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of a one-dimensional as well as that of a three-dimensional CAPTAIN W. S. PATTON, I.M.S., records the occurrence of gas, and he is led to the distinction of two kinds of
a parasite in the white corpuscles of the blood of Indian entropy, which he calls coarse and fine entropy (entropie palm squirrels (Funambulus pennantii) (Sc. Mem. Gov. grossière, entropie fine). Account is taken of rapid dis- of India, No. 24, 1906). The parasite, which in all probturbances in which the gas has not time to assume a state ability belongs to the Hæmogregarinidæ, occurs as a long of statistical equilibrium at every instant of the transform- vermiform body, measuring 10 u in length, lying in the ation. An allied subject is treated by Dr. W. Peddie in substance of the large mononuclear leucocytes. The the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, xxvi., majority exhibit slow vermicular movements altering their 3. in a paper on vibrating systems which are not subject position in the cells, sometimes lying close to the nucleus, to the Boltzmann-Maxwell law. Here again systems sometimes at right-angles to the nucleus. The nucleus in one-dimension are considered, a kind of generalised may be compressed or split by the parasite.
In some Hooke's law of force being assumed in the test-case under cases free vermicules seen in the plasma. The discussion. The inference is drawn that equipartition of parasites were found in the peripheral blood, spleen, and energy is not a general property of dynamical systems. liver. In the louse (an undescribed species of HæmatoIt would not be unreasonable to infer that the Boltzmann- pinus) infesting the animals vermicules were met with. Maxwell distribution is characteristic of certain definable
IN the last number of the Journal of Anatomy and systeins, and therefore is applicable to the explanation of refinite phenomena only.
Physiology (vol. xl., part iv.) Dr. Gaskell gives a final
paper on his views of the origin of vertebrates, which he The meteorological reporter to the Government of India
believes are derived from arthropods.
In the present has issued a memorandum (dated June 9) on the abnormal
paper, a study of ammocætes, the origin of the notochord features of the weather of the past half-year, with a fore- is discussed, and the suggestion is made that it has cast of the probable character of the south-west monsoon
originated as an accessory digestive tube. The remaining rains of 1906. Similar forecasts were first made by H. F.
articles are mostly anatomical in character. Blanford, and were based on the limited information of snowfall reports and the general character of the weather ACCORDING to the July issue of its Journal, the Marine in India immediately preceding the rains. Sir J. Eliot Biological Association of the United Kingdom is extending realised that Indian conditions alone were insufficient, and the investigations which have already been instituted with in 1894 introduced information from other sources. This regard to the distribution of the Channel fauna in the work is another instance of the useful application of neighbourhood of Plymouth to deeper waters, and it is statistics in attempting to trace the meteorological relations hoped during the present year to enlarge still further the of widely distant regions to which we recently referred. area of survey. Special attention has been directed to Dr. Walker remarks that it is certain that the influence improving the methods of rearing organisms in the laborof abnormal features over any large region spreads in
atory, in regard to which a report is shortly promised. every direction, and will after some months affect the con
An investigation has also been commenced with regard to ditions at very great distances”; he also instances the dis- the nature of the food of mackerel and pilchard and other covery by Sir Norman and Dr. Lockyer that the oscilla- migratory fishes frequenting the mouth of the Channel in tions of annual pressure in South America are closely
relation to seasonal changes. related to those of the Indian Ocean, but inverse in
In his report for 1905, Dr. Benham, the curator, states character. Dr. Walker has added considerably to the data
that the Otago University Museum has been enriched by emploved, and gives very full particulars of the consider
a valuable collection of eggs of New Zealand birds preations upon which his forecast is framed, the most
sented by Dr. Fulton, and also by the gift of a large series important features being the heavy and late snowfall,
of ethnological objects from Mr. and Mrs. James Mills. 1$sociated with excessive rain both at Zanzibar and
The latter, which are chiefly weapons, are mostly PolySeychelles. On the whole, he thinks that there is reason
nesian, and were collected some five-and-twenty years ago. to expect that the total rainfall will not be appreciably smaller in amount than that of last year, which was
“ The Living and Fossil Species of Comptonia is the onsiderably below the normal value.
