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when the President of the Society, Prof. Edgar Smith, ciated in America, and the fact that it coincides with presided over a meeting of delegates for the reception the bicentenary of Franklin's birth can hardly be merely of addresses. The President began by a speech in accidental. which he set forth the share taken by Franklin in the After the addresses of which I have spoken came the fuundation of the Philosophical Society, and the bearers presentation to the Republic of France, through the of addresses then handed to him successively, in the French Ambassador, M. Jusserand, of a gold medal chronological order of the several foundations, the docu- commemorative of Franklin. All who have studied the inents with which they had been entrusted. I myself history of the revolutionary war know the importance had the honour of presenting addresses from Čam- of Franklin's residence in Paris as a determining factor bridge, the Royal Society, the Royal Institution, the in the outcome of the war. It may easily be imagined British Association, and the Royal Meteorological how great was the enthusiasm created by this cereSecirty. I do not know the whole number of addresses, mony. but 126 bodies were represented in one way or another. The festival closed with a banquet in the evening The evening ended with an interesting ceremony, when at which there were many striking speeches. An Mr. Carnegie, in his robes as Lord Rector of the Uni- American dinner is managed somewhat differently versity of St. Andrews, conferred the degree of doctor from our own, for the toast-master is not, as with us, on Miss Irwin, a great-granddaughter of Franklin; a servant with a stentorian voice, but is the most highly she is principal of Radcliffe Hall, which bears nearly honoured of the hosts of the occasion. Dr. Weir the same relation to Harvard University that Newnham Mitchell, the illustrious physician, performed this and Girton do to Cambridge.

arduous task, and gave us a number of appropriate Weinesday, April 18, was devoted to the reading of little speeches to the admiration of all. scientific papers, as in a sectional meeting of the To describe the other speeches would be simply British Association. The session was continued on the tedious, but I may mention the excellent speech of afternoon of Friday, and twenty-three papers in all M. Jusserand, who referred with the most exquisite were read. Amongst the papers which appeared to tact to the appalling disaster of San Francisco, then excite the greatest interest were those by Chamberlin, at its full height. M. Jusserand is the most accomde Vries, Pickering, Hall, and Lorentz. I myself gave plished living student of England of the Plantagenet an acrount of a paper recently presented to the Royal times, and his speech, although clothed in English, Society, but as yet unpublished; but before doing so retained all the grace of its French origin. I had the pleasure of presenting to the Philosophical It was natural that the ruin and misery at San Soxiety two. Wedgwood medallions of Benjamin Francisco should exercise a certain depressing influence Franklin and of Erasmus Darwin. The archives of on all, but those responsible for the proceedings the Society show (what I was not aware of) that both determined, rightly, as I think, to carry them through Erasmus Darwin and my father had been honorary as planned. icllows, an honour which I share myself.

Those who have taken part in such festivals in On Thursday morning, April 19, the University of America need not be told that the organisation was Pennsylvania (of which Franklin was the initiator) admirable and the hospitality unbounded. conferred, at the hands of its Provost, Mr. Harrison,

G. H. DARWIN. a number of honorary degrees in the fine theatre called the Academy of Music. The whole pit was occupird by students, and a national flavour was con

NOTES. ferred on the ceremonies by their staccato college yell,

The seventy-eighth annual meeting of the German and by their singing college songs.

Association of Naturalists and Physicians will be held at An altogether exceptional feature of the ceremony was that a degree was conferred on the King, who

Stuttgart on September 16–22. wits represented by Sir Mortimer Durand, H.M. A REUTER message from Rome on May 5 reports that Ambassador at Washington. In announcing this the volcano of Stromboli is in active eruption. Advices degree the Provost read with great effect the celebrated

received from Tacna, Chile, state that a violent earthquake speech on England from Henry V. It is pleasant to

shock was felt in that city on May 6, the vibrations lastrecord the enthusiastic cheers which the whole audience ing thirty-five seconds. The shock was also felt at Arica. gave, standing, as the Ambassador was hooded. Some fifteen or twenty degrees were afterwards conferred, The death is announced of Prof. Eugène Renevier, proand the recipients--amongst whom I may name de fessor of geology and palæontology at the University of Vries, Lorentz, Marconi, and Rutherford

Lausanne. Prof. Renevier was president of the Swiss greeted with hearty cheers by the students. After-Geological Society and president of the Simplon Geological wards the Attorney-General of Pennsylvania, Mr. Car- Society. son, gave an address on the shares borne by Franklin and by subsequent benefactors in the foundation of On Saturday week, May 19, Sir James Dewar will deliver The University. In the afternoon there was a public the first of a course of two lectures at the Royal Institution procession to the grave of Franklin, but as I was not The Old and the New Chemistry." The Friday evenprosent I am unable to give any account of the pro- ing discourse on May 18 will be delivered by Prof. Arthur ceedings.

