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discovered by Bruce-namely, that the native big game (zebras, antelopes, and probably buffaloes), are tolerant of the parasite. The Trypanosoma grows and multiplies in their blood, but does not kill them or even injure them. It is only the unaccustomed introduced animals from Europe which are poisoned by the chemical excreta of the Trypanosomes and die in consequence. Hence the wild creatures-brought into a condition of tolerance by natural selection and the dying out of those susceptible to the poison-form a sort of "reservoir" of deadly Trypanosomes for the Tsetze flies to carry into the blood of new-comers. The same phenomenon of "reservoir-hosts" (as I have elsewhere called them) has since been observed in the case of malaria; the children of the native blacks in Africa and in other malarious regions are tolerant of the malarial parasite, as many as So per cent. of children under ten being found to be infected, and yet not suffering from the poison. This is not the same thing as the immunity which consists in repulsion or destruction of the parasite.

The Trypanosomes have acquired a terrible notoriety within the last four years, since another species, also carried by a Tsetze fly of another species, has been discovered by Castellani in cases of sleeping sickness in Uganda, and demonstrated by Colonel Bruce to be the cause of that awful disease. More than 200,000 natives of Uganda have died from it within the last five years. It is incurable, and, sad to relate, not only a certain number of European employés have succumbed to it in tropical Africa, but a brave young officer of the Army Medical Corps, Lieutenant Tulloch, has died from the disease acquired by him in the course of an investigation of this disease and its possible cure, which he was carrying out, in association with other men of science, on the Victoria Nyanza Lake in Central Africa. Lieutenant Tulloch was sent out to this investigation by the Royal Society of London, and I will venture to ask you to join that body in sympathy for his friends, and admiration for him and the other courageous men who risk their lives in the endeavour to arrest disease.


Trypanosomes are now being recognised in the most diverse regions of the world as the cause of disease-new horse diseases in South America, in North Africa, in the Philippines and East India are all traced to peculiar species of Trypanosome. Other allied forms are responsible for Delhi-sore, and certain peculiar Indian fevers of man. peculiar and ultra-minute parasite of the blood cells causes Texas fever, and various African fevers deadly to cattle. all these cases, as also in that of plague, the knowledge of In the carrier of the disease, often a mite or acarus-in that of plague the flea of the rat-is extremely important, as well as the knowledge of reservoir-hosts when such exist.


this, far more money is required than is at present spent in that direction. It is necessary, if we are to do our utmost, to spend a thousand pounds of public money on this task where we now spend one pound. It would be reasonable and wise to expend ten million pounds a year of our revenues on the investigation and attempt to destroy disease. Actually, what is so spent is a mere nothing, a few thousands a year. Meanwhile our people are dying by thousands of preventable disease.



Whilst I have been able, though in a very fragmentary
and incomplete way, to indicate the satisfactory and,
indeed, the wonderful progress of science since this
Association last met in York, so far as the making of
new knowledge is concerned, I am sorry to say that there
is by no means a corresponding "advancement
in that signification of the word which implies the increase
of Science
of the influence of science in the life of the community,
the increase of the support given to it, and of the desire
to aid in its progress, to discover and then to encourage
and reward those who are specially fitted to increase
scientific knowledge, and to bring it to bear so
promote the welfare of the community. I am speaking
on a privileged occasion to a body of men who are met
together for the Advancement of Science, and I claim the
right to say to them, without offence to the representatives
of institutions which I criticise, what is in my mind.

as to

It is, unfortunately, true that the successive political administrators of the affairs of this country, as well as the permanent officials, are altogether unaware to-day, as they were twenty-five years ago, of the vital importance of that knowledge which we call science, and of the urgent need for making use of it in a variety of public affairs. Whole departments of Government in which scientific knowledge is the one thing needful are carried on by ministers, permanent secretaries, assistant secretaries, and enough dislike it since it cannot be used by them, and is clerks who are wholly ignorant of science, and naturally in many instances the condemnation of their official employment. Such officials are, of course, not to be blamed, but rather the general indifference of the public to the unreasonable way in which its interests neglected.