title of one of the two articles in the July number of the HEREDITY and evolution occupy an important position in
American Naturalist. According to the author, Mr. E. W. the July issue of Biologisches Centralblatt, Mr. H. de
Berry, the genus is represented at the present day only
by a single species, which is a low shrub ranging from l'ries communicating an article entitled “ Altere und neue
Nova Scotia to Manitoba, and southwards to Carolina and Selektionsmethode," while Dr. J. Gross discusses the re
Tennessee, but the number of extinct forms which have lation between heredity and variation, more especially in connection with the Mendelian theory. The former is
been described is upwards of three score, with an almost largely devoted to the methods of plant-culture adopted by cosmopolitan Tertiary distribution. In the second article Nilsson and by Rimpau. In the course of the latter the
Mr. C. S. Meads discusses the adaptive modifications of the uthor directs attention to the fact that while albinism
occipital condyles in mammalian skulls. The basal con
nection between the two condyles in spiny anteaters is mong mammals is frequently recessive,” in the case of brbrids
a direct reptilian inheritance. It is pointed
regarded as between species of which one parent is
out that there is a very marked difference between the normally white (such as the Polar bear and the Arctic tos) and the other dark-coloured the offspring are fre
carnivorous and ungulate type of condyles, the latter being quently intermediate in point of colouring between their
much elongated inferiorly, so as to admit of great angula
tion of the head in relation to the vertebral column, and parents. The movements of
the spermatozoa of the
thereby, in the case of ruminants, presenting an armed parasitic nematode worms of the genus Ascaris form the
front to the foe. subject of an article by Dr. H. Marcus, while Dr. F. Samuely brings to a close his account of recent researches The Tertiary lake-basin of Florissant, Colorado, receives into the cheinistry of albumen and their bearing on a large share of attention in the third number of vol. iii. physiology
of the l'niversity of Colorado Studies, Mr. J. Hender
son dealing with the basin itself, while Mr. T. D. A. thinning out the pure larch woods after sixteen or twenty Cockerell discusses the fossil fauna and flora of the years and planting up with other conifers or beech. Florissant shales. A paper on the existing flora of the
The Department of Agriculture in the Federated Malay district, by Dr. F. Ramaley, may be regarded as supple
States was initiated in June, 1905, so that the report of mental to the other two. The Florissant shales, which
the director, Mr. J. B. Carruthers, refers to half a year's contain a very rich series of fossils, are apparently later
work. Mr. Carruthers is continuing his experimental trials, than the well-known Green Rover shales, and may probably be assigned to the Miocene period. “ The plants and
previously started in Ceylon, of protective jungle belts to insects are wonderfully preserved in fine volcanic sand or
prevent the spread of fungal and insect pests. Reference
is made to the more important products of the States, e.g. ash, deposited in layers which readily split apart, reveal
rubber, cocoanuts, sugar, and rice. At present the acreage ing the specimens, just as they fell, in prodigious numbers. Green leaves and even branchlets were torn froni the trees,
of land planted with cocoanut palms is three times as great and insects perished wholesale in a catastrophe that must
as that planted in rubber, but the value of the latter is have equalled that of Martinique.”
already greater. On swampy lands it is suggested that
nipah and sago palms will yield profitable results. Two new memoirs of the Geological Survey of England and Wales have been received, “ The Geology of the
Sir Dietrich BRANDIS contributes an account, with illus
trations, of some bamboos collected in Martaban to the Country near Sidmouth and Lyme Regis," by H. B. Woodward and W. A. E. Ussher, and "The Water
April and May numbers of the Indian Forester. Allision
is made to the transverse veins and the longitudinal Supply of Suffolk from Underground Sources," by W.
bands of silica cells on bamboo leaves that are both well Whitaker, with contributions by Dr. H. F. Parsons, Dr.