Schuster, on “ International Science." On Friday morning, April 19,

we heard interesting speeches in the theatre by Mr. Furness,

The second annual dinner of the London section of the President Elliot, and Mr. Choate, formerly ambassador Society of Dyers and Colourists will be held on Wednesday, in London, on the various sides of Franklin's character May 23. Persons interested in dyeing and the allied indusand activity. On the stage in full view of the audience tries who are not members of the society are specially inwas the portrait of Franklin which had been removed vited. Particulars may be obtained from the hon. secretary, from America by General Grey at the time of the Mr. Wallace Burton, 219 Shooters Hill Road, Blackrevolutionary war. It has just been presented to the heath, S.E. President of the United States by Lord Grey, GovernorGeneral of Canada, and its ultimate destination will, At the final meeting of the sixth International Congress I believe, be the White House at Washington. "This of Applied Chemistry on Saturday, it was resolved that graceful act of international courtesy is highly appre- the seventh congress shall be held in London, with Sir




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at all.

William Ramsay, K.C.B., as the president, and Sir Henry Hescheler ; studies of the plankton of the Lake of ConRoscoe as honorary president. We hope to give in an

The president of the society is Dr. G. Ambühl, early issue an account of matters of interest and import and the two secretaries are Dr. H. Rehsteiner and Dr. A. ance brought before the recent congress at Rome.

Dreyer. The astronomical observatory of La Plata has been

AFTER being closed for a very considerable time, the fish affiliated with the new National University of La Plata, gallery of the British Museum (Natural History)-or, to recently inaugurated by the Minister of Public Instruction

be accurate, the southern half of it-has just been re-opened of the Argentine Republic. The director of the observatory,

to the public in what may be termed a metamorphosed Mr. Francisco Porro, invites observers in similar institu- condition. In place of a dismal crowd of ill-mounted specie tions to exchange publications with him, at the Observ

mens, faded, for the most part, to one dull uniformity, the atorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional, La Plata.

public has now a small but well-assorted selection of speci. We learn from Science of April 27 that the University mens, coloured artificially to imitate, so far as practicable, of California and the Lick Observatory were not damaged their appearance in life, and arranged in such a manner that by the disastrous earthquake of April 18. The buildings they can be seen to the very best advantage. Descriptive of Leland Stanford Junior University suffered severely, the

labels-of which only a portion are yet printed—will render loss being estimated at Soo,oool. The building of the

the exhibit about as perfect as is at present possible, and California Academy of Sciences and its valuable collections the gallery as a whole will enable the public to gain the were destroyed.

greatest possible amount of information about fishes with The engineering journals publish lengthy

the least possible trouble. As regards the advisability of obituary

there can

colouring exhibited specimens of this nature memoirs of one of the most prominent figures in the industrial life of the north of England-Sir David Dale,

scarcely be two opinions, for, although with our present

methods and our present lack of knowledge of the appear. Bart., of Darlington, who died suddenly on April 28. He an eminent authority on economic questions, and

ance of many fishes in life it is impossible to imitate nature probably did more than anyone to promote industrial peace.

closely, yet such an approximation to natural colouring as He was one of the founders of the Iron and Steel Institute,

it is practicable to make is infinitely better than no colour and served as treasurer until his election as president in 1898.

