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“ It is certain that for a long time past member- ritual there are dramatic celebrations of the arrival and ship at large in the fundamental religious bodies of departure of the katcinas, and during the whole year the Zuñi has not been dependent on the ties of clan- there are ceremonies in which katcinas take part, ship, though in certain cases succession to office in The annual ceremonies vary considerably each year, fraternities does depend on clanship. Before any so the katcinas are correspondingly numerous, and exposition of the origin of the fundamental religious not only have clans introduced new katcinas from organisations and of the ritual can be offered, a com- time to time, but individuals have done the same even parative study of the Pueblos must be made. In this by men still alive. Some of these ceremonies have work the passing hours are golden, for not only are developed into a regular dramatic performance; the the villages losing their old-time landmarks, but the motive of one of these dramas is the growth of corn, people themselves are changing, are adapting them with representations of the maleficent and beneficent selves to a suddenly and profoundly altered environ- agencies that affect the crop. The performance is ment, and the Zuñi at least, whose religion teaches designed primarily to invoke the favour of the them to speak with one tongue, to be gentle to all, mysteries by appropriate symbols combined with the and to subdue the passions, thereby winning the edification of the community at large. Thus favour of their gods, are, under the influence of portion of the chamber is set apart as a stage, while modern conditions, losing the restraining power of the greater portion is reserved as an auditorium. A this religion, and, as a result, are changing for the
the stage is painted with appropriate Worse.
symbols, and is perforated to permit the passage of It is to be hoped that competent students will make the masked effigies representing the mystical a thorough study of the sociology of these people . potencies, which are operated by shamans hidden without delay, and at the same time make a serious' behind the screen, something after the fashion of
marionettes. The front of the stage is occupied by a symbolic field of corn, and the figures which represent the storm and drought emerge from their respective apertures in the screen and destroy the cornfield; but they opposed partly by musical and other incantations of a group of shamans occupy, ing one side of the stage, and partly by human actors who wrestle with and finally overcome the evil marionettes. The entire dramatisation stands on a higher plane than any prevalent among other tribes of the territory of the United States, though lower than that reached among the Nahuatlan and Mayan peoples of Mexico.
Under the title of “Two Summers' Work in Pueblo Ruins," Dr. Fewkes describes his survey of certain ruins mainly in the Province of Tusayan. Dr. Fewkes's excavations confirmed some statements made by the
Hopis concerning their former Fig. 3. ---Sword Swallowers of Ma'ke Hlan nakwe (Great Fire Fraternity of the Zuñis).
history, and his intimate know.
ledge of the ritual and effort to trace the transition of the old clan system monies of the existing Pueblo Indians has enabled into the later religious fraternities.
him to explain the use or significance of objects dug The memoir by Dr. J. W. Feukes on Hopi Kateinas' up by him. The report is illustrated by photographs drawn by native artists cannot fail to be of consider- of ruins, plans of buildings, and a large number of able interest to students of various departments of beautifully executed coloured plates of decorated ethnology. The practice of illustrating ethnological .' pottery, besides numerous figures in the text. The researches by native drawings is much to be recom- author inclines to the belief that the Zuñis never mended, as the drawings throw considerable side- ' advanced to the same perfection in the ceramic art light upon the ideas and skill of the artists, and help as did the Hopis. The author says, “In the evolution us in the study of their psychology; in the present of Pueblo decoration the development of ornamentation instance they have additional value in the suggestive advances from geometrical patterns to rude picture similarities they present to pictographs in the codices writing, and, as a rule, the pottery on which the former of more southerly regions. The term katcina was predominate is inferior to that on which the latter is originally limited to the spirits of the ancients of the most prominent”; but this hardly seems consistent with Hopi or personified medicine power, and personifica- the subsequent remark that the more ancient the tions of a similar power in other objects have like- ruin is, the better is the pottery.". wise come to be called katcinas. Thus the magic Dr. Cyrus Thomas gives the second portion of his power or medicine of the sun or earth may be called study of Mayan calendar systems, in which he deals katcina. The term is also applied to personations of with Maudslay's investigation of the ruins at Quirigua these spirits or medicine potencies by men, or their
and discusses Goodman's results. The paper includes representation by pictures or images. In the Hopi an account of the Maya method of calculation.
