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doing the excavation round the margin of the tunnel section is more easily removed to a true line. This is

effected by making the centre holes converge to a TUNVELS AND TUNNELLING.

point, and charging them in such a manner, by Moder Tunnel Practice. By D. McNeely Stauffer. shortening the fuse, that their charges will be fired Pp. viii + 314. (London : Archibald Constable and

a few seconds earlier than those in the remaining Co., Ltd., 1906.) Price 215. net.

holes. Useful hints are given as to the precautionary THE HE author of this book is to be congratulated measures to be taken in case of a misfire, when a

both upon having produced what will prove charged hole has to be bored out. to be a useful book of reference for engineers engaged The effects upon the engineers and workmen from in the arduous work of tunnelling, and also upon the the products of combustion of the explosives are refair and impartial manner in which he writes. He ferred to, and instructions are given as to remedies, has given credit to those men whose names are asso- but the principle of ample ventilation right up to the ciated with certain great improvements, and has not very face of the work cannot be too strongly insisted attempted, as is sometimes unfortunately the case, to upon. If large volumes of fresh air are provided for claim inventions for his countrymen which rightfully the men in the most advanced working, no danger of belong to English, Italian or other nationalities.

asphyxia is to be feared. Mr. Stauffer is an American engineer in New York, The introduction of high explosives, powerful drills, but he is also enrolled as a member of our Institution and ample machinery has reduced the necessity for a of Civil Engineers of London, and it is evident that large number of shafts, and work is now often conhe has had considerable and practical experience of ducted only from the two portals. The author disthe difficulties of tunnelling.

cusses from a practical point of view the size and Naturally tunnels are things to be avoided as being shape of shafts when required, and is of opinion that both costly and difficult, but for penetrating moun- those of rectangular form are preferable to either tains, crossing under rivers and arms of the sea, or for square or circular ones. Doubtless there is much to be traversing our great towns and cities, they are indis- said in favour of his views, but if water be encountered pensable. There is, however, one well-known case in a shaft and has to be “tubbed out," the circular of a tunnel in South America in which the engineers is the only permissible form. As regards the actual deliberately ran their railway into a mountain in order sinking through water-bearing strata, compressed air that their country should not retain the notoriety, cannot be made available under a greater "head" undesired by them, of not possessing a single work than 100 feet. Pumping can be resorted to, as is of the kind, and over the portal of that tunnel is usually the case, or the “Kind-Chandron ” method marked in large letters, This is the first tunnel in of sinking, as was done at Whitburn, whilst the more the country.”

modern system of freezing has been tried with success The illustrations are good and brought down to a recently in one or more of the collieries in Durham. recent date, but they unfortunately suffer from the It is, however, costly, and has its own inherent one defect that the dimensions and notes of reference dangers which must be provided against; for instance, are almost too small to be read except with the aid of a case recently occurred in which the frozen material a magnifying-glass; it is a recognised principle that gave way under the hydrostatic head of the water drawings which are to be reduced for publication in behind it, and blew in the side of the shaft. the leaves of a book should have all the writing and The various methods of tunnelling known as the figures several times the usual size, so as to be easily English, the Belgian, the German, and the Austrian legible when reduced.

systems are described, and it is satisfactory to note The chapter on surveying for tunnels contains the that the Americans adopted the first of these in several latest practice, and will be useful to all students and of their important tunnels. The use of steel needles young engineers. The author describes how a ray in a London tunnel under houses is referred to, but of light is now used in many cases in place of wires, notwithstanding every possible care and precaution, but where the latter are still employed the inconveni- some injury was done to the property; now, however, ence resulting from their acting as long pendulums by the adoption of the shield, this is reduced to a is overcome by suspending the plummets in buckets minimum. of water; tar, with its greater viscosity, is, however, It is satisfactory to observe that the author gives more certain in its action, but has the drawback of the credit to the late Mr. Greathead of his shield, for being easily floated out by water falling down the although he was not the actual inventor, yet it was shaft.

he who so modified and introduced it into practical The use of explosives is gone into very fully, many work that it has been universally adopted by the enginof the various kinds being described, with rules for eering profession as the solution of much of the their handling and thawing in cold weather; the difficulty encountered in tunnelling. In like manner general principles of blasting and the position and the name of Signor Saccardo is given as having depth of bore-holes are carefully explained.