The zoologist thus comes into closer touch than ever with the profession of medicine, and the time has arrived when the professional students of disease fully admit that they must bring to their great and hopeful task of abolishing the diseases of man the fullest aid from every branch of biological science. I need not say how great is the contentment of those who have long worked at apparently useless branches of science, in the belief that all knowledge is good, to find that the science they have cultivated has become suddenly and urgently of the highest practical value.

I have not time to do more than mention here the effort that is being made by combined international research and cooperation to push further our knowledge of phthisis and of cancer, with a view to their destruction. It is only since our last meeting at York that the parasite of Phthisis or Tubercle has been made known; we may hope that it will not be long before we have similar knowledge as to Cancer. Only eighteen months have elapsed since Fritz Schaudinn discovered the long-sought parasitic germ of Syphilis, the Spirochaeta pallida. words the sad news of Schaudinn's death at the age of As I write these thirty-five comes to me from his family at Hamburg-an irreparable loss.

Let me finally state, in relation to this study of disease, what is the simple fact-namely, that if the people of Britain wish to make an end of infective and other diseases they must take every possible means to discover capable investigators, and employ them for this purpose. To do NO. 1918, VOL. 74]

A difficult feature in treating of this subject is that when one mentions the fact that ministers of State and the officials of the public service are science, and do not even profess to understand its results not acquainted with or their importance, one's statement of this very obvious and notorious fact is apt to be regarded as offence. It is difficult to see wherein the offence lies, for a personal no one seeks to blame these officials for a condition of things which is traditional and frankly admitted.

This is really a very serious matter for the British Association for the Advancement of Science to consider and deal with. We represent a line of activity, a group of professions which are in our opinion of vital importand neglected, but are actually treated as of no account ance to the well-being of the nation. We know that those interests which we value so highly are not merely ignored or as non-existent by the old-established class of politicians and administrators. It is not too much to say that there is a natural fear and dislike of scientific knowledge on the part of a large proportion of the persons who are devoid of it, and who would cease to hold, or never have held, the positions of authority or emolument which they now occupy, were scientific knowledge of the matters with which they undertake to deal required of them. This is a thorny subject, and one in which, however much one may endeavour to speak in general terms, it is difficult to avoid causing personal annoyance. Yet it seems to me

one which, believing as I do that it is of most urgent importance, it is my duty as your President to press upon the attention of the members of the British Association. Probably an inquiry into and discussion of the neglect of science and the questionable treatment of scientific men

by the administrative departments of Government would be more appropriate to a committee appointed by the Council of the Association for this purpose than to the Presidential Address.

At the same time, I think the present occasion is one on which attention should be drawn in general terms to the fact that science is not gaining advancement " in public and official consideration and support. The reason is, I think, to be found in the defective education, both at school and university, of our governing class, as well as in a racial dislike among all classes to the establishment and support by public funds of posts which the average man may not expect to succeed by popular clamour or class privilege in gaining for himself-posts which must be held by men of special training and mental gifts. Whatever the reason for the neglect, the only remedy which we can possibly apply is that of improved education for the upper classes, and the continued effort to spread a knowledge of the results of science and a love for it amongst all members of the community. If members of the British Association took this matter seriously to heart they might do a great deal by insisting that their sons, and their daughters too, should have reasonable instruction in science both at school and college. They could, by their own initiative and example, do a good deal to put an end to the trifling with classical literature and the absorption in athletics which is considered by too many schoolmasters as that which the British parent desires as the education of his children.

Within the past year a letter has been published by a well-known nobleman, who is one of the Trustees of the British Museum, holding up to public condemnation the method in which the system laid down by the officials of the Treasury and sanctioned by successive Governments, as to the remuneration of scientific men, was applied in an individual case. I desire to place on record here the Earl of Crawford's letter to the Times of October 31, 1905, for the careful consideration of the members of the British Association and their friends. When such things are done, science cannot be said to have advanced much in public consideration or Governmental support.