Serious English-speaking students of Central embodied in a recent report on the education and trainAmerican archæology must know the writings of the ing of engineers, are to be welcomed. In November, distinguished German scholars whose names appear 1903, the council of the Institution appointed a comin Bulietin 28 under review; but even they will be glad mittee to consider and report as to the best methods to have these scattered papers translated for more con- of training for all classes of engineers, including both venient reference and collected in one volume. Other scholastic and subsequent technical education, it being iudents who like to know what is being discovered a'i instruction of the council that the principle was to in this region will be very thankful to Mr. Bowditch be maintained that the education of an engineer must lur his enterprise and labour in translating these include both practical experience and scientific trainpapers, and to the Smithsonian Institution for placing ing. The constitution of the committee was completed all this material at their disposal in so convenient a in February, 1904, and owing to the wisdom and form. On the whole, these papers will be of most breadth of outlook of the council of the Institution of valus to those who concern themselves with the Civil Engineers, accredited representatives of the chronology and history of the Central American various institutions of mechanical, electrical, gas, and peoples; but there is a great deal to interest the mining engineers, naval architects, shipbuilders, and general ethnologist, though he will have to search others were added to the committee, which under the for luis material, as most of it is scattered all over the able chairmanship of Sir William White, K.C.B., volume in diverse papers. Particularly interesting F.R.S., was soon actively at work. this respect are the papers on “ Zapotec Priesthood The inquiry, which has extended over more than und Ceremonials," " Deities and Religious Conceptions
two years, proceeded under the following sections : vf the Zapotecs," and Comparative Studies in the (1) Preparatory education in secondary schools; Field of Maya Antiquities "; the last paper deals with (2) training in offices, workshops, factories, or on the clothing, personal decoration, and utensils of the works; (3) training in universities and higher technical Maya: as illustrated in the manuscripts, or on the institutions; (4) post-graduate work. The investigamonuments or other remains. According to a wide- tions under the first heading were entrusted to a subspread tradition, the Toltecs were the originators of commitee, while the committee as a whole undertook all arts and sciences; and the invention of the calendar the consideration of the questions arising under the reis ascribed to them, and we are informed they maining three sections. The inquiries of the committee carried their book with them on their migrations. have been prosecuted by obtaining, sometimes orally The calendar is the fount of the Central American though generally by correspondence, the opinions of sacerdotal wisdom, and the great mass of Mexican teachers and professors with experience in engineerand Maya manuscripts is nothing more than an elaboration of this calendric system in respect to its ing education, and of eminent engineers practising in
various branches of the profession. The ultimate numerical theory, its chronology, and its system of result is that, though diversities of opinion' have been divination. The book is copiously illustrated, and
disclosed in regard to some details, yet, in all the main altogether it will form a most welcorne addition to features of its recommendations, the committee has the working library of various kinds of students
support from the great majority of professional of archæology and ethnology.
engineers as well as of the professors of engineering Mr. Swanton gives literal translations of a number subjects in our universities and higher technical instiof Haida folk-tales obtained on the Queen Charlotte tutions. Islands, British Columbia ; this careful piece of work
PREPARATORY EDUCATION. will be much appreciated by folklorists.
The subcommittee, entrusted with the work of When one looks at the bulk of ethnological matter ascertaining the views of authorities competent to published by the United States Government, and realises the enormous value to students of these full,
speak concerning the most suitable form of secondary
education for boys destined to become engineers, accurate, and well-illustrated memoirs, one cannot but feel ashamed of our Government, which, possessing teachers in engineering colleges, headmasters of
issued a schedule of questions to 120 representative every opportunity and inducement to study and report secondary schools devoting special attention to scientific upon our own native races, does absolutely nothing.
training, and engineers not engaged in teaching. The A, C. HADDON.
queries raised in the schedule dealt with such points
as the proper age for leaving school, the desirability THE EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF THE
of a leaving examination for secondary schools, the
extent and methods of the teaching-suitable for ENGINEER.
