sufficient initiative.

Great though Perkin's discovery was, yet greater Parts that have been rendered blue, when left at rest, still were the zeal, industry, and genius of the boy of after a short time return to yellowness, but these same eighteen which enabled him to make the dyestuff on parts are capable under fresh stimulus, so long as the the large scale and place it on the market sucacs. fungus is still alive, of again assuming temporary blue

fully. Only those who have had experience in largeThe juice expressed from blue areas is itself bright blue,

scale preparations can realise what this must have

meant. New plant, new materials, new conditions: and imparts a bright blue stain to linen. Upon my handkerchief this colour remained so long (at least five hours) all had to be undertaken, and in the introduction of that I thought I had fixed it; but in the morning the dry iron vessels for the manufacture of his raw material, blue patch of the night before was no longer blue, but aniline, Perkin laid the vast aniline oil industry under yellow.

lasting obligation. On cutting the stem its upper two-thirds was found The start thus given, many entered the field; br endowed with the property of cærulescence; but this was slight variation of Perkin's process

Renard not in any degree possessed by its lower third, in which and Franc introduced the splendid crimson dve the cut surfaces remained of a reddish brown colour. With

"magenta in France, whilst shortly afterwards the exception of the lower part of the stem and the cuticle,

Simpson, Maule, and Nicholson started the manuall the tissues of the fungus exhibited cærulescence.

facture of this colour in London. The happy collabti. I take special interest in these observations on account of certain phenomena noticeable in human tissues in the

ation of A. W. Hofmann, the college professor, with course of a somewhat rarely met with pathological condition

the splendid technical chemist and business m.in. which has been described under the name chloroma.

E. C. Nicholson, soon not only placed the London Without entering into details, I may remark that along firm in a commanding position, but gave to the wyırld with the colour development which characterises this patho- those researches on rosaniline for which Hormarn logical condition hæmoglobin is probably being extensively | became so famous.

ness.

a

on

came

In the meantime, Perkin not only manufactured

the foundation of this new industry was laid in mauve, but was steadily working at the artificial pro- Albemarle Street." ducts of alizarine, which he was able to obtain in The whole of the chemical world was represented 1868, and immediately produced it on the large scale.

at the meeting on July 26, which was presided over In 1873, recognising that a very largely increased by Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S. It is only necessary to manufacturing scale was necessary for the highest mention such names as Emil Fischer, H. Caro, Albin degree of success (a principle since so thoroughly Haller, P. Friedländer, C. Duisberg, G. Schultz, A. carried out by the large German firms), Perkin de- Bernthsen, C. Liebermann, R. Möhlau, in order to cided to retire from business, and his works were indicate that the very foremost of foreign chemists sold. After some vicissitudes the business was trans

were present, and all the representative English men ferred to Silvertown, where the British Alizarine of science and technology were to be seen at this Company carries on a large and successful manu

historic gathering. The presentation of the Hofmann facture of alizarine dyes.

and Lavoisier gold medals, the foreign university From the beginning the development of the industry degrees, and the great number of congratulatory teadily continued, both in England and the addresses gave ample proof, were it needed, of the Continent. In 1859 Griess, a chemist employed at

admiration with which all chemists regard the founder Allsopp's Brewery, discovered the first azo dye, which of this great industry. was manufactured in 1863 by Simpson, Maule, and At the dinner in the Whitehall Rooms in the evenNicholson. This was the starting point of one of the ing (Prof. Meldola in the chair), tributes were paid by most important branches of the colour industry, and

an even wider circle of appreciative admirers. Mr. was rapidly followed by many brilliant discoveries by Haldane, His Majesty's Secretary of State for War Hofmann, Nicholson, Caro, Martius, and Witt in

(who proposed the toast of the evening), the Earl of England, Girard and De Laire and Poirrier in France, Halsbury, Lord Alverstone, Sir William Broadbent, and Baeyer, Böttiger, Duisberg, and many others in

Sir Henry Roscoe, Profs. E. Fischer and A. Haller, Germany.