To the Editor of the " Times.

Sir. The death, noted by you to-day, of my dear friend and colleague, Dr. Copeland, His Majesty's Astron mer for Scotland, creates a vacancy in the scientific staff of Great Britain.

Will you permit me, Sir, to offer a word of warning to any who may be asked to succeed him?

Studen's or masters of astronomy are not, in the selfish sense, business men. nor are they as a general rule overburdened with this world's goods. It behoves them henceforth to take more care as to their future in case of illness or physical infirmity, and not to trust to the gratitude or generous impulse of the Treasury Department.

In old days it was the custom when a man distinguished in science was brought into a high position in the Civil Service that he was credited with a certain number of years se vice ranking for pension. This practice has been done away with and a bargain system substituted. A short while ago the growing agonies of heart disease caused Dr Copeland to fel that he was less able to carry on the duties of his post, and he determined to resign; but he learnt that under the scale, and in the absence of any special bargain, the pension he would receive would not suffice for the necessities of life. The only increase his friends could get from the Treasury was an offer to allow him about half-a-crown a week extra by way of a house.

Indignant and ashamed of my Government, I persuaded Dr. Copeland to withdraw his resignation and to retain the official position which he has honoured till his death.

I trust, Sir, that this memorandum of mine may cause eminent men of science who are asked to enter the service of the State when already of middle age to take heed for their future welfare. I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

2 Cavendish Square, October 28.


It is more agreeable to me not to dwell further on the comparative failure of science to gain increased influence and support in this country, but to mention to you some instances on the other side of the account. As long ago as 1842 the British Association took over and developed an observatory in the Deer Park at Kew, which was placed at the disposal of the Association by Her Majesty the Queen. Until 1871 the Association spent annually a large part of its income-as much in later years as 600l. a year-in carrying on the work of the Kew Observatory, consisting of magnetic, meteorological and physical observations. In 1871 the Association handed over the Observatory to the Royal Society, which had received an endowment of 10,000l. from Mr. Gassiot for its maintenance,

and had further devoted to that purpose considerable sums from its own Donation Fund and Government grant. Further aid for it was also received from private sources. From this Observatory at last has sprung, in the beginning of the present century, the National Physical Laboratory in Bushey Park, a fine and efficient scientific institution, built and supported by grants from the State, and managed by a committee of really devoted men of science who are largely representatives of the Royal Society. In addition to the value of the site and buildings occupied by the National Physical Laboratory, the Government has contributed altogether 34,000l. to the capital expenditure on new buildings, fittings, and apparatus, and has further assigned a grant of 6oool. a year to the working of the laboratory. This institution all men of science are truly glad to have gained from the State, and they will remember with gratitude the statesmen-the late Marquis of Salisbury, the Right Hon. Arthur J. Balfour, Mr. Haldane, and others as well as their own leaders-Lord Rayleigh, Sir William Huggins, and the active body of physicists in the Royal Society-who have carried this enterprise to completion. The British Association has every reason to be proud of its share in early days in nursing the germ at Kew which has at length expanded into this splendid national institution.