future engineers-in English subjects, languages, ENGINEERING in its various branches takes so mathematics, science, drawing, and surveying. The
large and important a part in the industrial schedule of questions raised, in addition, the important activities of modern nations that no pains are too great subject as to how far schoolboys should have, as a which will secure for our engineers a suitable and school exercise, practice in ordinary handicraft work, adequate school and college training, supplemented by such as carpentry or turning; and to what extent it
judiciously organised scheme of practical work in has been found better to make all “ practical ” work the shops and drawing office. More especially is this into laboratory exercises in science. Replies were the case in this country, where, owing to the satisfac- received from 80 per cent. of the gentlemen whose tion which has followed previous success,
opinions were invited, and from these definite conclufacturers have been insufficiently alive to the fact that sions were deduced as to the prevailing opinion on for many years other nations have been steadily build- the points raised in the schedule of questions. These ing up efficient schemes of technical and professional conclusions were embodied in a report of the subeducation at the cost of much enterprise and greater committee, which eventually approved and self-sacrifice, with the natural result that adopted by the main committee. The following supremacy, long undisputed in these spheres of recommendations are the outcome of the exhaustive industry, has been undermined, and in some degree inquiry. Asested from us,
A boy intended for the engineering profession should, It is for reasons such as these that the investigations before leaving school and commencing to specialise, inaugurated and carried out under the auspices of the have attained a standard of education equivalent to Institution of Civil Engineers, the results of which are that recognised by universities for matriculation
purposes. His special training should not commence which would provide engineers with boys trained in until he is about seventeen years of age. To ensure such a way as to make their future rational developsuch a standard of efficiency a leaving examination ment easy and straightforward. for secondary schools is desirable throughout the
ENGINEERING TRAINING. United Kingdom, so that there may be no room for doubt as to whether a boy has received a satisfactory It was eventually decided by the committee to deal preliminary education.
together with the sections of its inquiry concerned with Advanced teaching of history and geography, with training in offices, workshops, faciories, or on works; instruction and practice in essay-writing and in précis-training in universities and higher technical instituwriting, should be included in the ordinary school tions; and post-graduate work. As in the case of the curriculum; and the instruction in English subjects investigation dealing with the school career of the should include at least an introduction to English future engineer, so in this case a schedule of questions literature.
was framed and circulated widely. But a modification Greek should not be required, but an elementary was introduced; the committee embodied in the knowledge of Latin is desirable. The study of Latin schedule certain conclusions on important subjects on should, however, be discontinued during the last two which it was unanimous. At the same time a free years of attendance at school, or after the standard expression of divergent opinions was invited. required for the leaving certificate has been attained. In the schedule of opinions and questions the comModern languages, especially French and German, mittee expressed its opinion that the age for leaving should be studied, and should be taught colloquially school of the future engineer should be seventeen or in such a way as to give the pupils a practical years, and seventy per cent. of the 267 engineers and knowledge of each language, sufficient to enable them others who sent replies expressed agreement with this to study its literature and to converse in it with some proposal. The opinion of the committee that it is degree of facility.
desirable that the course of training for all branches Instruction in mathematics should be given by of engineering should include at least one year's trainmethods differing considerably from those usually ing in mechanical engineering workshops, where, adopted in the teaching of this subject merely as an ordinarily, information would be gained of the pracintellectual exercise. The geometrical side of mathe- tical applications of electricity, was endorsed by 72 per matics should be fostered, and before they leave school cent. of those who responded to the invitation of the boys should be conversant with the use of logarithms, committee to express their views, and 21 per cent. and with at least the elements of trigonometry. In considered this period too short. There was, however, struction in practical arithmetic should be carried far less unanimity as to when this introductory workfurther than has been generally the case hitherto, with shop course should be taken. The committee laid it the object especially of encouraging the use of con- down that the course should be taken at an early tracted methods and of encouraging also the expres- period—either previously to the commencement of sion of results with only such a degree of accuracy as college training, or after that portion of the college is consistent with the known degree of certainty of training which is common to all branches of engineerthe data on which the calculations are based.