The annual dinner of the Institution of Mining and The Harben lectures of the Royal Institute of Public

Metallurgy was held on May 4, when a distinguished Health will be delivered by Prof. Elie Metchnikoff, of the

company of engineers and others assembled. Sir Julius Pasteur Institute, Paris, on May 25, 28, and 30. A course

Wernher, in proposing the toast of the institution, insisted of three lectures on “ 'The Bacteriology of Water, Milk,

that the mining industry has been conducted in the past and Tuberculosis," by Dr. Carl Prausnitz, commenced at

as seriously and honourably as any other industry in the the institute on Wednesday, May 9, and a course of three

world. In replying to the toast, the chairman, Mr. William lectures on “ The Manufacture and Sophistication of Pot

Frecheville, read a letter from Mr. Birrell, the President able Spirits,” by Dr. C. E. Harris, will begin on June 12.

of the Board of Education, stating that the Government

is keenly interested in the proposal to establish an instituWe regret to see the announcement that Mrs. Brightwen, tion at South Kensington for the advancement of the the popular writer on natural history, died on May 5 at highest technical education, and that a scheme is in course seventy-five years of age. In 1890, at the age of sixty, of preparation designed to give effect to the recommendMrs. Brightwen published her first book, Wild Nature ations of the recent departmental committee. The letter won by Kindness." This book was very successful. In

to express satisfaction that various bodies and 1895 “ Inmates of My House and Garden appeared; then persons associated with mining and metallurgy are showfollowed, in 1897, Glimpses of Plant Life"; in 1899, ing sympathy with the proposed college by contributing to “ Rambles with Nature Students"; and in 1904, Quiet the Bessemer fund, which has for its object the furtherance Hours with Nature.” Mrs. Brightwen was vice-president of mining and metallurgical science by means of advanced of the Selborne Society, a Fellow of the Zoological and

education. Mr. Birrell's letter concluded by expressing the Entomological Societies, and an active member of various hope that this excellent example may be followed by other local associations connected with the encouragement of great industries, all of which must depend for success in natural history.

no small degree upon the promotion of the study of the

higher branches of science. The chairman announced that The eighty-ninth annual meeting of the Société helvétique des Sciences naturelles will be held at St. Gall on July 21

the subscriptions to the Bessemer memorial amounted to

11,000l. to August 1. This will be the fifth time since the foundation of the society that the town of St. Gall has been Dr. W. N. SHAW, F.R.S., delivered the second of his the place of meeting. On Tuesday, July 31, there will

instructive lectures on Atmospheric Circulation and its be a discussion on variations among plants and animals and

relation to Weather” at the University of London on their phylogenetic and physiological importance, with reports

May 8. The subjects specially dealt with related to perupon the subject by Profs. Goebel and Ernst. During the

sistent and periodical winds, tropical revolving storms and meeting there will also be papers the following cyclonic depressions of middle latitudes. The lecturer resubjects :-modern views on the tectonic synthesis and ferred more particularly to the rainfall in the various windgenesis of the Alps, Prof. Schardt; measurements of base systems, especially in the monsoons, and also quoted some lines in general, with particular reference to the geodetic remarkable instances of increase of rain with height above work connected with the Simplon Tunnel, Prof. Rosen-sea-level, for example, at Ascension and St. Helena. mund ; results of the latest explorations made in the Wild- Among the many interesting diagrams thrown on

the kirchli grotto, and their importance to zoology and pre- screen we may mention one showing a remarkable fall of historic science, Mr. E. Bächler; fossil remains at Kessler- the barometer from 755 mm. to 728 mm. during a typhoon loch and from palæolithic grottos in general, Prof. C. at Manila in October, 1882, with an equally sudden rise

went on



in the course of a few hours. A wind velocity of 120 miles key to the liverworts of the British Isles. It differs conin the hour (old factor 3) was recorded in this storm. siderably from the key that was originally published in Diagrams of depressions moving across the British Isles the Journal of Botany five years ago, although drawn up were also shown, and an ingenious explanation was given on the same lines. It contains merely the tables for de. of the usually heavy rainfall in the central portion of the termining the genera and keys to the species, without any storms.

further details. It is not apparent why the specific names

are not given for the monotypic genera, as was done in the The contents of the April number of the American

earlier issue. Naturalist, which include three articles, are chiefly interesting to specialists. The first, by Mr. A. S. Pearse, is de- In a contribution to the Annales Mycologici, vol. iii., vored to the fresh-water copepod crustaceans of Massa- No. 6, 1905, Mr. E. S. Salmon describes three well-marked chusetts, of which several new species are described. In

varieties of the fungus Phyllactinia corylea, two of them the serond Dr. J. B. Pollock discusses variations in the

distinguished by the characters of the conidiophore and pollen-grain of Picea excelsa, while in the third Mr.

the third by the special shape of the conidia. To a certain A. M. Reese describes in considerable detail the anatomy

extent the characteristic features of the varieties appear of the American salamander, Cryptobranchus allegheniensis, to be associated with certain hosts, and Mr. Salmon hopes comparing and contrasting it with that of its larger relative to discover further new varieties in the examination of the of Japan and China,

conidial stages of the fungus on other host plants; for this THE Journal of Anatomy and Physiology for April is

purpose he requests the cooperation of mycologists to supply mainly devoted to anatomical subjects. Dr. Bertram

him with material. Should such new varieties be found, it Windle contributes a valuable report (the sixteenth) on

is probable that Phyllactinia, like other genera of the recent teratological literature.