marked in Pseudostachyum polymorphum. The genera H. R. Mill, and Dr. J. C. Thresh. The former memoir
Oxytenanthera and Gigantochloa are characterised by the is explanatory of sheets 326 and 340 of the new series, colour printed, geological maps (1 inch to the mile). It
connate arrangement of the anthers, forming a transparent
membranous tube. The rhizomes of a Phyllostachys and cmbraces a district that is famous no less for the eminent
Thyrostachys siamensis are converted into walking-sticks pioneer geologists who have worked in it than for its
and umbrella handles. intrinsic geological terest. The cliff sections, so well exposed along the coast, are represented by numerous A NEW photographic paper has recently been put on diagrams; there are also some small black-and-white maps the market by the Falla-Gray Photo Paper Co., Ltd., and and few time-honoured representations of
samples have been submitted to us for trial. The special fossils; the frontispiece is a reproduction of one of Sir feature of the paper is that by some preparation of the A. Geikie's vigorous sketches, depicting the Axmouth or emulsion it has been found possible to give a film which Bindon landslip. A short chapter on the local economic can be satisfactorily fixed by an immersion of only one geology is done with more care than is usual in these minute in the hypo bath, and as satisfactorily washed in “sheet explanations," and is quite adequate for the pur- five minutes after fixing. It is claimed that this great pose. No striking advance appears to have been made
saving of time is not obtained at any expense of the per. with the difficult problem of the correlation of the lower manency of the prints. In actual working the paper is New Red Sandstone series. The “ Water Supply of
similar to the general type of gaslight paper, the image Suffolk is the fourth of the series of county memoirs appearing quickly and rapidly acquiring full density. With dealing with this subject. It comprises a brief introduc- the developer recommended, a rather strong combination of tion to the geology, with remarks on the more notable metol and hydroquinone, excellent toned greys and blacks borings, as that at Stutton, and others which record a appear to be easily obtained, while the semi-glossy suriace remarkable thickness of Glacial drift. There is a sketch
is well adapted to give all the detail that may be required of the county rainfall with a coloured rainfall map by
for reproduction purposes. The paper should prove useful Dr. H. R. Mill, a series of detailed records of wells and
for Press purposes, where fine gradation and speed of proborings, and a number of analyses of Suffolk waters.
duction are specially necessary, while to the ordinary These water-supply memoirs should be of the greatest
worker it will be recommended by its full range of tones value to engineers, builders, and others. We note, for and adaptability to most kinds of negatives by variations the first time, the free use of the American “ geologic " in
of exposure. an English survey memoir ; it is to be hoped that in
The eleventh “ Annual" of the British School at Athens future numbers of the series the practice of inserting maps has been issued by Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd: it showing the depth of water-bearing strata
describes the work accomplished during the imported from the same quarter—this would be a much
1904-5. Dr. A. J. Evans, F.R.S., contributes a promore useful innovation.
visional report on the excavations during the year at the The application of artificial manures to forest land has palace of Knossos and its dependencies; there are five received some attention in Belgium and Germany, the
articles on Laconia concerned respectively with the exresults being sufficiently encouraging to induce Dr. Borth
cavations near Angelona, the excavations, sculptures and wick to bring the matter to the notice of the Royal Scottish
inscriptions of Geraki, the excavations and inscriptions of Arboricultural Society. Besides showing an increase of
Thalamae, a note on the 'Ippaion the north-east fronties. growth, it has been found that trees on manured soil are
and the Frankish sculptures at Parori and Geraki. The stronger and less liable to disease. Dr. Borthwick's
assistant-director of the school, Mr. M. N. Tod, describes address is printed in the Transactions of the Society (vol.
inscriptions from Eumeneia, and there are in addition nearly xix., part ii.), wherein there appear several papers by Dr.
a dozen other well-illustrated contributions, making up sith Nisbet, Mr. W. M. Stewart, and Mr. R. Galloway on the
the sixteen plates an admirable and interesting volunte. advisability and cost of establishing plantations in Great An interesting pamphlet on the development of the Britain, either as a cooperative undertaking or otherwise. Bristol Museum and Art Gallery has been written by Nr A system is described of combating larch disease by W. R. Barker, chairman of the Museum and Art Gallery
committee, and issued by Mr. Arrowsmith, of Bristol. In neglected, oi for which periodical observations are it is traced the institution from its inception (as the Bristol quired, were observed. Only the names of the latter are Library Society) in 1772 to the present day. The
now published, the results of the measures being reserved
for the Greenwich observations for 1905. pamphlet, which is well worth perusal, is illustrated by
The measures now published are, in general, confined to some excellent process engravings.
stars of which the separation does not exceed 4" or which
show orbital movement. The Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute for August
In Nos. 4107-8 of the Astronomische Nachrichten Dr. contains the inaugural address delivered by Sir Edward
G. van Biesbroeck publishes the results of the measures Fry, president of the congress held last month ; it contains of 177 Struve stars made with the 12-inch refractor of the also the lecture by Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan on “The Heidelberg Astronomical Institute. The measures of Relation of Heredity to Physical Deterioration," and that twenty-nine comparison double stars are also given. on “ The Wastage of Human Life" by W. Fleming Anderson.