ing has been completed. Thirty-three per cent. of the It is preferable that boys should attain at school a responding referees merely expressed agreement with general knowledge of physics and chemistry rather the committee, while 47 per cent. were definite that it than that they should pursue in detail some particular should be before the college training began. branch of science. Special attention should be given Four-fifths of the replies received agreed with the to drawing. Work in the nature of handicraft, such committee that during the introductory workshop as carpentry or turning, may be encouraged as a re- course, and indeed in subsequent similar courses, boy's creation, but should not be required as
should keep the regular working hours, be treated like exercise.
ordinary apprentices, and be paid wages. Rather more The committee very properly recommends that the than half the referees replying thought boys should be scheme of education outlined in its report should be expected to attend evening classes during this workcommunicated officially to the Board of Education and shop course, and 35 per cent. thought educational be circulated widely amongst those responsible for the work should be suspended during this time. A large work in secondary schools and engineering colleges. majority of the replies showed that it is generally conThe importance of the committee's recommendations, sidered desirable that this workshop course should be indeed, cannot be overestimated. Educational ex- followed by a period of study in a technical college or perts have long foreseen the impossibility of securing university before specialisation in particular branches a rational system of secondary education in the absence of engineering is undertaken, and that the period of of a carefully planned investigation to determine pre-college study should be arranged so as to alternate cisely what secondary education has to accomplish with the practical training: and how the desired end may best be reached. The There was great diversity of opinion as to what Institution of Civil Engineers has by its public-spirited constitutes a reasonable total period of practical train. action shown schoolmasters the way so far as the ing on works, in factories, workshops, mines, and so education of future engineers is concerned. Here is on-apart from the introductory workshop course. the opportunity for which earnest educators have been
Thirty per cent, of the replies mention three years, looking. The ground to be covered has been carefully twenty per cent. give two years, and the remaining mapped out by experts, and we at last know precisely opinions vary from one to five years. The comınittee what is required of the secondary school so far as recommends a total period of four years inclusive of training engineers is concerned. It is earnestly to be the introductory workshop course. On the other hand, hoped that the opportunity will not be lost. If for the it seemed to be generally agreed that the scale on which next ten years these judicious recommendations could appliances and equipment for instructing engineering be made the basis of the secondary education provided students should be provided in technical colleges for all boys intended for engineering, and if the results should be limited only by the funds at the disposal of of following the scheme could be accurately recorded the college authorities. during this period, we should in 1916 be in possession The three concluding opinions formulated by the of data which would bring us within easy distance of committee on the schedule distributed met with formulating with confidence a course of school study general approval. It is considered desirable, in connection with the grant of degrees, diplomas, and report, “ From the English standpoint too much importCortiñcates to engineering students, that great importance may be attached to prolonged literary training, and ance should be attached to laboratory and experimental nut enough importance to the practical training of work performed by individual students, as well as to students during the earlier years of their career, nor their progress in mathematical and scientific studies, to the cultural value of a scientific and professional rather than that degrees and so on should be granted education.” But in no respect are American condion the results of terminal or final examinations. It tions more different from those at home than in the is urged that facilities for post-graduate work by attitude of the employers of labour toward higher engineering students in higher technical institutions education. As Dr. Ivalmsley has testified in a recent should be much increased; and it is admitted by report (see NATURE, vol. Ixx., p. 231), “ Without excep& most all authorities that the improvements of tion the officials interviewed asserted that, far from engireering education depend greatly on the attitude having any difficulty in placing the graduates turned on Emplorers towards the recommendations made by out year by year from the engineering courses, for the summittee, and employers are urged to extend the the last few years the graduate class has had every facilities to engineering students for post-graduate one of its individual members engaged for remunerative sucr and research.
work before the completion of the course at college." The recommendations of the committee in respect Such are the importance of the report of the Instituof engineering training embody the conclusions arrived tion of Civil Engineers and the care which has been al by an examination of the replies just summarised, expended upon its preparation, that it is to be hoped and it is unnecessary to do more than point out the it will be read alike by all responsible for the educa. prets in which the reconimendations amplify the tion of our future engineers, and by those who are in virions set forth in the schedule prepared for distri- a position to employ the young men when their trainbution. The recommendation respecting the intro- ing is complete. In face of the severe competition ductory workshop course explained above recognises between nations for industrial supremacy, it becomes that at present there are practical difficulties in arrang- a national duty for each and all, who can assist and ang ice this workshop year being interposed between forward the means of preparing the men in whose the school and college work, and that employers care our manufactures and general mercantile welfare may consider the arrangement detrimental to their will rest, to do their best; and a debt of gratitude is interests. The committee suggests, however, that due to the Institution of Civil Engineers for the work these difficulties should not be insurmountable, and it has accomplished.