Erysiphaceæ, will prove to have developed special biologic

forms on different hosts. The new catalogue (thirty-third edition) of microscopes and appliances issued by Messrs. Carl Zeiss, of Jena, gives At the meeting of the scientific society of the Kaiserliche a complete list of apparatus manufactured by this eminent

Akademie der Wissenschaften, in Vienna (February 1), Prof. firm. Some new and improved microscope stands are in- F. Krasser and Mr. Kubart contributed a paper on the cluded, and the majority of achromatic objectives are fossil flora of Moletein, in Moravia; the list of fossils reduced in price.

includes Gleichenia Kurriana, Sequoia Reichenbachi, Aralia Is the Révue Scientifique (March 31) Dr. Remlinger dis- formosa, and Eucalyptus Geinitsi

. Prof. O. Richter has cusses the role of the rat and mouse in the propagation of

confirmed the observation recorded by Molisch and others rabies. These animals are very susceptible to rabies, and

that seedlings, notably vetches and peas, respond more Dr. Remlinger adduces evidence which suggests that certain

readily to the stimuli of light and gravity in the impure cases of hydrophobia in man, apparently spontaneous, may

air of the laboratory than in the purer air of a greenhouse. be due to this source of infection.

An account of the nature of the mucilage in the fruit of

the mistletoe and Loranthus Europaeus was presented by ACCORDING to the Pioneer Mail (Allahabad, March 23), Prof. J. Wiesner at the subsequent meeting on February 8. the Plague Research Commission has established beyond question the validity of the theory of plague transmission The occurrence in the United States of three fungi by rat-deas. A room was selected in which had been

belonging to the Hypocreales or Perisporiales forms the found the dead body of a rat suffering from plague. subject of two papers by Prof. G. F. Atkinson. In the Animals were placed in this room, some protected by fine Botanical Gazette, December, 1905, he discusses the species metallic wire screens against the attacks of rat-feas, others velutacea, formerly referred to the genus Hypocrea, but unprotected. It was

soon found that the unprotected now assigned to Podocrea or Podostroma. Tulasne and anmals were attacked by plague, while the protected Winter stated that it was parasitic on Clavaria, but Prof. animals enjoyed a complete immunity.

Atkinson agrees with Schröter that it is an autonomous We learn from the Pioneer Mail that snakes and other

plant, and adduces the evidence that he has obtained speciwild animals accounted for the death of 2195 persons in

mens in pure cultures from ascospores.

In the Journal of the Madras Presidency last year, or twenty-six more than

Mycology, November, 1905, Prof. Atkinson describes a in 1904; and they caused the death of 14,899 cattle in

species of Balansia, a genus differing from Claviceps in the

formation of a stroma without a sclerotium, found grow1905 as compared with 14,146 in the previous year. Of

ing parasitically on Danthonia spicata, and another fungus, the fatalities among human beings, no fewer than 1896, or more than 80 per cent., were caused by snakes; while of parasitic on Andropogon, for which he proposes a those caused by other wild animals 155 were due to tigers,

genus, Dothichloë, allied to Hypocrca and Hypocrella. Fighty to panthers, ten to wild pigs, nine to bears, eight to

WITHIN the last five years much has been written on wolves, and five to wild dogs. The elephant only accounted fist four deaths and the bison for only one, while the hyæna

the subject of the disposal of towns' refuse by fire. The

more technical points have, however, received slight attenejused the death of two-presumably children. The total

tion, and in this direction number of wild beasts destroyed, for which rewards were

paper contributed to the

Transactions of the Institution of Engineers and Shippaid during the year, was 809, or four more than in the

builders in Scotland (vol. xlix., part vi.) by Mr. H. Norman previous year. Included in this total are ninety-two tigers,

Leask throws much light. The forms of furnace in use titt leopards and panthers, and fifty bears.