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON The July issue of the Museums Journal contains, in HYBRIDISATION AND PLANT-BREEDING. addition to its General Notes, the address on The
THE Royal Horticultural Society held high festival in Education of a Curator," delivered at the Bristol con- its new hall and elsewhere from July 30 to August 3. ference of the Museums Association by Dr. W. E. Hoyle, The occasion was the third conference on plant-breeding, the president of the conference.
previous gatherings having been held at Chiswick and in
New York. Mr. William Bateson presided, and was A new book on the microscope, by Sir A. E. Wright, thoroughly imbued with his subject that the visitors found F.R.S., is announced for early publication by Messrs.
it difficult which to admire most, his grasp of difficult Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd. The work will contain
and complex problems, his able management, or his a complete vocabulary of technical terms relating to the
powers of endurance. The programme was a very long microscope.
one, although some of the papers were, in the absence of their authors, taken as read. All the memoirs will be printed in full in the journal of the society. The speakers
included, besides our own countrymen, Danes, Swedes, OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
Germans, Austrians, French, and Americans. FINLAY'S COMET (1906d).—The results of a number of
"Mendelisin " was naturally to the fore, and the observations of Finlay's comet (1906d) are published in
numerous exhibits in illustration of the phenomena did No. 4108 of the Astronomische Nachrichten.
more to secure general acceptance for the theory than did At the Utrecht Observatory the comet
the elaborate disquisitions. Some of these, especially those July 21, and recorded as very faint; the observation showed
of a mathematical character, evoked from the chairman that corrections of – 12m. 585. and -1° 51' were necessary
the remark that we had reached the limits of our comto the ephemeris published by M. Fayet.
prehension. In his introductory address Mr. Bateson gave The magnitude of this object was found to be 9.0 when
a very interesting summary showing the advances that had observed at Strassburg on July 17, its diameter being re
been made since the first conference in 1898. The precorded as 12'.
dominant note then was mystery-in 1906 we speak less In No. 4109 of the Astronomische Nachrichten M. L.
of mystery and more of order. Schulhof states that the ephemeris derived from his
suggests the adoption of the term elements shows a greater error than he had foreseen, an
genetics" to indicate the nature of our researches into error which a superficial revision of his calculations for
the phenomena of heredity and variation, in other words, the perturbations has failed to discover.
He showed that
we had comet appears to have suffered a retardation which as yet is
already arrived at a clear conception of the true meaning unexplained.
Pure-bred," pointing out that an individual is pureApplying, provisionally, the corrections shown
bred when the two cells, male and female, from which it
to be necessary by the Strassburg observation, he has calculated
develops are alike in composition, containing identical
elements characters. Instead another ephemeris, from which the following is taken :
of regarding genetic
purity as a vague state which may or may not be attainEphemeris 12h. (M.T. Paris).
able by a long course of selection or fixation, we now know 1906 a (app.) 8 (app.)
1:1242 exactly what it is and how it is produced.
Similar explanations were given as to the significance Aug. 8
2 47 36 *+ 2 40 9:40344 13.72 of reversion"; reappearance of the ancient
9-40744 13.78 characters is brought about by the meeting together of 12 3 23 6 + 6 941390
distinct elements long parted, but how this is effected is 14 3 40
+ 7 35
9-42253 13:41 still unexplained. Conversely, variation " is often due 16 3 56 17 + 9
9'43301 13'03 to the separation or elimination of factors, and sometimes 18 4 II 49
9-44499 12:56 probably to the addition of new factors. Heredity is now OBSERVATION OF A BRIGHT METEOR.-A communication
known to be a regular phenomenon less or more amenable by Herr Ph. Fauch in No. 4109 of the Astronomische
to experimental methods of research. When Nachrichten states that a bright meteor was observed at
says, “But can't you breed a Derby winner or do someLandstuhl on July 16.
thing useful?” Mr. Bateson replies that “ though in the The time of observation was uh. 39m. (local M.T.),
attempt to discriminate among animals all good enough and the object appeared in the N.N.W. Its brightness was
to win science may be as much at fault as common sense, greater than that of the full moon, and its path was
yet it would not surprise me if science were to devise a between 12 Canum Venaticorum and q Virginis. The
way of breeding even racehorses which would not produce duration of the light was about 1.5 seconds, and no
about a hundred wasters' for one fit to win--and yet detonation was noted.