invented the admirable system of ventilation with It is found by experience that when driving a head which his name is connected, although in more than ing or gallery through hard material, more rapid one case in America his proposals have been adopted progress is made if a wedge-shaped mass of rock be without his name even being mentioned. blown out first, in the centre of the work, as by so The important tunnels in Paris, Budapest, Boston,









and New York are fully discussed, and one of evidence as to the early history of astronomy in the the most instructive chapters is devoted the East. This knowledge he uses with telling effect, Simplon Tunnel with its approaches on the Italian | bringing out his points in an orderly, marshalled, side between Domo d'Ossola and Iselle. The logical, and therefore convincing way. He is arrangements for the men, the power installation, moderate and sensible in his deductions also, and never ventilation, air refrigeration, illumination, drainage, allows himself to be carried away by that deplorable workshops, buildings, as also the transportation impulse to wild philological comparison and identifservice, dealt with in such

cation which has been the curse of work of this kind cannot fail to be useful to readers, and when it is hitherto. He has in his English edition also had remembered that notwithstanding the innumerable the benefit of the collaboration of the sanest and most difficulties which were encountered from hard rock, trustworthy critics of the Old Testament, Dr. Driver hot springs, and crushing timbers, an annual pro- and Mr. Cowley to wit, so that the reader may rest gress was attained of one mile at each face, a assured that in reading the book he is not groping record has been established which it will be very hard darkly among Cheyneian cryptograms, nor need he to beat. Subsequent to the date at which the book fear that he will be haunted by the unquiet spirit of was written, it was found that in the bad ground at Jerahmeel. Veither the ubiquitous " Jerahme +4 km. from Iselle steel girders and timbers could not the elusive “ Musri" (see NATURE, June 26, 1902) contend with the load they were called upon to carry, have a place in this eminently sane and work-a-day and that steel girders with cement concrete alone volume, which both archæologists and astronomers enabled the work to be proceeded with.

will find useful. The archæologists, indeed, would Much information is given as to the ventilation of only be too grateful if the astronomers would help tunnels, and if only from a public point of view this them more than they do. The mysteries of Mahler, is satisfactory as indicating the greater amount of for instance; no unastronomical archæologist quitr attention which is now being devoted to this branch knows whether they are scientific gospel or not. of scientific engineering.

instance of archæological ignorance of astronomy is The use of compressed air in caissons, which was given on p. 68-Arcturus confounded with Arctos, and first applied at Rochester Bridge by Sir Charles Fox, said to be a star in the Bear. is gone into at length, and in connection with the

Prof. Schiaparelli gives us a very lucid introduction, illness known as caisson disease it can be mentioned followed by a series of chapters on the general that the admirable system of re-compression in cases cosmology of the Old Testament, the stars and conof men being affected was first proposed and carried stellations, the doubtful Mazzoroth (perhaps the ino out by Mr. Moir.

phases of Venus), the arrangement of months, days, very important part of the book describes the

&c., among the early Hebrews. All is most interest extended use which is being made throughout the ingly expressed, and the archæological and historical world of concrete in cement. Within the last ten references are most valuable. he connection of the years this has come into favour and is being applied Jewish star-lore with that of the Babylonians in care10 works of all kinds. Even subaqueous tunnels, such fully but moderately brought out. I serious defect in as that at Boston, are being wholly constructed of the book is the lack of an index. The translator or concrete, and whereas a few years ago the material publishers undoubtedly deserve blame for not having was regarded with suspicion, to-day it is being loaded had

one compiled. No doubt French or Italian to the extent of 15 tons per square foot. How to writers do not habitually make indices to their books. render concrete air-tight and waterproof is a problem | That is their defect; in England the reader wants with which the author deals.

indices, and the fact ought not to have been forgotten in the appendix is given a useful glossary of terms in this case. used in tunnelling, and the book is rendered complete We wish we could praise so highly Mr. Brown's by a fairly extended index of contents.

" Primitive Constellations," as, 10 judge from his introduction, he is very sensitive to former criticisms.

But honestly we cannot. The author of the "Great ANCIENT ASTRONOMY.