I may mention also another institution which, during the past quarter of a century, has come into existence and received, originally through the influence of the late Lord Playfair (one of the few men of science who have ever occupied the position of a Minister of the Crown), and later by the influence of the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, a subsidy of 1000l. a year from the Government and a contribution of 5000l. towards its initial expenses. This is the Marine Biological Association, which has a laboratory at Plymouth, and has lately expended a special annual grant, at the spontaneous invitation of His Majesty's Treasury, in conducting an investigation of the North Sea in accordance with an international scheme devised by a central committee of scientific experts. This scheme has for its purpose the gaining such knowledge of the North Sea and its inhabitants as shall be useful ir dealing practically and by legislation with the great fisherie of that area. You will, perhaps, not be surprised to hear that there are persons in high positions who, though admittedly unacquainted with the scientific questions af issue or the proper manner of solving them, are discontented with the action of the Government in entrusting the expenditure of public money to a body of scientific men who give their services, without reward or thanks, to carrying out the purposes of the international inquiry Strange criticisms are offered by these malcontents in re gard to the work done in the international exploration of the North Sea, and a desire is expressed to secure the money for expenditure by a less scientific agency. I do not hesitate to say here that the results obtained by the Marine Biological Association are of great value and interest, and, if properly continued and put to practical application, are likely to benefit very greatly the fisher industry; on the other hand, if the work is cut short or entrusted to incompetent hands it will no doubt be the case that what has already been done will lose its valuethat is to say, will have been wasted. There is imminent danger of this perversion of the funds assigned to this scientific investigation taking place. There is no guarantee for the continuance of any funds or offices assigned t science in one generation by the officials of the next. The Mastership of the Mint held by Isaac Newton, and finally by Thomas Graham, has been abolished and its salary appropriated by non-scientific officials. Only a few year ago it was with great difficulty that the Government of the day was prevented from assigning the Directorship f Kew Gardens to a young man of influence devoid of all knowledge of botany!

One of the most solid tests of the esteem and value attached to scientific progress by the community is the dedication of large sums of money to scientific purposes by its wealthier members. We know that in the United States such gifts are not infrequent; they are rare in this country. It is, therefore, with especial pleasure that 1 call your attention to a great gift to science in this

country made only a few years ago. Lord Iveagh has endowed the Lister Institute, for researches in connection with the prevention of disease, with no less a sum than a quarter of a million pounds sterling. This is the largest gift ever made to science in this country, and will be productive of great benefit to humanity. The Lister Institute took its origin in the surplus of a fund raised by Sir James Whitehead when Lord Mayor, some sixteen years ago, for the purpose of making a gift to the Pasteur Institute in Paris, where many English patients had been treated, without charge, after being bitten by rabid dogs. Three thousand pounds was sent to M. Pasteur, and the surplus of a few hundred pounds was made the starting-point of a fund which grew, by one generous gift and another, until the Lister Institute on the Thames Embankment at Chelsea was set up on a site presented by that good and high

minded man, the late Duke of Westminster.

Many other noble gifts to scientific research have been made in this country during the period on which we are looking back. Let us be thankful for them, and admire the wise munificence of the donors. But none the less we must refuse to rely entirely on such liberality for the development of the army of science, which has to do battle for mankind against the obvious disabilities and sufferings which afflict us and can be removed by knowledge. The organisation and finance of this army should be the care of the State.

It is a fact which many of us who have observed it regret very keenly, that there is to-day a less widespread interest than formerly in natural history and general science, outside the strictly professional arena of the school and university. The field naturalists among the squires and the country parsons seem nowadays not to be so numerous and active in their delightful pursuits as formerly, and the Mechanics' Institutes and Lecture Societies of the days of Lord Brougham have given place, to a very large extent, to musical performances, bioscopes, and other entertainments, more diverting, but not really more capable of giving pleasure than those in which science was popularised. No doubt the organisation and professional character of scientific work are to a large extent the cause of this falling-off in its attraction for amateurs. But perhaps that decadence is also due in some measure to the increased general demand for a kind of manufactured gaiety, readily sent out in these days of easy transport from the great centres of fashionable amusement to the provinces and rural districts.

In conclusion, I would say a word in reference to the associations of our place of meeting, the birthplace of our Society. It seems to me not inappropriate that a Society for the Advancement of Science should have taken its origin under the walls of York Minster, and that the clergy of the great cathedral should have stood by its tradle. It is not true that there is an essential antagonism between the scientific spirit and what is called the religious sentiment. Religion," said Bishop Creighton, the knowledge of our destiny and of the means of fulfilling it." We can say no more and no less of Science. Men of Science seek, in all reverence, to discover the Almighty, the Everlasting. They claim sympathy and friendship with those who, like themselves, have turned away from the more material struggles of human life, and have set their hearts and minds on the knowledge of the Eternal.