I understand that common sense remains content with
that rather modest attainment after two centuries and a DOUBLE-STAR MEASURES.-The results of the micrometer
half of steady trying.” Mr. Bateson concluded by pointing measures of double stars made with the 28-inch refractor at Greenwich during the year 1905 appear in No. 8, vol.
out that the great advances in the application of science
have generally become possible through discoveries made in Ixvi., of the Monthly Notices (R.A.S.).
the search for pure knowledge. In no other spirit can In addition to a large number of stars contained in the natural knowledge be more profitably pursued. ordinary working list, and for which the name, position, Other papers were contributed by Prof. Johannsen, of position-angle, distance, magnitudes, and epoch of observa Copenhagen, whose views did not meet with universal ation are given, a number of Struve stars which have been acceptance, Messrs. Hurst, Darbishire, Yule, Dr. Wilson,
1 + 10 21
of St. Andrews. Mr. de Barri Crawshay, Mr. Rolfe, and nearly represented by the Australians. In cranial capacity Prof. Pfitzer spoke on orchids; Mr. Chittenden and Dr. there is a close agreement between the recent and extinct Tschermak dilated on questions of heredity. Prof. Rosen- races (1250 c.c.). berg,' of Stockholm, had a most important paper showing The Solutrian stage follows upon the Chelléan, and the behaviour of the chromosomes in hybrid plants. M. implements representing it are found in the loss of the Noel Bernard spoke of the symbiosis existing between the Danube, which occurs between the third and fourth fluvioroots of orchids and the hyphæ of certain fungi.
glacial terraces, and thus occupies an horizon correspondMiss Saunders, in a very lucid manner, explained the ing to that of the Höttinger breccia. The Solutrian, or complex results she had obtained in crossing stocks, a löss man, as the Germans sometimes call him, lived in paper the comprehension of which was much facilitated by a warm or genial climate. To the artists of this race are the numerous specimens exhibited in the hall. Mr. Biffen to be ascribed the drawings and paintings left upon ibe contributed a remarkable paper on the application of walls of numerous caves in France and Spain, which Mendel's laws to the improvement of cultivated wheats, recall by their spirit and technique the work of the Bush. and various communications from raisers of carnations, potatoes, bulbs, roses, amaryllids, and other plants were read. The entire programme, with very few exceptions, was worked through under trying conditions of heat and street noises, and those who participated in the hard work honestly earned the recreation that was furnished them by garden-parties at Burford and Gunnersbury, to say nothing of the banquets offered to the foreign guests and other visitors by the Royal Horticultural Society and the Horticultural Club. The success of the conference was marked, and congratulations may be tendered to all who took part in its organisation.
MAN AND THE GLACIAL PERIOD.1 THE correlation of the successive occupation of Europe
by various races of mankind with the successive events of the Glacial period has been greatly facilitated by the successful investigations of Prof. Albrecht Penck into the Quaternary history of the eastern Alps. Four welldefined terraces can be traced up the valleys of this region, each of them taking its origin in a terminal moraine. They represent the deposits of rivers issuing from the front of the ice during a glacial episode. Between the
1. terraces the valleys show evidence of deepening by erosion during periods which correspond to genial intervals, the
5. last of which, in order of time, is represented by the breccia of Hötting, when the temperature at Innsbruck, as shown by the included leaves and bracts of Rhododendron ponticum, was 3° C. higher than the average at the present day.