Dionysiak Myth” used to be hag-ridden by philoIstronomy in the Old Testament. By Prof. G. | logical speculations of the kind which were fashion

Schiaparelli. Authorised English translation, with able in the days of Max Müller, Gladstone, and Sir many corrections and additions by the author. Pp. George Cox, but have been recognised to be bad viii + 178. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1905.) Price archæology these twenty years past. of this we are 3s. 6d. net.

bound to say we do not see so much in the present Researches into the Origin of the Primitive Constel- volume, and are glad of it, but at the same tine

lations of the Greeks, Phoenicians, and Babylonians. we regret that Mr. Brown cannot bring himself to Vol. ii. By Robert Brown, jun. Pp. XX+261. abandon his foolish explanation of the name Amalthea (London: Williams and Norgate, 1900.) Price

as the Assyrian Amma, “ mother " + ! (which we los. 6d.

suppose is the Arabic el) + the Greek Bria; here you WE

E have in these two books works of very have it, Amalthea, “the divine mother" (!) Nr.

different scientific value. Prof. Schiaparelli's Brown is still unable to perceive the absurdity of little book is that of an expert astronomer who has this. The learned author also used to be a victim also a remarkable knowledge of the archæological' of the Greek transliteration fad of Gladstone and


Cox, which led him not only to transliterate after or special part deals with the biology in the German their manner, but even to extend the fad into English, sense of the word, of the various species of Alysma, and to write such dreadful words as “ Hellenik" and Echinodorus, Elisma, Caldesia, Damasonium, and “ Dionysiak." As a critic said, “Why not Dionusiak Sagittaria. Each of these species is then examined

in detail as regards the general action of the environMuth?" which was a palpable hit. However, to be

ment, its aquatic forms or varieties, its land forms, just, much of this sort of thing also has disappeared its seedlings, and its so-called monstrosities whether from Mr. Brown's present book, which we readily found wild in nature or produced in culture, and allow to be a heap of antiquarian learning, Assyrio | lastly, the condition in which it passes the winter. logical and other, on the subject of which it treats.

Here and there are notes on other matters of detail,

such as floating apparatus, the influence of light, Whether the Assyriology and the Sumerology are

turios, submersed forms, &c. all right the lay critic is unable to tell, but there is The second or general part of the work describes an probably a good deal in Mr. Brown's Assyrian learn- investigation of the adaptation of the various parts to ing that is not entirely orthodox, to judge from the different functions in general. One of the most undoubtedly unorthodox nature of much of his Greek interesting sections here will be the examination of philology, to which An el- θεία testifies. That

the formative factors (gestaltbildener factoren), and

another is the results considered in respect to systemdreadful solvikisin (as we suppose Mr. Brown would

atic botany. There is a rather too meagre index, but say) makes us perhaps unduly suspicious. If so, we a very special word of praise should be given to the hasten to beg Mr. Brown's pardon, as we do not plates, and we congratulate author and publisher alike wish to share the fate of the Assyriological reviewer on the drawing and reproduction of the figures. Few (not ourselves) of vol. i. of “ Primitive Constellations

morphologists will be able to dispense with the book, in NITURE (April 13, 1899, vol. lix., P. 553), who said biology of this interesting group of water-plants.

and certainly no systematist concerned with the that Mr. Brown made mistakes in his Assyrian and was smitten by a Browniak thunderbolt for his temerity. School Gardening for Little Children. By Lucy R.

Latter, The learned author refers to this circumstance in

Introduction by Prof. P. Geddes. Pp. a note in the volume under review. Perhaps Mr.

xxiv + 166. (London : Swan Sonnenschein and Co.,

Ltd., 1906.) Price 25. 6d. net. Brown may think he scored, but it is perfectly The value of any particular scheme of education for plain that when he wrote “ Barsipki” as the name

little children depends more on the interest the teacher of the town of Barsip (Borsippa) he was under the

feels in the subject, and on the sympathy he or she erroneous impression that the written suffix -ki was is able to manifest towards the pupils, than on the pronounced, otherwise he would not have spelt it out. scheme itself. We think this will be obvious to any" Barsipki" was written, “Barsip " said ; one who peruses the pages of the volume before us. * Barsipki” was never either written or said. If

Most children bred in the country have a “ garden all

to themselves," but we doubt whether any permanent Mr. Brown does not understand what is meant he

benefit is derived by them unless their work in it is does not understand the cuneiform writing, and if directed with sympathetic intelligence such as is rehis Assyriology is bad the whole of his book must be vealed in Miss Latter's pages. “I have tried,” says bad too.

the author, “ to prove that it is possible to make nature-teaching the central point of the life of a

school without detriment to the children; that such OUR BOOK SHELF.

teaching gives a real meaning and incentive to all

the handwork and leads to a richer and truer appreciBiologische und morphologische Untersuchungen über ation of poetry, pictures and music. l'asser- und Sumpf gewächse. Erster Teil. Die