Sir Robert Pullar, and the chairman pointed out the The outcome of this has been that the colour benefits accruing, not merely to the colour industry, industry has progressed to one of enormous import, the dyeing trade, the medical profession, and science ance. The combination of scientific research and

at large, but also to the whole world. business skill so strikingly exampled by Perkin and

On the following day Sir William and Lady Perkin Vicholson has been applied in Germany with marvel

entertained a large number of guests at The Chestlous success, and has resulted in the development of

nuts, Sudbury, near Harrow. The old Greenford several great firms, each employing several thousands works and Sir William's private laboratory were of workmen and hundreds of chemists and engineers.

visited, whilst in the beautiful garden one saw the The example set by Englishmen has not been madder plants which

from the late Dr. followed to the same extent in this country, and the Schunck's garden in Manchester. industry, affected by the fall of one or two historic

Sir William and Lady Perkin's reception in the houses, has progressed but slowly. In failing

Hall of the Leathersellers' Company concluded the to synthesise what is perhaps the festivities, which will never be forgotten by those who most important aid known to medicine, Perkin gave

were privileged to take part in them. to medicine its most potent drugs; for the separation

J. C. Cain. of hundreds of products from coal-tar has enabled chemists to prepare phenacetin, antipyrin, antifebrin the latter actually produced on the large scale as a THE SPORADIC PUBLICATION OF bre-product by Perkin), and many others. Extensive

SCIENTIFIC PAPERS. manufactories of saccharin, photographic developers, and pharmaceutical products have been erected, and,

N these latter days the development of science has indred, it is difficult to say where the far-reaching

led to an inverted fulfilment of the old prophecy, influence of Perkin's discovery may end.

“Men shall run to and fro and knowledge shall be One thing is sure. it is not to be measured

increased.” Nowadays men have to run to and fro bi mere statistics; in the words of Hofmann,

because knowledge is increased. A very considerable "thu moral of Mauve. . . . is transparent enough. portion of the time of a man of science is taken up Whenever one of your chemical friends, full of in “running to and fro" seeking for the papers enthusiasm, exhibits

and
explains you

his which he wishes, which, indeed, he is bound to connewly-discovered compound, you will not cool his sult. There are various ways in which much of the noble ardour by asking him that most terrible of all time thus spent might be saved, and some of these questions, What is its use? Will your compound ways are being more or less successfully made use of. bleach or dye? Will it shave? May it be used as a One cause, however, of this “running to and fro" substitute for leather?' Let him quietly go on with deserves special attention, because it seems really unhis work.

The dve, the leather, will make their necessary, and the time spent through its continuance appearance in due time. Let him, I repeat, perform may be said to be time wholly wasted. his task. Let him indulge in the pursuit of truth,

It has been my lot to receive almost at the same of truth pure and simple,--of truth not for the sake time a number of the Journal of the Marine Bioof Mauve-let him pursue truth for the sake of logical Association, a volume of the Scientific Memoirs truth!"

of the Officers of the Medical and Sanitary Depart

ments of the Government of India, a volume of the It was a peculiarly happy circumstance that the ! Thompson-Yates and Johnston Laboratories Reports, mrering to honour Sir William Henry Perkin should ' and the annual Report of the Medical Officer of have been held in the Royal Institution. The most Health to the Local Government Board. olemantury constituent of coal-tar, viz. benzene, was All these contained papers of great scientific value, discovered here by Faraday in 1825, and this was and I feel sure that many besides myself are confollowed by Perkin's own discovery of mauve in his tinually having brought before them similar instances home laboratory,

“Let tell vou then," said of the abundance of what I venture to call the sporadic Hofmann in the lecture room in 1862. “ that Mauve publication of scientific papers. This has been very and Magenta are essentially Royal Institution colours : 1 strikingly brought home to those who have had to

to

me

do with the Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific The scientific papers in Government publications Papers or the International Catalogue of Scientific stand on a somewhat different footing from those Literature.