The earliest remains of the human family are afforded by Pithecanthropus erectus of Upper Pliocene age; the skull of this creature, while singularly simian in form, is shown to be human by its capacity (850 c.c.). Evidence supposed to indicate an even earlier existence of man-like
. species is afforded by the so-called “eoliths,” but these it is now scarcely necessary to consider seriously, especially after the observations recently made on the eolithic forms which occur as a by-product in the manufacture of cement at Mantes. Probably 99 per cent. of the supposed implements obtained from the plateau gravels of southern England are of a doubtful character, but there is a small remainder, comprising forms distinguished by a notch, almost semi-circular in outline, which so closely resemble the scrapers once used among the Tasmanians for making their wooden spears that it seems most natural to regard them as of human origin.
The Tasmanians were the most unprogressive race in the world, and probably the oldest within the Australian
3. region; their cranial capacity was 1160 c.c., and they were ulotrichous. It would hence appear that the cleavage between the Ulotrichi and the rest of the human species
1 and 2. Arrow straighteners used by Eskimos of Baffin Bay, after bei
3. Arrow straightener of Magdalenian age, from the Kesslerloch must have occurred at a very remote period.
1 hayngen, after Merk, from Hoernes. 4. Head of a Magdalena The Chelléan stage of culture is represented by stone
arrow straightener, after Lartet. 5. Head of an Eskimo 270 implements, which occur in the third fluvio-glacial terrace
straightener, after Dawkins, of southern France at the foot of the Pyrenees, and in possibly corresponding gravels in the valley of the Thames.
men in South Africa. The associated figurines carved in The numerous skulls of Chelléan age which have been met with in cave deposits (Neanderthal, Spy, Krapina) features (steatopygy and elongated labia minora) which
various material present two remarkable anatomica agree in all essential features, and evidently belonged to
are peculiar to South African races, so that, even withor a single race (Homo primigenius of Schwalbe), now most
the evidence afforded by the Grimaldi skeletons in the 1 An abstract of three lectures delivered at the Royal Institution on
Grotte des Enfants, Mentone, we might safely regard the May 24, 31, June 7, by Prof. Sollas, F.R.S.
Solutrian race as ancestral to the Bushien or some allik
Stow, in his excellent account of the South African
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL races, has furnished the key to much of Solutrian history,
INTELLIGENCE. and it is of particular interest to observe that this author
CAMBRIDGE.—The committee for the study of special was led by independent evidence to conclude that the
diseases announces that Dr. R. C. Brown, of Preston, original home of the Bushmen lay far to the north of the
Lancashire, has promised the sum of 150l. per annum for area they occupied at the time we first became acquainted
two years for a pathological scholarship connection with with them. The cranial capacity of the Bushmen was
the investigations being carried out by the committee on 1330 c.c.; that of the Grimaldi skeletons has not yet been
rheumatoid arthritis and allied diseases. This scholarship made known. The Magdalenian race,
will be known as the R. C. Brown Scholarship in Special or the reindeer hunters, the last of the definitely Palæolithic tribes, evidently lived
Pathology, and will be open to all recently qualified men.
The scholar will be required to work under the direction under somewhat severe conditions of climate. A study of
of the Huddersfield lecturer in special pathology at Camtheir implements and mode of life certainly suggests, as
bridge, and to assist in the research the committee have Prof. Boyd Dawkins first pointed out, some connection
undertaken on the pathology and bacteriology of the above with the Eskimos, but this is a view which has not com
diseases. mended itself to the majority of investigators. The so
The Frank Smart studentship in botany
will be called “batons de commandement” may be selected as
awarded during the present month. The studentship uffording the crux of the problem ; these have been compared by Prof. Dawkins with
(the yearly value of which is about 100l.) is ordinarily the Eskimo
tenable for two years, and the student is in special cases straighteners, an explanation rejected by Hoernes and others on the ground that the Magdalenian people were
eligible for reappointment for a third year. The successful
candidate must devote himself to research in botany under unacquainted with the use of the bow. This, however, is a pure assumption, unsupported by facts. A stronger
the direction of the professor of botany, who shall deter
mine the conditions under which the research is to be objection may be found in the shape of the perforation which characterises the Eskimo straightener as repre
conducted and the place or places in which it is to be sented by Prof. Dawkins; this is lozenge-shaped, as it is
carried on. Applications must reach the Vice-Chancellor,
Trinity Hall Lodge, on or before Saturday, August 25. in all the examples I have seen preserved in our museums; in the “baton," on the other hand, the form is invariably
PROF. UHLENHUTH, of Greifswald, has been appointed circular. Some of my archæological friends have gone so
director of the newly established department of bacteriology far as to assert that this form is incompatible with use
in connection with the Imperial Bureau of Health, Berlin. arrow straightener, though I have myself made perforated “batons"> out of deer's horn which serve to
Dr. G. D. Harris, of Cornell University, has been straighten a crooked stick very effectually. But, what is appointed to the chair of geology in the Louisiana State more to the point, Dr. Boas has figured recently an arrow
University; he will also direct the Geological Survey of straightener actually used by the Eskimos of Baffin Bay,
Louisiana. which not only resembles many “batons de commande- PROF. E. A. MINCHIN, professor of protozoology to the ment in general form, but more particularly in the shape University of London, will deliver his inaugural lecture on of the aperture, since it is drilled with a round hole.