The only

and their accessories are described, and the results obtained method of reducing danger to life by snakes is apparently,

in various parts of the world are considered. The results according to our contemporary, the removal of prickly pear

of careful tests show that, with a destructor of modern and noxious undergrowth.

type, a high efficiency, both as regards evaporation and BATOLOGISTS who have had experience of Jameson's burning, is not more costly to work than a destructor Guide to Mosses" will be glad to know of a similar burning at a lower rate and giving lower evaporative work, wherein Mr. Symes M. Macvicar provides a revised efficiencies.






THE general report of the Geological Survey of India to exist in the adopted theory of atmospheric circulation for the year 1905, published by Mr. T. H. Holland, F.R.S., not found in those latitudes over the free ocean. in the Records of the Geological Survey of India (vol. | Southerly winds were only observed on one day at altitudes xxxiii., part ii.), is a document of permanent value. An of 2000 metres and upwards in lat. 25° 58' N., the most enormous amount of valuable information on palæontology, southerly point reached, but the next day, in lat. 26° 41' N., petrology, physical geology, seismology, and economic the northerly current had again set in. These results differ geology has been got together, and the programme of work somewhat from those given by Clayton and Maurice, acting arranged for the current season indicates that results of for Mr. Rotch and M. Teisserenc de Bort respectively, in more than ordinary interest are likely to be obtained. The the same latitudes, as they found southerly winds in the investigation of the manganese ore deposits has now been upper strata of air. It will be interesting to determine by completed, the deposits of chief importance consisting of further experiments whether this difference really exists, braunite, psilomelane, and pyrolusite associated with and and whether in the observations near the Canaries especially derived from manganese-bearing silicates occurring as it was possibly due to the proximity of the African coast. bands and lenticles in the Archæan schists and gneisses. A new apparatus for determining the mechanical equiIn the same issue of the Records, Mr. T. D. La Touche

valent of heat or thermal capacity of water is described by and Mr. R. R. Simpson describe the Lashio coalfield in the

Prof. H. Rubens in the Verhandlungen der deutschen northern Shan States, and Mr. R. R. Simpson describes physikalischen Gesellschaft, viii., 5 (1906). In it the work the Namma, Man-sang, and Man-se-le coalfields, also in is supplied by turning a cylinder 60 cm. long through 180° the northern Shan States. In the case of Lashio the

and allowing a weight to descend in oil, and the arrangeresults are not encouraging. The coal is lignitic with a ments for the calorimetric determinations obviate the dislarge proportion of moisture and more than 9 per cent. of advantages of Grimsehl's apparatus. ash. The Namma coal, or rather lignite, is distinctly

Reform of higher education in France forms the subject superior to that of any other field in the northern Shan States; but in its raw state it would be a distinctly poor

of a paper in the Revue générale des Sciences (xvii., 4) fuel, unfit for locomotive use, and would be mined under

by Prof. A. Turpain. It would appear that the French the usual difficulties due to soft including rocks.

statutes relating to the appointment of university pro

fessors are unsuited to the present times and operate to The Meteorological Service of the Netherlands, the the detriment of the provincial universities, and, morecentral office of which is at De Bilt, a suburb of Utrecht, over, the new programme of the Ecole Normale tends to was recently re-organised, and has commenced the issue draw students from the provinces to Paris. of octavo publication entitled Mededeelingen

A NOTE in the Revue générale des Sciences (xvii., 4) en Verhandelingen, containing memoirs on meteorological directs attention to a method of exploding mines by means and allied subjects. The articles will be written in Dutch

of acoustic waves.

The method is based on the property and French, or in French, English, or German according to the nature of the contributions or the wish of the

that when a disc, free to turn about its diameter, is authors. There are separate branches at Amsterdam and

placed in the interior of a cylindrical resonator and the Rotterdam ; these act as agencies for maritime purposes, and

fundamental note sounded, the disc will place itself in a issue local weather forecasts, while the branch at Amster

plane perpendicular to the cylinder. By causing the turndam deals exclusively with storm warnings. Among the

ing disc to complete an electric circuit a mine can be exvarious useful publications of the Netherlands Institute

ploded by means of a signal given by a syren on a war

The de.

ship, tuned to the same note as the resonator. we may specially mention (1) the daily weather report ; (2) the monthly weather review, containing the results of

scription is taken from the Technische Rundschau. twelve representative stations; and (3) the annals, which

