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We regret to have to record the death, on July 27. of ΤΟ

the long list of astronomers recently deceased, Mr. Richard Glascott Symes, who retired from servire on

with the greatest regret we have to add the the Geological Survey in 1900, Mr. Symes was born at game of Prof. George Rayet, who for five-and-twenty Kingston, Dublin, in 1840; he joined the survey years directed the Observatory of Bordeaux with assistant-geologist in 1863, and in 1869 was made geologist. equal vigour and success. Born in 1839, and enter- | After a long period of useful work in Ireland, he was ing the Paris Observatory in the early 'sixties, the name of Rayet not only recalls to us the ancient found recorded in the Memoirs of the Geological Surver.

transferred to Scotland in 1890. Most of his work will be history of that establishment, when its fortunes were guided by Le Verrier and Delaunay, but the forty With reference to the recent correspondence in our years that separate us from that period embrace the columns concerning the Geological Survey of Canada (se new departures that have been made, in more than

NATURE, June 21, p. 175, and July 12, p. 245), Mr. A. P'. one of which Rayet may be said to have assisted. Low has sent us a certified copy of a report of a com. For example, at that time Le Verrier was engaged mittee of the Privy Council, approved by the Governorin the creation of an international bureau for the

General in Council on January 5, 1892, which reads as furtherance of meteorological study. The subject of

follows :weather forecasting was then in its infancy, and Le Verrier endeavouring to give scientific Geological Survey. accuracy and precision to the method. Into this de- That in accordance with the provisions of 33 Victoria partment and the allied subject of storm warnings chap:,,?I, an act respecting the Geological Survey, Rayet was early initiated. Similarly his astro- 2. Bell, Robert, LL.D., M.D., F.R.S.C., Assistant Director nomical career coincides very approximately with the and Chief Geologist-$2,250.00 , time in which spectroscopic studies have been

“ (Signed) Jous J. McGEE, vigorously prosecuted, and in this department he

Clerk of the Privy Council." laboured strenuously. It may be recalled that he was

A Party of French medical men is about to visit Germany one of the observers of the famous solar eclipse of 1868, when the characteristic light of hydrogen was

for the purpose of inspecting the medical institutions of first perceived in the solar prominences, and we were

the country. Three days will be spent in Berlin, and further led to the study of the helium ray. In another other cities and towns visited will include Cologne, Frankdirection Prof. Rayet was again a pioneer, when, in fort, Leipzig, Munich, Bonn, Heidelberg, and Marburg. A conjunction with M. Wolf, he detected that peculiar committee of entertainment has been formed under the variety of gaseous star with which his name has been presidency of Prof. von Bergmann. particularly associated. The three typical representatives found in the constellation Cygnus are now

STEPS are being taken by the German Government to members of a tolerably large class, the spectroscopic encourage sea fisheries in view of the national importance examination of which has done much to widen our of this industry in furnishing a recruiting ground for the conceptions of stellar chemistry.

navy and the nercantile marine. A fishing cutter having As professor of astronomy Rayet much an auxiliary engine of twenty horse-power and every engaged in teaching, and as occupant of the chair of modern equipment has, says the Cologne Gazette, been physical astronomy at Bordeaux he was naturally constructed at the Government expense, and after being pointed out as the most appropriate director of the

tested in practice, and if necessary improved, will be new observatory it was proposed to construct in adopted as a model for further fishing craft which are that town. Since 1881 this observatory has been

to be built, with the assistance of grants from the Imperial in full activity, and a valuable series of volumes has

Treasury. been issued containing the work of the director and staff. These volumes can generally be divided into Captain Lenfant, the French explorer, is, according to two sections, one giving the results of observations,

the Siècle, about to leave on another expedition to West the other the details of mathematical researches.