A. T. S. the general agreement as to its advantageous effect on training leads it to hope that practical trial may BALLOONS AND KITES IN THE SERVICE OF be given to the plan.
JETEOROLOGI, Concerning attendance at evening classes during the introductory workshop course, the committee thinks DCRING recent years a considerable amount of it is most important that all boys should at least information has been accumulated about the 1113ini,in their scholastic acquirements, and it is conditions which prevail in the higher strata of the considered that this result might be secured, bv atmosphere. Although observations of temperature private tuition or otherwise, without undue physical and humidity were made by Glaisher from a free strain. So, too, the general recommendation that the balloon more than fifty years ago, and later Mr. Archiintroductory workshop course should be followed im- bald used kites to determine the change of wind strediatrls by attendance at college is modified. It is velocity with elevation, it is only in the last ten years sliked that in some cases-as, for example, when bovs that a systematic attempt has been inaugurated to are intended to become mechanical engineers it may obtain information. There is now a fair amount of be advantageous to complete the practical training observational material awaiting someone with the before entering college; but, if this is done, private necessary skill and leisure to work it up, and it is tuition or evening classes must be the rule during the much to be hoped that the task may be taken in hand Years of practical work.
shortly, so that the results obtained in various The longest of the recommendations urges the need countries and by various organisations or individuals fo: a sound and extensive knowledge of mathematics may be arranged and coordinated, in order that further ia all branches of engineering. The committee en inquiry may be pushed along the most promising lines. dorses the practically universal opinion that a sufficient
The means of observation available are practically time should be allotted to the study of pure mathematics kites and small unmanned balloons carrying selfduring the common college course, and that the extent recording instruments, aided to some extent by direct to which individual students can be carried in mathe observations made from manned balloons; and the matjes must be decided by the teachers.
only obstacle to continuous daily or even hourly readSuch are, in brief, the more important of the comings at moderate heights is that of expense. mitter's recommendations, and it is interesting to
The free balloons possess the advantages of reachmmpare these with some aspects of American practice. ing heights unattainable by any other means, and of The rule in the engineering courses of the colleges being independent of weather conditions. Either of the United States, which it must be remembered paper or rubber balloons are used of about six to always follow a prolonged secondary education, is ten feet diameter. These balloons are filled with thai in the first two years of the course--which gener. hydrogen, and carry up with them a self-recording ally lasts four years-a fair aniount of time is given to meteorograph made as light as possible; they frequently mathematics, English, modern languages, and experi- reach heights exceeding ten miles, and it is seldom, at mental science, and it is chiefly in the workshop and least on the more thickly inhabited parts of the Condrawing office that the specialisation towards engineer- tinent, such as France and Germany, that they are ink is apparent during these years. Specialisation lost. Each balloon carries an attached label offering Bog'ns to show itself prominently during the third a small reward to the finder, and the address to which year, and mechanical technology and electrotechnics information is to be sent, and in general the meteoroare more or less taken up in the mechanical and graph is recovered with its record in a decipherable electrical engineering courses. In the fourth year a condition within a few weeks or a month. It is desircrowd of engineering subjects is frequently introduced. able that the balloon should fall as near as possible But as Prof. Ripper remarks in his Mosely Commission to its starting point, and with a rubber balloon this
is effected in the following manner. The balloon is from some westerly point. M. Teisserenc de Bort