In a note contributed to the Atti dei Lincei, xv., 6, Dr. have been issued in various forms for fifty-five years;

G. A. Blanc communicates some further results regarding they now contain (1) the results of the observations made

the radio-active substance discovered by him in the thermal in Holland, and at Paramaribo (Surinam), and (2) observ- springs of Echaillon and Salins Moutiers, in Savoy, and ations of terrestrial magnetism. The institute has from

of which an account was given at the congress of radiology time to time published valuable works on marine meteor

at Liége last year. The experiments show the presence ology, and is at present engaged on a meteorological atlas

of hydrates in which the radio-activity at first increases of the Indian seas and other useful investigations.

instead of continually decreasing, thus reproducing the

phenomena associated with thorium hydrate rather than IN vol. i., part iv., of Beiträge zur Physik der freien

those attributed to the element thorium X; but the radioAtmosphäre,” Prof. H. Hergesell gives an interesting activity of the present element is far greater than that of account of the exploration of the upper air over the Atlantic ordinary murium hydrate. In the same journal Messrs. Ocean north of the Tropic of Cancer, from the Prince of R. Nasini and M. G. Levi give a preliminary note on the Monaco's yacht in the year 1905. The observations were

radio-activity of the spring at Fiuggi, near Anticoli. made under Prof. Hergesell's superintendence by means of tandem sounding-balloons, between 26° and 38° N. lat., and

The a rays emitted by Prof. Marckwald's radio-tellurium 10° and 42° W. long., and therefore partly in the true

are shown by Mr. H. Greinacher in No. 7 of the region of the trade winds; the chief object was to deter

Physikalische Zeitschrift to be capable of causing a marked mine whether the results obtained in the previous year by

fluorescence in glass, and a similar but smaller effect in means of kite experiments between Gibraltar and the

mica and quartz. The observation is of interest inasmuch Canaries, along the African coast, would be found in the

as the a rays of radio-tellurium have also been shown to open ocean, beyond the influence of the continent and possess the property of causing air to fluoresce. islands, and at much greater altitudes. The observations PROF. NERNST and Mr. H. von Wartenberg describe in of temperature and humidity completely confirmed those the Verhandlungen of the German Physical Society a new obtained in 1904, and further showed that up to altitudes determination of the melting points of platinum and of 12,000 metres and more, winds with northerly com- palladium. The method used was an optical one employ. ponents prevailed, and that the anti-trade wind supposed / ing a Wanner pyrometer which was specially calibrated



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Ir the purpose; the melting point of gold (1064° C.) was Rooms," and will be glad to receive from photographers
Katrin as the standard of reference. Pure palladium was information as to any public dark room not included in
i tad to melt at 1541° C. and pure platinum at 1745° C. their directory.
Dr Harker's recent determination of the melting point of

Some of the natural attractions of Norway are described Parun gave a value of 1710° C.

in an illustrated booklet just received from the Albion In spite of its importance as a fundamental physical Steamship Co., Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne, containing the

asbult, the latent heat of fusion of ice is known only itinerary of fortnightly pleasure cruises to the Norwegian in approximately. The value obtained by Bunsen was fiords by the steam yacht Midnight Sun. The cruises are

i cal., whilst Regnault found it to be 79.25 cal. In arranged so that passengers may see the most interesting 27 jernal de Physique (vol. 1., p. 157) M. A. Leduc scenery on near the fiords from the Ryfylke to the gh out that Bunsen's result is subject to an error due Romsdal, and ample time is allowed for excursions away

noorrect determination of the density of ice at oo. from the ship. 1:.-drepmination of this constant gave a value of 0.9176,

Mr. C. L. MULLER has published a pamphlet giving an fr-calculation of the latent heat of fusion from

illustrated description of Dr. Looser's double thermoscope 1.5*8's data, using this value, gave a result of 79.2 cal.

and some of the experiments possible with it. The instruis in close agreement with Regnault's determination.

ment is an ingenious form of differential thermometer in . principal difficulty experienced in determining the

which great sensitiveness is secured, and so arranged that imate of ice is in eliminating gas bubbles completely. V. 1. Laiur describes an arrangement by which he was

it is possible to use it in making quantitative determin

ations. The booklet contains instructions for the performd to minimise this source of error.

ance of fifty-seven experiments in which the thermoscope E remarkable specimens of phosphorescent calcite can be employed. Tijpin, Missouri, are described by Mr. W. P. Headden