Africa in order to discover, if possible, a navigable waterAmong the observations are given the coordinates of

way connecting Lake Chad with the coast of the Atlantic stars, the position of comets, and nebulæ and

It will be remembered that in his expedition of 1903-4 measures of double stars. In the memoirs there are signs that Prof. Rayet still retained his old fervour for Captain Lenfant ascertained that a through waterway meteorological study, but we have, in addition, in

existed along the Niger, the Benue, the Mayo-Kebbi, the quiries connected with problems arising out of the Logone, and the Shari, but he was unable to follow it construction of the International Star Chart.

from beginning to end by boat, as the Mayo-Kebbi was In his conduct of the observatory Prof. Rayet was found to be obstructed by rapids, round which it was indefatigable; its interests he defended with energy, necessary to travel by land. and his administration able and judicious. While French science will regret his removal, his

ACCORDING to a Reuter telegram from St. Petersburg, immediate associates will mourn his loss as that of

violent earthquake shocks were felt on August 13 in the a friend whose sympathy, knowledge, and experience districts of Jarkent and Kopal, in the government of were ever at their command.

W. E. P.

Semirechensk, Central Asia.

THE Pioneer Mail for July 27 states that carthquake NOTES.

shocks were felt at Mussoorie, Lahore, Delhi, and Naggur The annual meeting of the British Medical Association (Kangra) on the morning of July 21. will next year be held at Eseter; the president-elect is Dr. Dr. H. W. Wiley, chemist to the l'.S. Department of H. Davy.

Agriculture, has been elected president of the commissior The appointment of Prof. Hermann Thoms as director appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Institute of the University of Berlin of Commerce and Labour, and the Secretary of Agriculture at Dahlem is announced.

to formulate rules and regulations for the enforcement in The death is announced of Dr. Adolf Voss, director of America of the pure food law. The public hearings to the prehistoric section of the Royal Berlin Museum. | the commission are to begin in New York on September !.






ACCORDING to the Electrical Review, the working of the AN International Maritime Exhibition, in celebration of plectric tramways on the overhead trolley system in the a century of steam navigation, is being organised under neighbourhood of Berlin, and of the electric haulage system the auspices of the League Maritime Française. It will be on the Teltow Canal, has interfered with the work of the opened in Bordeaux on May I next, and remain open until

A section will be devoted to magnetic observatory at Potsdam, and in consequence the the following November. Meteorological Institute recently addressed a request to the

colonial products which are intimately connected with the Ministry for Home Affairs asking for sanction to establish commerce of Bordeaux, and there will be pavilions devoted an auxiliary station for delicate magnetic registrations, ocean geography, nautical automobilism, and aërial while at the same time ameliorating the protective regu

navigation. Congresses, competitions, and lectures lations for the principal institute at Potsdam. The pro

maritime affairs, science, art, industry, &c., are being posal, it is stated, has now received the approval of the arranged for. The exhibition will be divided into the authorities, and preparations have been made in regard to following groups :-marine history and fine arts; instructhe realisation of the scheme. It has been possible to

tion; charts and instruments; navigation and commerce ; secure a site eight miles to the south of the Potsdam navy ; materials for construction ; motor machines and proObservatory, and on the northern bank of the Seddin Lake, pellers; fittings and apparatus ; automobile navigation and near Kunersdorf. The exact spot selected is in a wood, boats of all types; aëronautics; port and harbour works ; and the cost of the building and instruments is estimated

sea and river fishing; hygiene, salvage, and sports; ship's at 2200l. In order that the work may be completed as

provisions, food; various industries : interior decoration of rapidly as possible, and without waiting for an estimate passenger steamers and yachts; mariners' and passengers' to be inserted in the next Budget statement, the Teltow clothing, sporting attire; special furniture for passengers' Canal Construction Board has advanced the necessary

steamers and yachts, &c.; travelling articles, &c.; comfunds unconditionally,

mercial relations of Bordeaux with the colonies; social The Canadian Government is still further extending the

economy; and works of mutuality and charity. organisation of Marconi stations which it has established The fourteenth meeting of the International Congress of for communication with ships and from point to point Hygiene and Demography will be held in Berlin from along the coast. One of the new stations is to be at September 23 to September 29 of next year. The congress Father Point and one at Seven Islands, in the Province of will be divided into eight sections, devoted to the followQuebec. The station at Cape Race, in Newfoundland, is ing subjects :-hygienic microbiology and parasitology; being enlarged. When the two new stations are completed, hygiene of nutrition and hygienic physiology; hygiene of there will be a continuous Marconi system from Quebec childhood and school life; industrial hygiene ; the prevento Labrador on the one side and to Cape Race on the tion of infectious diseases and the cure of patients sufferother.