SIR WILLIAM CROOKES, Prof. Eduard Suess, Prof. Luigi Palazzo, and Prof. Orazio Marucchi were elected honorary members of the Royal Academy of Acireale (Sicily) at a meeting on July 24.

THE Highways Committee of the London County Council has taken the necessary steps in connection with the appointment of the committee suggested by the Admiralty to inquire whether the working of the Greenwich electricity generating station will have any injurious effect upon the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Sir Benjamin Baker will act as the Council's representative on the committee, and

Prof. C. V. Boys will act in an advisory capacity from the astronomical and scientific point of view. The representatives appointed by the Admiralty on the committee are Prof. J. A. Ewing and Lord Rosse.

THE seventy-fourth annual meeting of the British Medical Association will be held at Toronto, Canada, on August 21. The president-elect is Dr. Richard A. Reeve, of the University of Toronto. Addresses will be delivered in medicine by Sir James Barr, in surgery by Sir Victor Horsley, F.R.S., and in obstetrics by Dr. Walter S. A. Griffith. The business of the meeting will be carried or in thirteen sections, dealing respectively with anatomy, dermatology, laryngology, medicine, obstetrics and gynæ cology, ophthalmology, pædiatrics, pathology and bacteriology, physiology, psychology, State medicine, surgery, and therapeutics. Several receptions and soirées have been arranged, and the last day of the meeting is to be devoted to outings.

ON Tuesday the Natural History Museum received, from Mr. Rowland Ward's establishment, a mounted specimen of a wild male African elephant, standing 11 feet 4 inches at the shoulder. The animal was shot in Rhodesia. The specimen could only be brought into the museum by taking down the doors, and, after considerable difficulty, was duly installed in the central hall, facing the entrance. This is the first wild African elephant's skin that has ever been mounted. The architect should be congratulated upon his clever achievement in one of the largest buildings in London with really one of the largest doors until he had artistically obliterated it.

THE contents of Nos. 7 and 8 of Naturen include articles on the habits of humble-bees, Chilian nitre, squirrels' nests, and “animalcules."

IN a paper on the development of the cusps on mammalian cheek-teeth, published in the Proceedings of the Washington Academy (vol. vii., pp. 91-110), Mr. J. W. Gidley points out that, in his opinion, the tritubercular theory cannot be maintained in its original form. It appears that the three main cusps of the upper tritubercular molar are by no means always homologous. Despite the want of homology in the cusps, the author deprecates any change in Prof. Osborn's nomenclature for tritubercular molars, which is found to be exceedingly convenient in practice.

A COLLECTION of skulls of Californian Indians forms the subject of an elaborate paper by Mr. A. Hrdlicka constituting No. 2 of vol. iv. of the Archæological and Ethnological Publications of the University of California. These ancient Californian Indians, like those of Santa Barbara Island, show no affinity to the aborigines of Arizona and Sonora, but appear akin to the Otomi of the States of Hidalgo and Mexico. "A large group of peoples in the States of Puebla, Michoacan, and further south, even including the Aztecs, and finally the Tarahumare, in Chihuahua, are all physically related to the Otomi as well as to the Californians."

CORALS from California and Brazil form the subject of No. 1477 of the Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, a Californian Conocyathus being described by Mr. T. W. Vaughan, the author of the paper, as new. In No. 1478 of the same serial Messrs. Evermann and Clark describe certain new fishes from a small river in the centre of Santo Domingo. Six specimens were obtained, referable to four species, three of which are regarded as new, two being assigned to the genus Platypoecilus and the third to Sicydium.