Ipril number of the American Journal of Science. of the crystals, after being exposed to sunlight, were

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. * to become highly phosphorescent, and to retain this

THE EXPECTED RETURN OF HOLMES'S COMET.-From the po for a period of thirteen hours. The specimens of observations of Holmes's comet in 1899-1900, Dr. H. J. - rwhich showed prolonged phosphorescence Zwiers has computed a set of elements of the comet's mis pellow in colour, and contained 0.007 per cent. of

path and an ephemeris for the probable reappearance of • stol (012 per cent. of the didymium earths, and 0.013 per

the object during the present year. w ryttrium and erbium; the spectrum of the latter

Having computed the elements for the epoch 1899, Dr.

Zwiers applied the Jupiter perturbations for the period sort distinct. Purple-coloured specimens of calcite

January, 1899, to April, 1906, and for January 16.0 **3D the same neighbourhood were shown to owe their (G.M.T.), 1906, found the following elements :nt to the presence of didymium, and to differ from the

M=351 46 52:14 * alite in being non-phosphorescent. So far as the

Q=24 20 25 55 - 346 2 3163

u= 517":447665 "11 al evidence goes, the phosphorescence of the yellow

8 = 331 45 40*75 1906'0 log a=0.5574268 . *ms to be associated with the presence of earths

20 48 53:30 *****rum group.

The ephemeris computed from these elements extends *We of foliaceous and fruticose lichens collected

from May 1 to December 31, 1906, and is given, for every

alternate day, in No. Nr. 1. W. C. Herre on the Santa Cruz peninsula, in

the 4085 of


Nachrichten. Pin to San Francisco, arc described by him in vol.

According to the above elements, the perihelion passage I the Proceedings of the Washington Academy of should have taken place at March 14.1804 (G.M.T.), 1900,

Parmelia is an important genus, as the species but, in a supplementary table, Dr. Zwiers gives the ath numerous and conspicuous; Parmelia entero- ephemeris corrections which will become necessary should a characteristic lichen of the red-wood forest,

it occur either four days earlier or later. i'rineita Herri provides a new species. The new Tue LUMINOSITY OF THE BRIGHTER STARS.-An interestGyrophora diabolica forms in its locality, the

ing discussion of the luminosity of the brighter stars is (non, the dominant feature of the lichen rock

published by Mr. George C. Comstock in No. 3, vol. xxiii.,

of the Astrophysical Journal. aroitat r interesting species is the lace lichen, Ramalina

Of twenty-five stars discussed, the brightest in the #mil, that festoons the oaks. The writer has drawn

heavens, Mr. Comstock finds that twenty-two

have od wsplul kry for the determination of genera, and keys | luminosities less than 1000, whilst three, B Crucis, Rigel, Dasies.

and Canopus, have luminosities greatly exceeding this

value, the luminosity of the sun being taken as unity. 1 von just received from the Harvard College In Mr. Comstock's opinion, this irregular distribution

describes in detail, and with examples, a of values and the enormous excess of the three exceptions anti aphor code devised by Mr. W. P. Gerrish, of above the mean value render it unlikely that the parallaxes Tistory. lumerous advantages are claimed for

hitherto accepted for these three stars are entirely trustOver other systems now in use, its chief

worthy, for it is on them that the values obtained for the

luminosities are based. **9 01 IC bring the ready transmission of groups of

Surveying the whole discussion, Mr. Comstock arrives a firm at once simple to dispatch and readily at the conclusion that there is no adequate evidence that

I test of the system between the Harvard the maximum of stellar luminosity exceeds 1000, and, anibersvitories gave great satisfaction.

further, he opines that the mean luminosity of first-magni

tude stars is not less than 100. 1B JUBALD CONSTABLE AND Co., LID., will

THE VARIABLE RADIAL VELOCITY OF € AURIGÆ.- In No. postly a new book by Prof. H. C. Jones, of the 4084 of the Astronomische Nachrichten Dr. 11. Ludendorff Huskins l'niversity, entitled “ The Electrical Theory discusses the variable radial velocity of the star € Aurige. 1. 19e und Radio-activity."

The variability of this object was discovered by Fritsch

in 1821, and its variable velocity by Vogel and Eberhard B. DAWNERS AND Warr), Lid., are preparing a in 1902. their

Directory of Photographic Dark The presert discussion is based on the measurements of

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