ing therefrom ; hygiene of the dwelling and the community; It is stated in Science that the Indiana University has hygiene of traffic; military, colonial, and marine hygiene ; had granted to it by the legislature of the State the

and demography. The general secretary of the congress is management of a tract of timber land of 182 acres, on

Dr. Nietner, 9 Eichhornstrasse, Berlin, W. which are the openings to extensive caves and the richest According to the Pioneer Mail, Allahabad, the problind-fish localities known. The University is in search grammes of work of the various Indian scientific departof a graduate able and willing to conduct research work ments for 1906-7 have been issued by the Board of Scientific

animals for twelve months, beginning on Advice. Our contemporary states that the principal September ( next.

questions to be taken up by the director of the Imperial A PRELIMINARY report of the archæological mission which

Institute and reporter of economic products are the prowent to Abyssinia last spring has been received by the

duce of Ficus elastica and the developments of rubber Berlin Academy of Sciences. The mission, the intention planting in India, tanning extracts from barks, the of which was to explore the ruins of the ancient city of improved preparation of agave fibre, and manganese ores. Aksum, has made, it is stated, a plan of the site, collated

The Meteorological Department will undertake the preparinscriptions already known, and copied others discovered

ation of an atlas showing the normal monthly conditions in the course of its researches; it has also accumulated

for the Indian Ocean, and the study of the upper atmoinformation of great interest from an architectural as well sphere by kites and balloons, and of atmospheric electricity as from an ethnical point of view.

and earthquakes. The Survey Department, it is proposed,

shall compile a paper summarising the geographical posiAn exhibition of india-rubber is to be held next month in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya, Ceylon, the

ion of our knowledge of the Himalayas and Tibet. The

Botanical Survey will conduct economic investigations reobject being to encourage further the growth of rubber in the island. It is thought that both Ceylon and the Malay Agricultural Department will investigate remedies for

garding Indian

and fibre-yielding plants. The States may soon become important sources of supply of injurious crop pests, and conduct investigations into the rubber.

improvement of cotton, wheat, tobacco, tea, indigo, and The fifth biennial congress of the International Com- jute. The Forest Department will examine tanning mittee on Aëronautics will be held at Milan under the extracts. presidency of M. Palazzo in September next.

The report of a subcommittee of the Board of Scientific The sixteenth meeting of the Italian Congress of Internal Advice on the consumption of mineral fertilisers in India Medicine will take place in Rome in October next. The has been issued by the Government of India Revenue Desubjects proposed for discussion are :-arterio-sclerosis ; partment. The director of the Geological Survey having fevers resembling typhoid and Malta fever; and arthritism. reported on the possible consumption in India of sulphuric A report on the progress in diagnosis will be presented by acid, and the large supply of rich phosphate of lime on Prof. Ferrannini, of Naples, and one on advances in thera- Christmas Island, and the officiating inspector-general of prutics by Prof. Michelazzi, of Pisa.

agriculture having directed attention to the scope for the





use of mineral fertilisers in Indian agriculture, the sub- We have received from the director of the Central committee recommends that experiments should be made Meteorological Observatory at Tokio, Japan, complete to test the results of the use of the principal mineral observations made every four hours, and results for 1904-5. fertilisers. In particular, it urges that special attention at the Corean stations at Fusan, Chemulpo, Wonsan, and should be given to the trial of sulphate of ammonia in Yongampo, also for part of the year at Josin. We quote sugar-cane cultivation. Arrangements are being made for the following statistics for Wonsan (lat. 39° 9' N., long. prospecting the copper-sulphide deposits of Chota Nagpur, 127° 26' E.), 1905, as the station having the greatest and if the deposits prove as valuable as is asserted by annual range of temperature.