just spoken of. The Annual Report of the medical Now two channels for the publication of scientific officer of the Local Government Board referred papers must be accepted without cavil.

to above contains, besides several papers of In each country (for international publications, how- direct administrative value, under the term

reever desirable, present almost insurmountable mech- port” a number of valuable papers of a purely anical difficulties) it is well that there should be a scientific character, papers to which every inquirer in periodical devoted to each “ branch ” of science, and pathology ought to have ready access. But why as time goes on each “branch” will naturally be should a scientific library, and why especially should come more and more subdivided. This may be re- the limited library of a pathological institute or laborgarded as the natural, and, putting on one side atory, for the sake of a mouthful of pure science, historical considerations, the first channel.

burden its shelves with an intolerable mass of adminisBut the publications of established academies and trative details? The publications of the medical of the older special societies must be accepted also. oiiicer of the Local Government Board do not stand The newer special societies would do well to make alone in this respect. In the enormous mass of use of the special journals, in some such way as the printed matter which H.M. Government puts out Physiological Society makes use of the Journal of every year there are hidden, buried, lost to view, Physiology, and perhaps even some of the older ones records of scientific research of varying but not unmight adopt the same methods.

frequently of great value, records to which the scien. In any case, there is no reason for special comment tific inquirer ought to have ready access. This on these two channels. But things are different when official burial of scientific work does a double harm; we come to consider the kind of publication of which it harms him who did the work, it harms all those I have given examples above.

who, through the burial, miss knowing what has Let me take, for instance, the Journal of the Marine been done. Biological Association, and the Thompson-Yates and Of course it must be recognised that H.M. GovernJohnston Laboratories Reports. The number of the ment, having ordered and supplied the funds for a former is almost wholly occupied by a memoir of scientific inquiry, has a right of possession in the systematic zoology, the number of the latter by papers records of that inquiry, so that by the official publion trypanosomiasis. Why should the student in cation of that record it may justify before Parliament systematic zoology, who has possibly at some expense and the public the order for the inquiry. The taken steps to secure ready access to the publications matter is further complicated by the fact that when of the Zoological and Linnean Societies, have also to the order for inquiry is part of the work of a Royal run after the Journal of the Marine Biological Commission, the results of such an inquiry cannot Association ?

be made known until the report of the commission Why should the student in tropical diseases have to on its work as a whole is laid before Parliament and run hither and thither, seeking in this and that re- published. port what he ought to find ready at hand either in But these difficulties are not such as cannot be the Journal of Comparative Pathology or Journal of overcome. A small Commission of the nature of what Hygiene, or some still more special periodical? is known as a Departmental Committee, appointed

Now there can be no doubt that the causa causans some little time back to investigate plague in India, of the two periodicals in question is advertisement. One has, with the approval of the authorities, adopted the cannot but sympathise with the efforts of the Marine following plan. While making the usual arrangeBiological Association to make its worth known; one ments for the reports on administrative matters, it has also sympathy with the University of Liverpool, proposes to publish from time to time the scientific but less acute since its great merits are in everyone's results of the work of the commission in an appro mouth. But I venture to put the question, Is it priate scientific journal, securing, by the purchase of desirable that, for the mere sake of advertisement, extra copies of the records thus published, the means the progress of science should be hindered? For any- for the complete publication of the whole work of the thing which puts obstacles in the way of the student commission at some future period. getting ready access to a knowledge of what has been Such a plan might be extended to all scientific done is a distinct hindrance to progress. Why should inquiries carried out by order of H.M. Government; not the Marine Biological Association spend the money it needs nothing more than frank negotiations which it has spent in printing the Hon. C. Eliot's between persons responsible to H.M. Government and valuable memoir on British nudibranchs in sub editors of scientific periodicals. Such a plan would sidising, some acknowledged channel of zoological bring many blessings. It would enable the man of publication. It is well that the association should science who is putting his best into the work which have a journal, but that journal ought to be occupied he is doing for Government to feel that the record exclusively by business matters; all scientific papers of his work will not be hopelessly lost sight of. It of permanent value produced by help of the associa- would save other men of science the labour of hunttion ought to be published elsewhere.