“ The experiment has been going on for nearly six Lebensgeschichte der europäischen Alismaceen. By years, during which time it has successfully stood the Prof. Hugo Glück, Heidelberg. Pp. xxiv +312 + test of Government inspection. Each year has shown xiv figures and plates. (Jena : G. Fischer, 1905.) an increasing gain to the children intellectually as Price 20 marks.

well as physically and morally. Instead of the chilThis elaborate and apparently exhaustive monograph dren being less prepared for the work of the senior is one of the fruits of the morphological school schools, it is found that they read, write, and do founded in Munich by Goebel, but the author, struck, arithmetic as well, if not much better, for having had as so many writers have been with the enormous daily contact with plants and animals and opportunicariability of these plants, has here attempted to bring ties for observing the various natural phenomena Together the facts, not only of the influence of the which affect their lives in one way or another. It is environment as expressed in the direct action of such further found that such children pass on to the senior agencies as light, situation, water, and other factors, schools with a quickened power of observation, a far but has also tried to weave these into a sort of system greater amount of intelligence, a keener desire to such as can be used by the systematist.

learn, and a greater refinement of heart than if their He says :-“ Meiner Ansicht nach ist das der earlier years had been spent in acquiring mechanical einzige Weg, der uns über das Zustandekommen der perfection in the arts of reading, writing, and aritheinzelnen Formen und ihre Abhängigkeit metic before any real experience had been accumulated Standort sicheren Aufschluss erteilt, da ja in der as a basis for those more formal branches of instrucfreien Natur die Standortsverhältnisse dieser Pflanzen

tion." einem steten Wechsel unterworfen sind und sich der Miss Latter speaks with authority, and a perusal of direkten Beobachtung mehr oder minder entziehen." her book leads us to accord willing assent to it. In

But, in addition, extensive collections of herbarium subsequent pages she tells us what have been the material were made and examined, and plants over procedures which have contributed to her success, how wide areas examined in situ.

part of the hard asphalt playground has been conThe book falls into two parts, of which the first verted into the school-garden, how the garden is



“ laid out,

" how it is maintained and cultivated, and the magnitude of the disaster. The record indicated what are the moral and religious lessons which arise that the first tremor took place at thirty-three minutes gradually and spontaneously in a child's mind from after midnight, Greenwich time, on Friday morning. the lessons afforded by the observation of plant-life The first maximum was reached at 1.2 a.m., which and the habits of animals. We have no doubt of the was followed by continuous convulsions until a second truth of all this, but only on the condition before maximum was reached at 1.50 a.m. mentioned as to the tactful sympathy of the teacher. Prof. Milne is reported to have obtained good

records by means of his instruments at Shide, Isle of

Wight. The first records were observed at twentyLETTER TO THE EDITOR.

four minutes past twelve in the morning, and from [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions

these it was known that a disaster had occurred expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake somewhere along the western side of South America. to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected According to Valparaiso time, it would then have manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. been 7.15. The duration was more than five hours. No notice is taken of anonymous communications.]

According to Reuter's correspondent at Washington, The Earth's Interior.

a very heavy and distinct earthquake shock was

recorded on Thursday evening by the seismographs of It has long been suspected that the earth is an iron the Weather B eau, beginning at five minutes planet, and now, through the work of Strutt and others, the evidence both for and against is intensifying.

twenty-two seconds after seven o'clock, time of the It is just worth noting, as a matter of simple arithmetic,

seventy-fifth meridian. Complete and perfect records

were obtained of both north to south and east to west that a core of metallic iron of density 7, covered with a crust of rock 500 miles thick of density 2.5, together make

movements of the earth's crust. The tremors were up the known average terrestrial density, 5.6; but recent comparatively slow, and their motion was deliberate, evidence, interestingly summarised by Principal Griffiths

each complete movement covering from eighteen 10 in his presidential address to Section A of the British forty seconds. Association, points to a crust much thinner than the above. The disturbances lasted without intermission for It is to be hoped that the “ boring proposals of the Hon. several hours, and finally ceased about midnight. The Chas. Parsons will before long attract the attention they most violent shock seems to have occurred at fortydeserve.

OLIVER LODGE. two minutes twenty-six seconds after eight o'clock.