The mean of the daily some authorities, it is thought that a large chemical and maxima in July was 80°:1 F., and of the minima in metallurgical industry may be started, the by-products of February 170.6 F.; the absolute maximum was 94o8 F. which will include sulphuric acid and ammonium sulphate. in August and 2°:1 in January. The annual rainfall was MR. WILLIAM Cole, of Buckhurst Hill, the honorary

73.3 inches, of which 20-9 inches fell in July and about secretary of the Essex Field Club, is endeavouring by the

0.2 inch in February. aid of a phonographic apparatus to perpetuate the record MUSEUM curators should study attentively certain stateof Essex folk-songs and peculiarities of dialect and in- ments by Mr. F. A. Lucas in the report for 1905 of the tonation, and solicits the assistance of residents in Essex

Museums of the Brooklyn Institute. On the south side in discovering and enlisting the services of singers of the of the building the windows are reported to have been ancient folk cradle-songs quaint harvest-home

sand-blasted,” with the view of diffusing the light, and ballads who will not fear to face the recording-horn of the thus helping to protect the specimens from its ravages. phonograph. Mr. Cole will be pleased to correspond with The results are held to have been worth the heavy expense. anyone willing to cooperate.

The second point relates to descriptive labels, on which According to L'Aviculteur, the wholesale destruction, for

the author writes as follows :-“ As a rule, the visitor purposes of millinery, of certain species of birds threatens

wishes to know first the name of an animal or an object, at no distant date to bring about the extermination of some

next where it is to be found, and then what it does or is of the rarer and more beautiful kinds which the world used for; and the effort is made to supply this informpossesses. How real this danger is may be estimated by ation and not discourage the visitor with statements rethe fact that in one market alone were sold lately at one

garding matters of which he knows little and cares less. time 12,000 humming-birds, 28,000 parrakeets, 15,000 king. The technical label is the easiest to prepare, but it is the fishers, 20,000 aigrettes, and thousands of other gorgeous

one that most visitors do not care for, while the student southern birds of different kinds, as well as doves and even can get such information from text-books." If these views sparrows. France receives every year from America, be sound, many of the labels in museums in this country Tonkin, and India millions of birds, which are exchanged require drastic amendment. for millions of pounds. The number of small birds The contents of Biologisches Centralblatt for Augusti annually imported into England and France may be com- emphasise the extent to which the problems of hybridisation puted at 1,500,000. Germany exports yearly twenty million and variation are occupying the attention of Continental feathers

which are worked up in England into hat naturalists at the present time. In the first article Dr. trimmings. In London there are held every month sales K. Goebel describes double-flowered wild

race of of birds' skins and feathers, India alone supplying some Cardamine pratensis which is to be found in abundance thirty millions of feathers. The South American Republics | in spring on the mountains of Cpper Bavaria, and discusses have awakened to the danger of the extermination of their its bearings on the development and infertility of doubia most ornamental species of birds, and have passed laws flowers in general. The sexual and asexual reproduction regulating their slaughter. A league has been formed in of fresh-water polyps (Hydra) forms the subject of the America the members of which forswear the wearing of second article, in the course of which the author, Dr. R. feathers; as the demand creates the supply, it is to be Hertwig, records the remarkable circumstance that while hoped more leagues of this kind will be formed elsewhere, in one winter all his specimens-some thousands in nurrber and that it will be some day considered bad form for a -developed ovaries and eggs, in the following season the woman to adorn her headgear or clothing with the bodies whole series produced spermatozoa. Dr. J. Gross, in the and feathers of wild birds.

third article, continues the discussion of the problems of M. Lancaster, director of the Belgian Meteorological modification and variation. Albinism and melani-n in reService, states that henceforward the results of the inter- lation to the Mendelian theory are first discussed, ailti national balloon ascents organised by that service will be

which the author takes into consideration the case of the published in Ciel et Terre. Tandem sounding

interbreeding of black and grey crows, De Vries's mutaballoons made of india-rubber are used, one of which

tion theory being subsequently contrasted with the bursts at a certain height; thermometers of two kinds are

Mendelian doctrine. The fourth article, by Mr. L. Plate, employed—Teisserenc de Bort's bimetallic instrument and

is devoted to a review of Hatschek's new theory of Hergesell's German-silver cylindrical thermometer.

In the modification. ascents of April 5 and May 3 altitudes of 15,140 metres

A COLLECTION of fishes-both fresh-water and marine and 16,970 metres were attained, temperature - 52°:5 C. and from Argentina forms the subject of a paper by Messrs -389.0 C., respectively. In the first experiment the lowest Evermann and Kendall, published as No. 1482 of the temperature recorded was - 57°:4, at 13,500 metres, during Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum. Three species the descent; an inversion occurred at 13,940 metres during -among them of the exclusively southern und the ascent. In the second experiment the lowest tempera- chiefly fresh-water genus Galaxias-are described as nes. tures were ---62o.6, at 10,160 metres, during the ascent, The physical features of the fresh-waters of the country and –61°:9, at 9800 metres, during the descent. A large are noted. inversion commenced at 10,160 metres, and increased to We have been favoured by the author, Mr. H. R. 16,970 metres, when the upper balloon burst. Both ascents Watkin, with copies of two papers published by the were made in the morning.