ing for scientific needles in Government bottles of In the same way, why should not the Liverpool hay, or the chagrin of finding out, when too late, University spend some of the ample funds at its dis- that by shrinking from such uncongenial labour they posal in subsidising periodicals, many at least of had missed something of great price. It would save which are in urgent need of support? This would in the nation a not inconsiderable sum of money, and the end be even a better advertisement.

yet furnish the editors of scientific journals with The Lister Institute sets in this respect a very good money, which many of them need for the conduct example. It too has need of advertisement, but of their journals, and which most of them at least the results of the varied work carried on there are would use in helping the poor author to a more compublished each in an appropriate acknowledged plete publication of the records of his work. Lastly, channel. It limits its direct advertisement to issuing it would relieve the bibliographer from much weariin a collected form reprints of the various papers some labour. In every way, in fact, it would tend scattered over many periodicals.

to advance natural knowledge.

X

are

THE YORK MEETING OF THE BRITISH founders of this Association, then of the great workers in ASSOCIATION.

science who were still alive in 1881 when last we met here

and have since gone from among us, leaving their great THE York meeting of the British Association, which was opened as

deeds and their noble enthusiasm to inspire now and for we went to press last

all future time those who have vowed themselves to the night, promises to be a very large one. The local

advancement of science in this realm of Britain. arrangements and the programmes of the various sec

There must be some here who had the privilege of tions have already been described in these columns. personal acquaintance with several of the men who founded Among the representatives from abroad who this Association in York seventy-five years ago. I myself expected at the meeting are the following :-Section A, knew Prof. John Phillips, Sir Charles Lyell, Sir Roderick Prof. H. Rubens, the University, Berlin; Prof. C. G. Murchison, Sir David Brewster, Dr. Whewell, and Mr. Rockwood, Prof. F. P. Whitman. Section B, Prof. Harcourt of Nuneham. All these fathers of our Association Paul Pelseneer, Ghent; M. G. Grandidier, Paris; Dr. had passed away before our last meeting in York. And and Mrs. Yves Delage, Paris; Prof. Looss, Cairo;

now, in the quarter of a century which has rolled by and Prof. Gary N. Calkins, New York; Prof. H. F. E.

brought us here again, we have lost many who took an Jungerson, Copenhagen; Dr. Gustave Loisel, Utrecht.

active part in its annual meetings and were familiar figures

in the scientific world of the later Victorian period. Section C, Prof. Edgworth David, Sydney. Sec

Huxley and Tyndall, Spottiswoode and Cayley, Owen and tion E, Prof. Loezy, Budapest. Section F, Prof.

Flower, Williamson and Frankland, Falconer and Busk, K. Wicksell, Lund. Section K, Prof. W.

Prestwich and Godwin Austen, Rolleston and Henry Smith, Johannsen, Copenhagen; Prof. C. H. Ostenfeld,

Stokes and Tait, and many others are in that list, inCopenhagen ; Dr. C. Rosenberg, Stockholm; Prof. E. cluding one whose name was, and is, more often heard Pfitzer, Heidelberg; Prof. and Mrs. Jeffrey, Harvard in our discussions than any other, though he himself never L'niversity : Prof. Ligrier, Caen; Prof. H. Potonie, was able to join us-I mean Charles Darwin. Happily Berlin. Corresponding member, Prof. C. Julin, some of the scientific veterans of the nineteenth century Liége.

are still living, if not with us in York. Sir Joseph The Court of the University of Leeds has resolved

Hooker, who visited the Antarctic with Ross in 1839, is

still hale and hearty, and so are Alfred Russel Wallace, to confer the honorary degree of D.Sc. upon the fol

Lord Kelvin, Sir William Huggins, and many others who lowing in connection with this meeting of the Associa

were already veteran leaders in scientific investigation tion :-Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. Gran

when last we visited York : they are still active in thought, didier, of Paris; Prof. P. Pelseneer, of Ghent; and Prof.