A NUMBER of new South African Palæozoic fossils-both vegetable and animal-are described by Mr. E. H. L. Schwarz in the sixth part of the first volume of the Records of the Albany Museum. It is noteworthy that the plants, which appear to be either of Upper Devonian or Lower Carboniferous age, are referable to the "Lepidodendron flora." In the same issue Mr. J. E. Duerden reviews the South African tortoises of the genus Homopus, and describes and figures, under the name of H. boulengeri, a species regarded as new to science. In regard to the tortoises of the Testudo geometrica group, the author points out that some of the named species appear to intergrade, thus suggesting that in this group we may have species in course of evolution. A fourth contribution, by Mr. P. Cameron, on the Hymenoptera in the Albany Museum, completes this issue.

THE first issue of the Memoirs of the National Museum, Melbourne, consists of a paper by Dr. A. Smith Woodward on a Carboniferous fish-fauna from the Mansfield district, Victoria. It appears that the fish-remains described were discovered so long ago as 1888, and that a brief notice of them was published by the late Sir F. McCoy in the following year. Coloured plates were, moreover, prepared under that palæontologist's direction, and these have been utilised in the present issue. Of the six generic types recognised, one is too imperfectly known for its affinities to be exactly defined, four others, Acanthodes, Ctenodus, Strepsodus, and Elonichthys, occur in the Permian and Carboniferous of Europe and the Carboniferous of North America, but the sixth, Gyracanthides, although related to a northern Carboniferous type, is altogether peculiar and of exceptional interest. It appears, indeed, to be an acanthodian referable either to the Diplacanthida or kindred family group, but of a highly specialised nature, the specialisation displaying itself in the enlargement of the pectoral fins, the reduction and forward displacement of the pelvics, and the absence or modification of the intermediate spines. A restored figure of this remarkable shark is given.


IN the annual report of the U.S. National Museum, 1904, Mr. G. P. Merrill, whose writings on geology are always acceptable, has produced a treatise entitled "Contributions to the History of American Geology." Sir Archibald Geikie and the late Prof. Zittel have already provided geologists with historical accounts of the growth of their subject, mainly from the European standpoint. In these "Contributions " Mr. Merrill takes up the story from the American point of view, thereby filling a serious gap in a manner that will earn the gratitude of everyone interested in the science. The mode of presentation of the subject is the chronological one, but several topics that were at one time of outstanding prominence are treated separately; such are the Laramie question, the Taconic succession, and the Eozoon problem. Not the least interesting feature in this extremely interesting work is the assemblage of portraits of American geologists, including many early workers whose names must be almost unknown in this country.

These data, together with report, form a permanent

than the underground roads.
the descriptions given in the
record of the Norseman mines up to the date of publi-
cation. The area dealt with in the report un to the end
of 1904 has yielded 266.234 ounces of gold, or 1019 ounces
for every ton of ore treated.

In the Engineering Magazine (July) Mr. Clarence Heller gives sorae interesting personal observations on the effect of earthquake and fire on steel buildings at San Francisco. His photographs give a graphic record of the tailure of structural materials and systems under various conditions. Riveted connections showed their superiority over bolts when called upon to resist twist by earthquake. The great losses by fire were due to poor material, bad mortar, and miserable workmanship.

In his presidential address to the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society at the meeting held on March 27, which is published in the second part of vol. viii. of the Transactions of that body, Mr. Eustace Gurney, after surveying recent progress in "limnology," directed attention to the opportunities for research presented by the Norfolk Broads. He pointed out that after the compilation of complete lists of the fauna, much might be done in regard to a knowledge of the life-history of many species by keeping them in tanks. In addition to this, we ought to be acquainted with the physical and chemical characteristics of each sheet of water, the nature of the bottomdeposits, and so on. The papers in the same issue include one by Mr. T. Southwell on the share taken in former times by Lynn and Yarmouth in the Greenland whalefishery, one by Mr. T. J. Wigg on last year's herringfishery, and a third, by Mr. W. G. Clarke, on the classification of Norfolk flint-implements.