The instruments at the Hamburg Seismographic

Institute are said to have shown greater and more THE EARTHQUAKE IN SOUTH AMERICA.

prolonged signs of disturbance than at the time of BE ETWEEN seven and eight o'clock on Thursday the San Francisco disaster. evening last, Valparaiso, Santiago, and many

A telegram from Victoria, B.C., stated that the local other parts of Chile were visited by a very severe seismograph recorded that the earthquake lasted four earthquake, causing, it is feared, heavy loss of life and

hours. widespread damage. As was the case in San Fran

The tide gauges at Honolulu showed a disturbance, cisco, the earthquake was followed by many outbursts apparently of distinct origin, beginning at 5.23 a.m. of fire and the failure of the gas and electric light. on August 17. Three waves were indicated hourly, According to a telegram to the New York Herald showing an oscillation of between three and four from Valparaiso, that city experienced, without any inches from the normal tides. Wireless reports from warning, the day having been unusually calm and Maui and Hilo state that a wave 5 feet high occurred pleasant, two distinct shocks of earthquake, and, there. It manifested itself by an unprecedentedly standing as it does upon a formation of granite and heavy surf. In the enclosed Bay of Maalaea, on the gneiss, it suffered severely. The same correspondent island of Maui, the wave reached a height of 12 feet. reported the occurrence of many landslides round the News has been received in New York that the city. According to Reuter, the shock at Santiago de earthquake has destroyed the island of Juan Fernandez Chile was the most severe within living memory; it (made famous by its supposed connection with Defor's lasted three and a half minutes, and was followed by “ Robinson Crusoe ''), which was used as a Chilian heavy showers. The seismograph at the observatory penal settlement. was thrown out of order by the violence of the shocks, A despatch from Fort de France, Martinique, rp. which, though slight, continued for some days.

ports that earthquake shocks of varving severity The disturbance extended over zone of nearly

were experienced on the island at 1.15 p.m. on two degrees, and it is impossible at present to esti- August 19 and at 3.47 a.m., 4 a.m., and 8.37 a.m. on mate the number of lives lost and the damage done, August 20, but that no damage was done; and a the accounts received being of a very conflicting Reuter telegram from Lima states that Valparaiso nature.

was visited by another heavy earthquake on the night The Chilian Legation in London received the of Monday last : also that slight shocks were felt at following telegram from Santiago on Monday last, Lima and Huacho on that day. and the wording is in marked contrast to that found in the communications sent by Press correspondents :“On the evening of the 16th a severe earthquake

PROF. BROU'ARDEL. was felt between Valparaiso and Talca.. The loss of WE regrette to record the death of Prof. Para

to property is Brouardel, of , died on July 2; af considerable at Valparaiso but less at Santiago. the age of sixty-nine years. Prof. Brouardel had held Public order has been entirely maintained. The a large number of most important positions in the authorities and private persons are succouring the dis- L'niversity of Paris and in the official life of France, tressed people, and the foreign Legations are lending and he had many friends in England in connection their aid. "The north has been wholly unaffected by with the important work in legal medicine and in the earthquake."

hygiene which he had done. The earthquake was duly recorded by seismographs He was born in St. Quentin in 1837, and received in different parts of the world.

his early education at the Lycée St. Louis, in Paris. The instrument at Kew Observatory plainly showed In 1859 he was an interne at the hospitals; he took

his M.D. in 1863; in 1869 he became médecin des Paris for the suppression of the illegal practice of hopitaux and professeur agrégré, in 1879 he became medicine. He was buried on July 26 in the Monta professor in the Faculty of Medicine, in 1881 a parnasse Cemetery after a funeral service in the member of the Académie de Médecine, and in 1892 Church of Ste. Clotilde, and by his own request no of the Académie des Sciences. For many years he funeral orations were pronounced.

A. N. was dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Paris, his work in connection with the medical faculty being chiefly concerned with pathology and legal medicine.