observation, and experiment. H. Rubens, of Berlin. The degree of D.Sc. will be

In attempting to give an outline of the advancement of conferred upon the following in connection with the science in the past twenty-five years I think it is necessary meeting of the Association and also with the coal-tar to distinguish two main kinds of advancement, both of colour jubilee :-Sir W. H. Perkin, Dr. Heinrich Caro, which our founders had in view. Francis Bacon gave the of Mannheim ; Prof. Albin Haller, of Paris; Prof. C. title “ Advancement of Learning " to that book in which Liebermann, of Berlin; and Dr. C. A. von Martins, of he explained not merely the methods by which the increase Berlin.

of knowledge was possible, but advocated the promotion

of knowledge to a new and influential position in the INACGURAL ADDRESS BY PROF. E. RAY LANKESTER, M.A.,

organisation of human society. His purpose, says Dean LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S., DIRECTOR

Church, was to make knowledge really and intelligently NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENTS OF THE British MUSEUM,

the interest, not of the school or the study or the laborPRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION.

atory only, but of society at large.” This is what our founders also intended by their use of the word

“ advanceMy LORDS, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,—It is, first of all,

ment.” So that in surveying the advancement of science my privilege to thank you for the distinguished honour

in the past quarter of a century we of the British Associyou have done me in electing me President of this great

ation must ask not only what are the new facts discovered, scientific Association-an honour which is enhanced by the

the new ideas and conceptions which have come into fact that our meeting this year is once more held in the

activity, but what progress has science made in becoming venerable city of York, in which seventy-five years ago

really and intelligently the interest of society at large. Is the British Association for the Advancement of Science held

there evidence that there is an increase in the influence of its first meeting.

science on the lives of our fellow-citizens and in the great It is a great pleasure to me to convey to the Lord Mayor affairs of the State? Is there an increased provision for and the dignitaries and citizens of York your hearty thanks

securing the progress of scientific investigation in proporfor the invitation to meet this year in their city. It seems

tion to the urgency of its need or an increased disposition to have become a custom that the Association should be

to secure the employment of really competent men trained invited at regular intervals to assemble in the city where

in scientific investigation for the public service? It took birth and to note the progress made in the objects for the furtherance of which it was founded. A quarter

I. THE INCREASE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE SEVERAL of a century ago we met here under the presidency that

BRANCHES OF Science. versatile leader in public affairs-Sir John Lubbock, now The boundaries of my own understanding and the pracLord Avebury. That occasion was the jubilee—the fiftieth tical consideration of what is appropriate to a brief address anniversari-of the Association.

must limit my attempt to give to the general public who Lord Avebury on that occasion gave as his presidential follow with friendly interest our proceedings some presentaddress a survey of the progress of science during the fifty ation of what has been going on in the workshops of wars of the Association's existence. He had a wonderful science in this last quarter of a century. My point of view story to tell, and told it with a fulness which was only is essentially that of the naturalist, and in my endeavour possible to one of his wide range of knowledge and keen to speak of some of the new things and new properties of interest in the various branches of science. If I venture things discovered in recent years I find it is impossible to on the present occasion to say a few words as to the great give any systematic or detailed account of what has been features in the progress of our knowledge of Nature during done in each division of science. All that I can attempt the last twenty-five years, it will be readily understood is to mention some of the discoveries which have aroused that the mere volume of new knowledge to be surveyed my own interest and admiration. I feel, indeed, that it is has become so vast that a full and detailed statement such necessary to ask your forbearance for my presumption in as that which Lord Avebury placed before the Association daring to speak of so many subjects in which I cannot at its jubilee is no longer possible in a single address claim to speak as an authority, but only as a younger delivered from the President's chair.

brother full of fraternal pride and sympathy in the glorious Let me ask you before we go further to take for a few achievements of the great experimentalists and discoverers mutunts a more personal retrospect and to think of the of our day. The duty of attempting some indication of

OF

THE

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