IN the Annual Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club for 1905-6, the secretary announces a small excess of expenditure over receipts. The two most important papers in this issue are a résumé of the club's recent work with regard to local glaciation, by Madame Christen, and an account of the Carnmoney chalcedony, by Mr. J. Strachan. As the results of his investigations on the latter subject, the author is disposed to reject the theory that deposits in lava of chalcedony of the nature of the one in question are due to decomposition changes in favour of the idea that they are contemporaneous products of the rock, and that they were formed during the final stages of cooling and drying. He is also of opinion that the associated zeolitic or calcitic layer, as well as the siliceous contents of the veins or cavities, owes its origin, not to the decomposition of the parent rock, but to the last stages in its formation.

ACCORDING to the observations of Mr. A. Toyama, of the College of Agriculture, Tokyo University, published in the June issue of Biologisches Centralblatt, Mendel's law of heredity is strictly applicable, in a very large number of cases, to cross-bred silkworms. The colours of the cocoons and the larval markings are, for instance, strictly Mendelian, while other features appear to conform to certain laws not yet formulated. No single instance was observed in which an irregular development of Mendelian phenomena took place. In another article issued in the same number Dr. H. Simroth urges that the sporadic development of a black phase of the hamster affords an instance of undoubted mutation among mammals. In giving Cricetus vulgaris niger as the equivalent of Schreber's "Mus cricetus Linné niger," the author is unwittingly founding a new subspecies, as no

THE latest addition to the publications of the Geological Survey of Western Australia is an exhaustive report (Bulletin No. 21) on the geology and mineral resources of the Norseman district, Dundas goldfield, by Mr. W. D. Campbell. The mining plans and sections, of which five accompany the report, mark an advance on any of the official mining plans yet issued in that their most prominent features are the lodes, faults, and dykes, rather. C. v. niger occurs in any of the published lists.

THE Department of Agriculture in India has commenced the issue of a chemical series of memoirs. Part i. con

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tains an article by Dr. J. W. Leather, agricultural chemist to the Government of India, on the composition of Indian rain and dew. The author points out that the amount of ammonia and nitric or nitrous acid found in the annual rainfall by observers in different parts of the world has varied within wide limits. The observations at Rothamsted during fifteen years, 1889-1903, show mean quantities of 2-78 lb. of ammonia " nitrogen and 1.19 lb. of nitric " nitrogen per acre per annum, the total being 3.97 lb.; but there has been a tendency among observers in the East to attribute to tropical rainfall much greater amounts. A record of these compounds was kept recently for twelve months at Dehra Dun and Cawnpore, both stations being nearly within the tropics, and is of interest as additional evidence upon the subject. The results obtained were, approximately, in lb. per acre:-Dehra Dun, ammonia 204, nitrate and nitrite 1.37, total 3.41; Cawnpore, 2.48 and 0-77 respectively, total 3-25, the amount of ammonia being less at both stations than at Rothamsted; of nitric acid, the Dehra Dun rain contained somewhat more, the Cawnpore rain a good deal less, than at the English station. Information regarding the quantity and composition of dew is but limited. Observations were made at Cawnpore between September, 1904, and March, 1905; the amount of dew was only 0.17 inch, and contained approximately 0-055 lb. of "ammonia" nitrogen and 0.056 lb. of nitric" nitrogen per acre. Dr. Leather thinks it probable that the method adopted at Cawnpore for registering the amount of dew gave a low result.