Torquay Natural History Society. One, which was read



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in 1905, is a translation of the original account of the dis- An interesting note on the fluorescence of anthracene rovery and transport to St. Petersburg of the now well- vapour is published by Mr. T. S. Elston in No. 4 of the known Berezovka mammoth. In discussing whiteness in Johns Hopkins University Circular. It is concluded that animals in the second paper, the author takes occasion to the light exciting the fluorescence has a wave-length of dissent from the view that British park-cattle are albinos, about 390 Mill, and that the fluorescence spectrum extends urging as a reason that they have been white for centuries continuously from 1= 365 pin to 1 = 470 Mjt, showing three -an argument which has, of course, no value at a. distinct bands at wave-lengths 390, 415, and 432 Mbl. It

is clear that for anthracene vapour Stokes's law, which ACCORDING to the Irish Naturalist for August, the bog. states that fluorescence lies entirely on the red side of the slide at Ballycumber, King's County, in June last, of exciting light, does not hold. which much was made in the Dublin papers, was a very

A SCIENTIFIC and not too technical exposition of the insignificant affair. To the same issue Mr. R. Southern contributes notes on Irish oligochætous worms of the genus

present position of certain problems connected with heredity

will be found in Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift Enchytræus, recording three species new to the Irish

(July 1) in an article written by Dr. E. Teichmann. The fauna, one of which appears to be also new to science.

first part of the article is devoted to a review of the hypoPART vii. of the “ Fauna of New England," issued as

theses and facts adduced in recent papers by Heider, an Occasional Paper of the Boston Society of Natural

Correns, and Strasburger in favour of regarding the History, consists of a list of the ants (Formicidæ), by

chromosomes as bearers of hereditary characters, and showMr. W. M. Wheeler.

ing how the chromosome divisions fit in with Mendelian

principles ; this part is illustrated with useful explanatory The vexed question of the chemical nature of thorium diagrammatic figures. Dr. Teichmann then gives a short and the origin of its radio-activity forms the subject of a

account of the hypothesis advanced by Dr. Hatschek, who series of papers in the American Journal of Science (vol. interprets heredity as a chemical process. Hatschek postuxxi., No. 126). Dr. Bertram Boltwood has determined the

lates generative molecules occurring in the nuclei, and amount of e-ray activity due to thorium in different energy molecules in the cells; it is by changes in the minerals, containing, in addition to thorium, other radio-generative molecules of the reproductive cells that variations active constituents. The values obtained clearly indicate

are produced. Reference is also made to Loeb's latest that this activity per gram of thorium is a constant in- expression of opinion, in which he also favours a chemicodipendent of the nature of the mineral. The total activity

physical explanation. of minerals containing thorium and uranium can, indeed, In the course of a lecture addressed to the Field be calculated from the proportions in the mineral of these Naturalists' Club of Victoria, and published in the elements. The constancy of the “ specific activity” of Victorian Naturalist (June), Mr. D. McAlpine summarises thorium in different minerals is in support of the view a few of the interesting points observed in studying the that Hahn's radio-thorium is a degradation product of plant rusts in Victoria. The geographical distribution of thorium itself; the transformation of thorium into radio- some of the species furnishes curious facts. The genus thorium is probably rayless. It is a remarkable fact, how- Uromycladium causing “ witches-broom," and characterpver, that the specific activity of thorium in samples of ised by the production of a colourless cyst along with one Thorium nitrate and oxide prepared on the commercial scale or two spores, is only known from Java outside Australia. for the Welsbach mantles is only about half that of An æcidium on wallaby grass has only been found elsethorium in the same substances prepared directly from the where on a species of Stipa in the Argentine, Chili, and minerals worked with. This is explained by assuming that California. The absence of any native barberry plants the commercial method of purifying thorium salts is re- would suggest that wheat rusts in Australia forgo a markably efficient in separating radio-thorium, the change heteræcious existence, and it was found that the spores of thorium into radio-thorium occurring only very slowly.

would not even infect imported plants. Similar conclusions arrived at by Mr. H. M.