Dr. Hann on the other hand considers that cyclones Observations obtained by the help of kites have the are what may be described as driven eddies in the advantage of being less costly, but they are dependent general circulation of the atmosphere. Opinion on the on the weather conditions, and it is not often that Continent, based on the results of observations obheights exceeding two miles are reached. At Linden- tained by balloons and kites, seems to be in favour of berg in Germany, the best equipped station for the Dr. Hann's hypothesis, but Mr. Clayton, of Blue Hill, purpose in existence, last year a height of just on U.S., considers that the ascents there made favour the four miles was reached by a train of kites. Given convectional theory. The results of some two hundred sufficient wind it is a perfectly simple process to send kite ascents which I have obtained in England and a kite up to the height of a few thousand feet, although Scotland, with an average height of about one mile, if the wind be very strong it is not so simple to draw seem to me to give no evidence one way or the other, it back again. The chief obstacle to attaining great I think, however, that a fundamental error has generaltitudes is the wind resistance upon the cord or wire ally been assumed in the discussion. We know that which holds the kite, and it is on this account that in a gas in equilibrium under a conservative system the strongest and thinnest obtainable steel wire is of forces the isothermal and isobaric surfaces must used. The wire introduces many technical difficulties; be identical; this point at least is not open to question. it is difficult and to some extent dangerous to handle, It is not, therefore, the proper test to consider whether and although capable of withstanding a great strain the temperature in a cyclone is greater or less than if fairly used, if a kink is once formed the piece of in an anticyclone at the same height, but the test is wire in which it is, is utterly useless. Usually steel whether it be greater or less at points on the same music wire, the kind of wire used in a piano in fact, isobaric surfaces; and the isobaric surfaces in of about 1-32in. in diameter is used; this will bear temperate latitudes may well differ from surfaces of a weight of 250lbs., and weighs 16lbs. to the mile.equal height above mean sea level by a thousand feet With a good kite presenting 77 square feet of surface
W. H. DINES. to the wind and 8000 feet of this wire, a vertical height of one mile is easily reached under favourable conditions of wind, and one kite of this size has carried a meteorograph to 8000 feet of height. The
THE BICENTENARY CELEBRATION OF THE conditions are not always favourable; instead of a
BIRTH OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. steady wind of twenty-five to thirty miles per hour,
HE oldest scientific society in the new world is, I increasing somewhat with altitude, which affords the
believe', the American Philosophical Society of besi conditions, it not infrequently happens that quite Philadelphia. The Society was founded by Benjamin different velocities are found in different strata. It is
Franklin, son of an English father and born at impossible to get through a stratum in which the Boston, Massachusetts, in January, 1706. It was velocity is under fifteen miles per hour, and if a
natural that the bicentenary of the birth of a man of velocity of much over forty miles per hour is en
such extraordinary and diverse genius as Franklin countered in the lower strata, the kite is very likely to
should be commemorated in his native land, and be damaged or the wire broken. At greater heights accordingly during the past winter the Society issued a higher velocity is not so likely to cause damage, invitations to leading universities and societies throughsince the air is less dense, and (a point of perhaps far
out the world to be present, through their delegates, greater importance) the wind is far steadier.
at a festival to be held at Philadelphia from April 17 to Hence it is easily seen that to reach very great
The date of the meeting was no doubt chosen heights with a train of kites, in addition to having because Philadelphia is liable to be intolerably hot in apparatus of the best design and quality, exceptional the summer, and would certainly be deserted at that weather conditions must hold, and the observer must season by many of the leading members of the Society, succeed in straining his wire just short, but only just yet the chosen time was not a good one for European short, of its breaking point. The attempt very often delegates, since academic duties would certainly preends in the breaking of the wire near the winch,
clude any large attendance from across the seas. and the departure of five or six miles of wire and six Although, then, there were actually present only some or eight kites.
half-dozen delegates from Europe, yet many European Very interesting results have been given by the un- societies were represented by honorary members of manned balloons. It has been found that when they American nationality, and sent addresses of congratuhave reached a great height they fall in some locality lation to the Philosophical Society. The l'nited States lying to the east of their starting point, not neces- and Canada were naturally in great force, and the sarily due east, but on more easterly meridian. hundred and filty or two hundred delegates who Since they pass far beyond the upper limit of the attended formed an imposing body of men of scientific cirrus cloud, this fact confirms the statement that in repute. the temperate latitudes the upper currents are always The proceedings began on the evening of April 17,