THE value of statistical researches in the subject of heredity and variation is well illustrated by a paper lately published in the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, under the joint names of W. E. Castle, F. W. Carpenter, A. H. Clark, S. O. Mast, and W. M. Barrows, on the effects of inbreeding, cross-breeding and selection upon the fertility and variability of Drosophila, a genus of Diptera which feeds in the larval stage on over-ripe fruit. The experiments were conducted with great care, and their results recorded with minuteness, the outcome being a valuable set of conclusions on various moot points connected with the subject. The authors consider that their experiments prove that, although long-continued inbreeding (extending in one case to fourteen generations) may possibly cause a decline in fertility, this effect may be more than counterbalanced by selection of the most productive among closely inbred pairs. No falling-off was observed in either strength, size, or variability in the inbred generations. Different degrees of fertility are characteristic of different stocks; inheritance of such differences does actually take place, and gives material for selection. Indications were found of a cyclical change in fertility. This appeared to be due to external conditions, e.g. temperature. The quality of low productiveness was found to conform imperfectly with Mendel's law, but the alternative character of high and low fertility is not sharply defined. Sexual maturity was shown to be reached at some time between twenty-four and thirty-nine hours after emergence from the pupa, and a single male was proved to be capable of fertilising at least four females.

DR. SHADWORTH H. HODGSON's paper on the interrelation of the academical sciences, read to the British Arademy on March 14, has been published by Mr. Henry Frowde. Dr. Hodgson asks what is the common ulterior

end of the four sections of the British Academy, dealing as they do with the different sciences of history, philology, philosophy, and law. These four branches of inquiry, he discovers, have to do with man, and his conscious activities in every direction, and the relations of men with men and with other conscious beings; and the whole group has as its differentia from the positive physical sciences the fact that it takes consciousness as the point of view. So the ulterior aim of all the sections is the harmonising and organising into a system of the knowledge obtained in each section and subsection of those conscious activities which are its special province, with the further purpose of harmonising those conscious activities themselves into a concerted life of mankind on earth. The lecturer further claims that internal organisation of the academical sciences can only be effected by connecting the sciences of history,

philology, and law with philosophy, "which alone possesses in its metaphysical department a secure foundation for any science whatever, being itself founded, alone among all, upon the analysis of consciousness, or experience, without initial assumptions of any kind."



THE "Year-book of Agriculture" for the State of Victoria for the year 1905, recently issued under the supervision of its new director of agriculture, Dr. Cherry, contains a series of valuable articles on economic biology. It supplies an interesting case of the rapid spread of a European plant in Australia, which is of value from the exact information available as to its rate of movement. Some seeds of a species of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) were planted at Bright twenty-five years ago by a lady who wanted the plant for medicinal purposes. From her garden it spread to the Bright racecourse, where it grew so luxuriantly that it gained the popular name of racecourse weed." Thence it has been carried by cattle, as shown by a map of the present distribution of the plant in Victoria, along all the main stock routes from Bright. Among other directions it has crossed the main water-shed of Victoria into Gippsland, and now occupies more than 10,000 acres of good land. Methods proposed for its eradication are engaging the attention of the Agricultural Department of Victoria, which has tried an extensive series of experiments. Treatment of the ground with pyrites, at the cost of more than 51. an acre, has been the most successful. The cost of some of the methods tested is prohibitive, ranging up to 471. an acre. Amongst other valuable articles in the volume are those on the soils of Victoria, by Dr. Cherry; on farm irrigation from small dams, by Mr. A. S. Kenyon; and on various branches of dairy farming

THE report of the committee on ancient earthworks and fortified enclosures, presented to the seventeenth congress of archæological societies held at Burlington House on July 4, is now available. The committee regrets that the archæological societies have not yet been able to undertake the systematic scheduling of the ancient earthworks and defensive enclosures in their respective districts. The report contains a list of the additions to the literature of the subject of the committee's inquiries, a list of recent cases of the destruction or mutilation of defensive outworks, tumuli, and barrows, and some account of the excavations during the year.

A VALUABLE memoir of the Geological Survey on "Soils and Subsoils from a Sanitary Point of View, with especial Reference to London and its Neighbourhood," was issued nine years ago. The second edition of this memoir has just been published by the Board of Agriculture and

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