The third and concluding portion of Sir Joseph Hooker's Dadourian and by Messrs. McCoy and Ross from experi- enumeration of British Indian species of Impatiens, pubments of a somewhat different character described in the

lished as vol. iv., No. 3, of the Records of the Botanical same number. The question whether thorium can be Survey of India, contains the list of known species for the obtained entirely free from radio-thorium and completely Western Peninsula, also for Ceylon and Malaya. The inactive is, however, still unsettled,

Peninsular balsams differ in sectional characters from the The July number of the Journal of the Röntgen Society

Himalayan and Burmese; they all fall into the shortcontains an address by Mr. Frederick Soddy on the nature

capsuled group, and none possesses the two additional of the a ray. A clear account of recent investigations and

lateral sepals; many are endemic, only three being found in hypotheses is given with regard to this problem, and the

northern or eastern India, and one of these is the polyauthor, in addition, briefly refers to some experiments he

morphic Impatiens balsamina. There is some affinity has made to ascertain whether the a particle is capable of

between the Malabar and Ceylon species, although the deviation in a magnetic field under conditions in which

majority of the latter are endemic. In marked contrast to it has not suffered impact with a single gas molecule; but

the large number of balsa from Burma, only seven the results would indicate that in the highest vacuum

Malayan species are recorded, and none of these is found obtainable the a rays are deflected as readily as in ordinary

in Burma. Impatiens mirabilis, that is only known from air. In the American Journal of Science for July Mr. M.

one island, is a remarkable species, as it produces a branchLevin shows that polonium is a hoinogeneous source of

ing stem 5 feet high and 22 inches in diameter, bearing

leaves 6 inches to 10 inches in length. Q rays, and that the range of the a particle in air is 3 V 01., being slightly greater than that of the a particle is recent research has led to the transference of many of radium (3:50 cm.), but less than that of the a rays of of the so-called fossil ferns of the Carboniferous period to fidium C (range 7.06 cm.).

the pteridosperms, and has thrown doubt on others, it is a


No. 373).



matter of considerable interest to have a new fern recorded PLANETS AND PLANETARY OBSERVATIONS. In the second from the Coalmeasures. The plant, consisting of axis,

of the series of articles which he is writing for the Obsert. petioles, and root, is described by Miss M. C. Stopes in atory, Mr. Denning discusses the powers best suited for the Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical

planetary observations, the best times for making the

observations, and the modus operandi most suitable for Society, vol. I., part x.; associated with these fossil re- observers with moderate equipments. mains are small annulate sporangia which, there is every In this he emphasises the importance of noting even reason to believe, belong to the same plant. The plant is

detail very carefully, and of keeping any one object under referred to Tubicaulis, a fern genus, formerly monotypic,

regular observation for as long a period as possible.

In a discussion as to the relative values of eye-estimate: that is probably one of the simpler Botryopterideæ.

and instrumental observations of transit times. Mr. The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, which has been Denning supports the former method (the Observatory, in existence twenty-six years, appears to be in a very satisfactory condition, financially, numerically, and in the

A New Form Of SpecTROHELIOGRAPH.-A new form of interest shown in the monthly meetings. During the year

spectroheliograph, in which it is hoped that the effects ci

instrumental vibrations will be materially reduced, is prowhich ended in April last, eight papers relating to zoology posed by MM. G. Millochau and M. Stefánik in Xo. 1, were read; eleven papers dealt with botany, two with vol. xxiv., of the Astrophysical Journal. geology, and one with palæontology. The president (Mr. This instrument may be fed from a cælostat or siderostal, F. G. A. Barnard) at the annual meeting took as the sub

or attached directly to a telescope. It is moved about 1 ject of his address “ The First Quarter of a Century of

horizontal axis perpendicular to the plane containing the the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria,” from which we

optical axes of the spectrograph by a Brashear clepsydra

mounted vertically. notice there are still thirteen of the original members in By widening the primary slit at its two extremities, a association with the institution.