NOTES. As a medical jurist he occupied a most distinguished

The annual meeting of the British Medical Association position, and there is scarcely a portion of this subject which has not received illumination from the

began at Toronto on Tuesday last. In addition to a large numerous lectures and cases which he published in

representation from the British Isles, the meeting is being the " Annales d'Hygiène publique et de Medicine

attended by very many medical men from all parts of légale." His work as a medical jurist brought his

Canada and the United States. name frequently before the public

through the evidence which he had to give on many technical

THE pressure upon our space prevents us from doing points. He published many volumes upon

more than direct attention to the important letters on

legal medicine, dealing with such problems as infanticide,

radium contributed to the Times of August 9, 15, 20, and 21 medical responsibility, le secret médical, sudden death,

by Lord Kelvin, Sir Oliver Lodge, and the Hon. R. J. asphyxia by gases and vapours, &c., and his work Strutt. as professor of legal medicine at the University of ACCORDING to a Reuter telegram of August 16 from Paris, in which chair he succeeded Tardieu in 1879,

Bombay, Dr. Bullock Workman, who has been mounmade him perhaps the best-known teacher in Europe on this subject. For many years he gave practical

taineering in Kashmir, ascended a peak in the Nunkum instruction in pathology at the Paris Morgue, and he

range more than 23,000 feet high. Dr. Workman, with ascribed his illness and death to the insanitary con

his wife and Italian guides and porters, camped two nights ditions under which this work was carried on.

at an altitude of more than 21,000 feet. This is stated to At many international congresses Prof. Brouardel be the highest camp ever made by mountaineers. was the representative of the French Government. He will be best remembered in this country by the

FURTHER particulars respecting the forthcoming French speeches which he gave at the International Congress

exploring expedition under Major Lenfant are given by the of Hygiene and Demography in 1891, and by the

Paris correspondent of the Times, quoting from the address which he gave at the British Congress on

Dépêche Coloniale. Major Lenfant will go first to BrazzaTuberculosis in 1901. In the former he bore eloquent ville, where the real organisation of the expedition will testimony to the priority of England in practical take place; the mission will then proceed to Nola, the sanitary reform, and to the willingness of the English point of junction of the Mambere and the Kadei which to sacrifice, not only much money, but also a large form the Sangha. At Nola it is probable that some time share of personal liberty, and thus by solidarity of

will be spent in the study of the immense forest there. ffort to secure the communal welfare. In this re

From Nola the mission will ascend the Mambere to Bania. mark he brought out the strong point of popular

Thus far it will have followed the route recently taken by representative government; for in this country, although there is possibly more blundering, there is

Major Moll for the delimitation with a German mission greater practical action than in France, although in

of the Cameroon frontier. From Carnot Major Lenfant the latter the non-enforced theoretical recommend- will plunge into the wilderness. His goal is Lake Laka, ations are excellent of their kind. In the same which is situated between the Upper Logone and the deaddress he drew a favourable augury for the twentieth pression of the Tuburi which he has already traversed. century, from the fact that the nineteenth had seen

His object is to trace the various navigable stretches perJenner at its commencement and Pasteur near its mitting the linking, so far as possible by means of the end

river routes, of the basin of the Logone to that of the But the public address which was most influential

Sangha, and to establish between the Upper Logone and for good was that given in 1901 by Prof. Brouardel to the British Congress on Tuberculosis. In this

the Upper Sangha a direct trade route permitting France address he particularly emphasised the close associ

to dispense with the services rendered by the German ation between tuberculosis and alcoholism. Quoting

colony. with approbation Sir J. Simon's remark that “the

A PORTRAIT of Robert Bunsen by Prof. Trübner, of wretched lodging is the purveyor of the public house, he said, " the public' house is the purveyor of

Karlsruhe, is to be presented to the German Museum of

Munich by the Grand Duke of Baden. tuberculosis.". To this he added, “in fact, alcoholism is the potent factor in propagating tuberculosis. The THE Graefe medal of the German Ophthalmological strongest man who has once taken to drink is power

Society has been awarded to Prof. Hering, of Leipzig. lens against it. . . . A universal cry of despair rises from the whole universe at the sight of the disasters DR. THOINOT has been appointed professor of medical carsed by alcoholism. Any measures, State or jurisprudence in the Paris Faculty of Medicine in succession individual, tending to limit the ravages of alcoholism to the late Prof. Brouardel. will be our most precious auxiliaries in the crusade against tuberculosis."

The appointment of Prof. A. Gruvel, formerly of The preceding sketch gives a very imperfect idea Bordeaux, to examine and report upon the sea and river of the important work which Prof. Brouardel did. fisheries of the French possessions in West Africa is His influence pervaded every department of medical announced. life in Paris and in France. Not only was he a distinguished physician, but also a great diplomat, and

MR. William LUTLEY SCLATER has resigned the directorhe thus succeeded in securing reforms which would

ship of the South African Museum, Cape Town, which otherwise have been impossible. His last public | he has held for the last ten years, and has returned to appearance was as president of the recent congress in England. He has accepted the post of director of the

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