Scope and Problems of Protozoology These two implements, the arrow straightener of the November 15. Eskimos and the “baton" of Magdalenian man, are in Miss Ethel HURLBATT, principal of Bedford College for so nearly identical that no manner of doubt
Women, London, has accepted the post of warden of the han exist as to the truth of Prof. Dawkins's explanation.
Royal Victoria College, McGill University, Montreal. Idditional interest is thus acquired by a curious resem- Her successor will shortly be appointed, and will, it is blance in detail which characterises the arrow straighteners hoped, go into residence at the beginning of the Lent of the two races, otherwise very different both in form of term. the perforation and in certain artistic qualities; this is to be found in the carved end, which sometimes represents two heads placed back to back, an unusual design, re
Education Committee director of technical instruction in peated, curiously enough, among a tribe of American
the Chatham, Rochester, and Gillingham district, and Mr. Indians in their “ topos or hair-pins, which are similarly
J. Quick has been appointed by the same committee director terminated by two heads (llamas') adossé. These facts,
of technical instruction in the Folkestone, Ashford, and aken in conjunction with numerous other resemblances in
Hythe district. detail between the implements at present used by the
On Saturday last Prof. T. Clifford Allbutt, F.R.S., and Eskimos and those of Magdalenian man, cannot fail to
Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S., had the degree of D.Sc. consuggest some ethnic connection.
ferred upon them by the University of Leeds; the degrees Is regards the skeletal remains of the period, attention
in connection with the British Association meeting and the may first be directed to those of the Cro-Magnon type,
celebration of the jubilee of the coal-tar industry, to which ncluding the skeleton of the seventh interment in the
attention was directed in our last number,
also Grotte des Enfants ; the skulls of this type, while resemb
conferred. ing those of the Eskimos in some respects, especially in
THANKS to the aid afforded by the Drapers' Company, the narrowness of the nose, differ widely in others, such
the work of the statistical laboratory at University College, 15 the length of the face and the height of the orbits ;
London. under Prof. Karl Pearson, has been considerably the limb bones indicate a race of tall stature (1800 mm.
extended. The laboratory, which possesses a large collecof 1900 mm.), very different in this respect to the short
tion of statistical models and diagrams and of mechanical Eskimos (1646 mm.). In the skeleton of La Chancelade integrators and calculators, provides a complete course of three differences disappear; the skull is remarkably
training in the theory and practice of statistics, and inE»kimo-like, the stature deficient (1500 mm.).
struction is given in exhibition calculation (mechanical and ostrological evidence would seem to point to the con- arithmetical) and the use of statistical quantities. Camporaneous existence of two allied races during the The Senate of the University of London has accepted Magdalenian age, one now represented by the Eskimos from Mr. Martin White two further donations, one and the other by neighbouring North American tribes, both provide a salary of 2001. a year for Dr. Edward Westerposibly inhabiting a large part of Europe and Asia. marck, university lecturer in sociology, for further whence they overflowed into North America either by the period of five years, the other an additional sum of 700l. Terlandic or the Alaskan route, perhaps by both. The for the establishment for five years of two scholarships fristing Eskimo cult has to a large extent been evolved a year each of the annual value of 351. and tenable for since the race entered North America. The distribution of two years. In connection with Mr. White's benefaction, Vydalenian remains suggests that the occupation of special courses will be delivered during the session 1900-7 Europe occurred during the closing phases of the last on ethnology, by Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., and on glacial episode.
psychology, by Dr. J. W. Slaughter.