photograph of a portion of the spectrum of the diffuse sky. The National Geographic Magazine (the organ of the light may be obtained, thus giving an indication of the

exact radiation which is being employed. National Geographic Society of Washington) maintains its high standard of excellence, and the August issue--devoted THE RELATIONS BETWEEN SCIENCE AND mainly South America--contains many articles of

INDUSTRI interest, notably one by Prof. A. Heilprin on the shattered This year's meeting of the Association française pour obelisk of Mont Pelée, which is illustrated by reproductions l'avancement des Sciences was held at Lyons, and of several striking photographs of the peculiar cone of opened on the same day as the meeting of the British Assorock which was thrown up during the volcanic activity of

ciation at York. On August 1, Prof. G. Lippmann, the the mountain a few years ago, and which at the time of

president of the French association, delivered his presiden.

tial address, and by a significant coincidence dealt with its greatest development attained the height of more than

the want of respect accorded to scientific research hy a thousand feet. To-day the obelisk is in ruins, consisting French manufacturers and merchants on the same day that of boulders ranging from 2 feet or 3 feet in diameter to Prof. E. Ray Lankester was directing the attention of the 30 feet, and it was to view these and to endeavour to under

visitors to York to the “ less widespread interest than stand the geological riddle of the mountain that Prof. Heil

formerly in natural history and general science, outside the prin in February last paid his fourth visit to Martinique.

strictly professional arena of the school and university."

Prof. Lippmann found the text of his discourse in the A Fifth edition has been published by Messrs. Swan

which has followed the attempts of the manuSonnenschein and Co., Ltd., of “Through the Wordsworth

facturers of Lyons to benefit fully by the work accomplished

by men of science. At Lyons, he said, science and inCountry: A Companion to the Lake District,” by Prof.

dustry live together in harmony." In this district scientifiWilliam Knight, with sixteen full-page illustrations by Mr. cally organised 'factories are to be found, in which it is Harry Goodwin. In an explanatory preface Prof. Knight recognised that science can give daily ussistance to inexplains his aim as having been to be as terse and simple dustrial development-a truth other parts of France are as possible, and not to traverse precisely the same ground

said Prof. Lippmann, far from understanding. The mistake

is too common that industry only has need of technicists, as that covered in one of his earlier works. He modestly or, at least, that she need trouble only about “ applied insists more than once that the merit of the book rests on science, taught specifically with a view to the various manuMr. Goodwin's drawings and certainly these are delight- factures; and this tendency the president described as the ful, but lovers of Wordsworth visiting the Lake District

fatal error which had caused the total production of French will also find Prof. Knight an interesting and inspiring

industries to fall from the first to the fourth -ank. It is

the duty of every man of science, he continued, to waga guide.

war on such false ideas, wherever met, and to substitut

for them the salutary truth that success in industry is OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

founded upon a proper regard for the methods of science.

For this reason, he explained, he had decided to speak 01 Comer 1906d (FINLAY).—A further extract from M. the relations between science and industry. Schulhof's ephemeris for Finlay's comet, as published in

It is casy to define the bond which unites science to inNo. 4109 of the 1stronomische Nachrichten, is given dustry. There is only one nature. The forces which mouli below :

the material world are those also which inspire the Ephemeris (121. M.T. Paris).

apparatus of the laboratory, which are utilised in industri

and in the arts of peace and of war. There is one science 1906 a (app.) 8 (app.)



only, which is neither professorial, industrial, civil, ne Aug. 18... 4 11 49

944499 12:56

military. Experimental science is the art of wielding th. 4 26 35 +II 33


forces of nature-and industry and science are developed
4 40 34
+ 12 39
947221 1144

along parallel lines.
4 53 48
+13 38 9'48689


During an unknown number of centuries science was 26. 5 6 19 +14 31 9:50197 10-25

empirical and industry mere fumbling and groping In

the last hundred years science has developed more than From this it will be

that the comet is now in thousands of years previously, and industry hus apparently travelling through Taurus towards the northern- advanced with giant's strides. Prof. Lippmann exemplifiers most extremity of Orion, and will be about 4° south of his statements by reference to the chemical and Industrial Aldebaran on August 21, on which date it will rise a industries, and paid eloquent tributes to the creator of tme little north of east at about 12 o'clock (midnight).


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1 The address is printed in the Reue Scientifique for August 11, 100.


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